Khachapuri (Georgian: ხაჭაპური khach’ap’uri [χatʃʼapʼuɾi] ⓘ from ხაჭო khachʼo [χat͡ʃʼo] 'curd' + პური pʼuri [pʼuri] 'bread') is a traditional Georgian dish of cheese-filled bread. The bread is leavened and allowed to rise, molded into various shapes, and then filled in the center with a mixture of cheese (fresh or aged, most commonly, specialized khachapuri cheese), eggs, and other ingredients. The bread crust is traditionally torn off and dipped into the cheese.
|Alternative names||hachapuri, xachapuri|
|Course||pastry / filled pastry|
|Place of origin||Georgia|
|Region or state||South Caucasus|
|Main ingredients||Cheese, eggs, flour|
It is very popular in Georgia, both in restaurants and as street food. As a Georgian staple food, the price of making khachapuri is used as a measure of inflation in different Georgian cities by the "khachapuri index," developed by the International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University. It is Georgia's national dish, included in the list of the intangible cultural heritage of Georgia. On the behalf and initiative of the Gastronomic Association of Georgia, the 27th of February was announced as National Khachapuri Day, to celebrate Georgia's signature pastry as well as to promote its recognition internationally.
Specialists are divided regarding the chronology of khachapuri. According to Darra Goldstein, who wrote the book The Georgian Feast about the dish, khachapuri probably dates back to the 12th century when Georgia experienced a period of renaissance, but its specific root remains unclear. Dali Tsatava, former professor at the Georgian Culinary Academy, suggested that khachapuri could be a "cousin of the pizza" as the concept of the dish might have been brought by Roman soldiers who crossed Europe, well before the addition of tomatoes in the 16th century.
There are several distinctive types of khachapuri from different regions of Georgia:
- Imeretian (Imeruli) khachapuri is the most popular form, made with a yeast dough filled with white Imeretian salted cheese.
- Adjarian (Acharuli/Adjaruli/Lazi), named for Adjara, a region of Georgia on the Black Sea, is a boat-shaped khachapuri, with cheese, butter, and an egg yolk in the middle. Traditionally, tangy imeruli and sulguni cheeses are used.
- Megrelian khachapuri (Megruli) is similar to Imeretian, but has more cheese added on top.
- Achma, from Abkhazia, has multiple layers and looks rather like a sauceless lasagna.
- Gurian (Guruli) khachapuri has chopped boiled eggs inside and looks like a crescent-shaped calzone. Gurians make them for Christmas and call them simply "Christmas pie." In the rest of Georgia, it is called "Gurian pie."
- Ossetian (Osuri) khachapuri has potato and cheese as its filling. It is commonly called khabizgini.
- Svanuri lemzira
- Rachuli khachapuri
- Samtskhe–Javakhetian penovani khachapuri is made with cheese-filled puff pastry dough, resulting in a flaky variety of the pie.
Outside Georgia edit
Khachapuri is popular in the post-Soviet states, including Russia. It was reported that 175,000 khachapuris were consumed during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Khachapuri is a popular street food in Armenia, where it is widely served in restaurants and school cafeterias. It has become increasingly popular as a brunch food in Israel, where it was brought over by Georgian Jews.
See also edit
- Goldstein, Darra (1999). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. University of California Press. pp. 136–139. ISBN 0-520-21929-5.
- Svensson, Therese (April–May 2010). "Tracking monetary policy one big mac – and one khachapuri – at a time". Investor.ge. American Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Khachapuri Index Project". International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- Jones, A. Khachapuri Granted Cultural Heritage Status Archived 2019-07-03 at the Wayback Machine Georgia Today, 2019
- Jones, Amy (24 January 2019). "Khachapuri Granted Cultural Heritage Status". Georgia Today. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019.
- "Georgian cheese boat Adjaruli Khachapuri - New York Essential Dish". Georgian Journal. 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2023.
- Eva (5 April 2019). "Khachapuri, Georgian cheese bread". Bake-Street. Archived from the original on 24 March 2023. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
- "About Food – Imeruli (Imeretian Khachapuri)". 27 July 2012.
- Mosolova, Tanya (15 April 1998). "What Is It? : Georgian Cheese Pies Come in Many Varieties". The Moscow Times.
One of the indispensable dishes of a celebratory meal in Georgia, khachapuri, has become very popular in Russia as well.
- Bryant, Jordan (2 March 2013). "Хачапури: The Big Cheese!". sras.org. Woodside, CA: School of Russian and Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 18 November 2014.
- В Сочи гости Олимпиады съели 175 тысяч хачапури и 34 тонны шашлыка [In Sochi, Olympic guests ate 175 thousand khachapuris and 34 tons of shashlik.]. Argumenty i Fakty (in Russian). 24 February 2014.
- Grigoryan, Hasmik (7 August 2011). Ի՞նչ է մատուցվում այսօր դպրոցների բուֆետներում [What is being served today in school cafeterias?] (in Armenian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Armenian Service. "...վաճառվում են հիմնականում բուլկեղեն, խաչապուրի, կարկանդակ, հոթ դոգ ու նույնիսկ մաստակ ու չիպսեր:" [...mainly buns, khachapuri, pirozhki, hot dogs and even chewing gum and chips are sold.]
- Norris, Anna (3 July 2014). "10 mouthwatering dishes of Israel you should really try". From The Grapevine.
- Revolution of khachapuri
- Recipe at RecipeSource
- Recipe at New York Times
- "Georgia's addictive cousin to pizza?". bbc.com. BBC. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "A Field Guide to Khachapuri, the Indomitable Cheese Bread of Georgia". saveur.com. Saveur. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.