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Khachapuri (Georgian: ხაჭაპური khach’ap’uri [xɑtʃʼɑpʼuri] (About this soundlisten) from Georgian: ხაჭო Georgian pronunciation: [xach'o] "curds" + Georgian: პური Georgian pronunciation: [p'uri] "bread") is a traditional Georgian dish of cheese-filled bread. The bread is leavened and allowed to rise and is shaped in various ways, usually with cheese in the middle and a crust which is ripped off and used to dip in the cheese. The filling contains cheese (fresh or aged, most commonly sulguni), eggs and other ingredients.[1]

Khachapuri
Adjarian khachapuri in an oven.png
Adjarian khachapuri
Alternative nameshachapuri, xachapuri
TypePie
Courseappetizer/street food
Place of originGeorgia
Region or stateCaucasus
Serving temperaturehot
Main ingredientsCheese, eggs, bread
Variationsopen, closed

It is very popular in Georgia, both in restaurants and as street food. As a Georgian staple food, the price of making khachapuri is used as a measure of inflation in different Georgian cities by the "khachapuri index," developed by the International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University.[2][3]

It is Georgia's national dish that is inscribed on the list of the Intangible cultural heritage of Georgia.[4]

TypesEdit

There are several distinctive types of khachapuri in Georgian food from different regions of Georgia:

  • Imeretian (Imeruli), Khachapuri is the most popular form, made by pastry infused with yeast and white Imeretian salted cheese.[5]
  • Adjarian (Acharuli/Adjaruli) A boat-shaped Khachapuri, with cheese, butter and egg yolk in the middle. It is thought to originate from the lazi people, who were sailors. Khachapuri is a certain representation of the boat, sea and sun.
  • Megrelian khachapuri (Megruli), similar to Imeritian but with more cheese added on top.
  • Achma, from Abkhazia, which has multiple layers and looks more like a sauceless lasagna.
  • Gurian (Guruli) khachapuri has boiled eggs inside the dough and looks like a calzone. Arguably, it is not a type of khachapuri. Gurians make them for Christmas and call them simply 'Christmas pie'. In the rest of Georgia, it is called 'Gurian pie'.
  • Ossetian (Osuri) khachapuri, which has potato, as well as cheese in its filling. It is commonly called Khabizgini.
  • Svanuri Lemzira
  • Rachuli khachapuri
  • Samtskhe–Javakhetian Penovani khachapuri is made with puff pastry dough, resulting in a flaky variety of the pie.

Outside GeorgiaEdit

 
Georgian restaurant in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City

Khachapuri is popular in the post-Soviet states, including Russia, where it is usually a simple puff pastry with cheese filling (the same pastry with meat filling is called "samsa").[6][7] It was reported that 175,000 khachapuris were consumed during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.[8] Khachapuri is a popular street food in Armenia, where it is widely served in restaurants and school cafeterias.[9] It has become increasingly popular as a brunch food in Israel, where it is brought over by Georgian Jews.[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Goldstein, Darra (1999). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. 1999: University of California Press. pp. 136–139. ISBN 0-520-21929-5.
  2. ^ Svensson, Therese (April–May 2010). "Tracking monetary policy one big mac – and one khachapuri – at a time". Investor.ge. American Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  3. ^ "Khachapuri Index Project". International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  4. ^ Jones, A. Khachapuri Granted Cultural Heritage Status Georgia Today, 2019
  5. ^ "About Food – Imeruli (Imeretian Khachapuri)". 2012-07-27.
  6. ^ Mosolova, Tanya (15 April 1998). "What Is It? : Georgian Cheese Pies Come in Many Varieties". The Moscow Times. One of the indispensable dishes of a celebratory meal in Georgia, khachapuri, has become very popular in Russia as well.
  7. ^ Bryant, Jordan (2 March 2013). "Хачапури: The Big Cheese!". sras.org. Woodside, CA: School of Russian and Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 18 November 2014.
  8. ^ В Сочи гости Олимпиады съели 175 тысяч хачапури и 34 тонны шашлыка. Argumenty i Fakty (in Russian). 24 February 2014.
  9. ^ Grigoryan, Hasmik (7 August 2011). Ի՞նչ է մատուցվում այսօր դպրոցների բուֆետներում (in Armenian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Armenian Service. ....վաճառվում են հիմնականում բուլկեղեն, խաչապուրի, կարկանդակ, հոթ դոգ ու նույնիսկ մաստակ ու չիպսեր:
  10. ^ Norris, Anna (3 July 2014). "10 mouthwatering dishes of Israel you should really try". From The Grapevine.

External linksEdit