Khachapuri (Georgian: ხაჭაპური khach’ap’uri [xɑtʃʼɑpʼuri] (listen) from Georgian: ხაჭო Georgian pronunciation: [xach'o] "curds" + Georgian: პური Georgian pronunciation: [p'uri] "bread") is a traditional Georgian dish of cheese-filled bread. The bread is leavened and allowed to rise and is shaped in various ways, usually with cheese in the middle and a crust which is ripped off and used to dip in the cheese. The filling contains cheese (fresh or aged, most commonly sulguni), eggs and other ingredients.
|Alternative names||hachapuri, xachapuri|
|Place of origin||Georgia|
|Region or state||Caucasus|
|Main ingredients||Cheese, eggs, bread|
It is very popular in Georgia, both in restaurants and as street food. As a Georgian staple food, the price of making khachapuri is used as a measure of inflation in different Georgian cities by the "khachapuri index," developed by the International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University.
There are several distinctive types of khachapuri in Georgian food from different regions of Georgia:
- Imeretian (Imeruli), Khachapuri is the most popular form, made by pastry infused with yeast and white Imeretian salted cheese.
- Adjarian (Acharuli/Adjaruli) A boat-shaped Khachapuri, with cheese, butter and egg yolk in the middle. It is thought to originate from the lazi people, who were sailors. Khachapuri is a certain representation of the boat, sea and sun.
- Megrelian khachapuri (Megruli), similar to Imeritian but with more cheese added on top.
- Achma, from Abkhazia, which has multiple layers and looks more like a sauceless lasagna.
- Gurian (Guruli) khachapuri has boiled eggs inside the dough and looks like a calzone. Arguably, it is not a type of khachapuri. Gurians make them for Christmas and call them simply 'Christmas pie'. In the rest of Georgia, it is called 'Gurian pie'.
- Ossetian (Osuri) khachapuri, which has potato, as well as cheese in its filling. It is commonly called Khabizgini.
- Svanuri Lemzira
- Rachuli khachapuri
- Samtskhe–Javakhetian Penovani khachapuri is made with puff pastry dough, resulting in a flaky variety of the pie.
Khachapuri is popular in the post-Soviet states, including Russia, where it is usually a simple puff pastry with cheese filling (the same pastry with meat filling is called "samsa"). It was reported that 175,000 khachapuris were consumed during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Khachapuri is a popular street food in Armenia, where it is widely served in restaurants and school cafeterias. It has become increasingly popular as a brunch food in Israel, where it is brought over by Georgian Jews.
- Goldstein, Darra (1999). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. 1999: University of California Press. pp. 136–139. ISBN 0-520-21929-5.
- Svensson, Therese (April–May 2010). "Tracking monetary policy one big mac – and one khachapuri – at a time". Investor.ge. American Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- "Khachapuri Index Project". International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
- Jones, A. Khachapuri Granted Cultural Heritage Status Georgia Today, 2019
- "About Food – Imeruli (Imeretian Khachapuri)". 2012-07-27.
- Mosolova, Tanya (15 April 1998). "What Is It? : Georgian Cheese Pies Come in Many Varieties". The Moscow Times.
One of the indispensable dishes of a celebratory meal in Georgia, khachapuri, has become very popular in Russia as well.
- Bryant, Jordan (2 March 2013). "Хачапури: The Big Cheese!". sras.org. Woodside, CA: School of Russian and Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 18 November 2014.
- В Сочи гости Олимпиады съели 175 тысяч хачапури и 34 тонны шашлыка. Argumenty i Fakty (in Russian). 24 February 2014.
- Grigoryan, Hasmik (7 August 2011). Ի՞նչ է մատուցվում այսօր դպրոցների բուֆետներում (in Armenian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Armenian Service.
....վաճառվում են հիմնականում բուլկեղեն, խաչապուրի, կարկանդակ, հոթ դոգ ու նույնիսկ մաստակ ու չիպսեր:
- Norris, Anna (3 July 2014). "10 mouthwatering dishes of Israel you should really try". From The Grapevine.