Mashed potato

Mashed potato or mashed potatoes (American and Canadian English), colloquially known as mash (British English),[2] is a dish made by mashing boiled or steamed potatoes, usually with added milk, butter, salt and pepper. It is generally served as a side dish to meat or vegetables. Roughly mashed potatoes are sometimes called smashed potatoes. Dehydrated instant mashed potatoes and frozen mashed potatoes are available. Mashed potatoes are an ingredient in other dishes, such as dumplings and gnocchi.

Mashed potato
Sous vide mashed potatoes.jpg
A serving of mashed potatoes in a bowl with two whole potatoes
CourseSide dish, Condiment
Place of originUnited Kingdom[1]
Region or stateUnited Kingdom, North America
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsPotatoes, butter, milk or cream, salt, black pepper
VariationsDuchess potatoes

IngredientsEdit

Most authors recommend the use of "floury" potatoes with a high ratio of amylose in their starch to achieve a fluffy, creamy consistency and appearance.[3] The best-known floury varieties are King Edward, golden wonder, and red rascal in Britain and the Russet in North America.[4] However, some recipes use "waxy" potatoes containing more amylopectin in their starch for a different texture or look;[3] for instance, one pounded mashed potato dish from Yunnan cuisine (in southwestern China), which uses waxy potatoes to achieve a chewy, sticky texture.[5]

Butter, milk or cream, salt, and pepper are usually added. Many other seasonings may also be used, including herbs (notably parsley and chives), spices (notably nutmeg), garlic, cheese, bacon, sour cream, crisp onion or spring onion, caramelized onion, and mustard.[6]

One French variation adds egg yolk for pommes duchesse or Duchess potatoes; piped through a pastry tube into wavy ribbons and rosettes, brushed with butter and lightly browned. Some French recipes for pomme purée (potato puree) use up to one part butter for every two parts potato.[3][7] In low-calorie or non-dairy variations, milk, cream and butter may be replaced by soup stock or broth.

Aloo bharta, an Indian sub-continent variation, uses chopped onions, mustard (oil, paste or seeds), chili pepper, coriander leaves and other spices. Alu pitika (Assamese: আলু পিটিকা) is a popular variation of aloo bharta in Assam,[8][9] that may occasionally omit mustard and other spices. Alu pitika using roasted and smoked potatoes is especially consumed in winters.

HistoryEdit

An early recipe is found in Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery, in 1747.[1] Her recipe mashed them in a saucepan with milk, salt, and butter.[10]

Culinary usesEdit

 
Mashed potato served with Frankfurter Rippchen, sauerkraut and mustard

Mashed potato can be served as a side dish. In the British Isles, sausages served with mashed potatoes are known as bangers and mash. Mashed potato can be an ingredient of various other dishes, including shepherd's and cottage pie, Orkney clapshot, pierogi, colcannon, dumplings, potato pancakes, potato croquettes and gnocchi. Particularly runny mashed potatoes are called mousseline potatoes.[11]

In the United Kingdom, cold mashed potato can be mixed with fresh eggs and then fried until crisp to produce a potato cake. This dish is thought to have originated in Cornwall and is a popular breakfast item. When instead combined with meat and other leftover vegetables, the fried dish is known as bubble and squeak.[citation needed]

Mashed potatoes may be eaten with gravy, typically meat gravy, though vegetable gravy is becoming more common as the vegetarian and vegan trends see a rise in popularity.[citation needed]

A potato masher can be used to mash the potatoes.[12] A potato ricer produces a uniform, lump-free, mash.[13]

In India mashed potatoes made with spices, fried or not, are called chaukha. Chaukha is used in samosas in India and with littee specially in Bihar.[11]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Smith, A. (2011) Potato: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books.
  2. ^ "Mash | Meaning of Mash by Lexico". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Cloake, Felicity (15 March 2010). "What's the best mashed potato method?". The Guardian. London.
  4. ^ Randal, Oulton (7 October 2004). "Floury Potatoes". CooksInfo.com.
  5. ^ Chinese Cooking Demystified (19 December 2019). Yunnan Pounded Mashed Potato (云南哈尼舂洋芋). YouTube. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  6. ^ "Best Mashed Potato Recipes and Toppings - US Potato Board". Potatogoodness.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  7. ^ Eppich, Kristen (18 April 2013). "Best mashed potato recipe in the world". Chatelaine.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  8. ^ Gokhale, Jyoti S.; Lele, S. S.; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi (2021). "Indian Traditional Foods and Diets: Combining Traditional Wisdom with Modern Science of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods". Nutrition, Food and Diet in Ageing and Longevity. 14: 357–392.
  9. ^ Ananthanarayanan, Laxmi; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Muley, Abhijeet B.; Singhal, Rekha S. (2019). "Indian Traditional Foods: Preparation, Processing and Nutrition". Traditional Foods. Food Engineering Series.: 127–199 – via Springer.
  10. ^ Hannah Glasse, The Art of Cookery, 1747, p. 148 full text
  11. ^ a b Dupree, Nathalie (1 November 2012). Mastering the Art of Southern Cooking. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 978-1-4236-2316-8.
  12. ^ Commercial America. The Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 1910. p. 27. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  13. ^ Simmons, M.; Table, Sur La (2008). Things Cooks Love: Implements, Ingredients, Recipes. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7407-6976-4. Retrieved 9 January 2017.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Mashed potatoes at Wikimedia Commons   The dictionary definition of mashed potato at Wiktionary