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Cornmeal

Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn). It is a common staple food, and is ground to fine, medium, and coarse consistencies, but not as fine as wheat flour.[1] In the United States, very finely ground cornmeal is also referred to as corn flour.[1] When fine cornmeal is made from maize that has been soaked in an alkaline solution, e.g., limewater (a process known as nixtamalization), it is called masa harina[citation needed], which is used for making tamales and tortillas. Boiled cornmeal is called polenta in Italy and is also traditional dish and bread substitute in Romania.

Contents

TypesEdit

There are various types of cornmeal:

  • Blue cornmeal is light blue or violet in color. It is ground from whole blue corn and has a sweet flavor. The cornmeal consists of dried corn kernels that have been ground into a fine or medium texture.[2]
  • Steel-ground yellow cornmeal, which is common mostly in the United States, has the husk and germ of the maize kernel almost completely removed. It is conserved for about a year if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.[3]
  • Stone-ground cornmeal retains some of the hull and germ, lending a little more flavor and nutrition to recipes. It is more perishable, but will store longer if refrigerated. However, it too can have a shelf life of many months if kept in a reasonably cool place.[2]
  • White cornmeal (mielie-meal), made from white corn, is more common in parts of Africa. It is also popular in the Southern United States for making cornbread.[2]

Regional usageEdit

CaribbeanEdit

East AsiaEdit

  • Tie Bing (貼餅 sticking bread) - This product can either be fluffy like a mantou or more flatbread-like. It is traditionally stuck around the outer rim of a large wok while meat or fish is being cooked. Generally, an alkalizing agent such as baking soda is added to increase the nutrient value. It is also found in northern China.[citation needed]
  • Corn congee (棒子麵粥) - A porridge made from plain cornmeal. It is normally thinner than grits or polenta and is often eaten with Chinese pickles.[citation needed]
  • Wo tou (窩頭 nest head) - Shaped like a hollow cone, this cornbread looks like a bird's nest, after which it is named. It is commonly eaten in northern China, and may contain dried jujubes and other flavoring agents.[citation needed]

Sub-Saharan AfricaEdit

 
Southern Africa's Nshima cornmeal (top right corner), served with three relishes.

EuropeEdit

Horn of AfricaEdit

East AfricaEdit

  • Ugali - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania
  • Cornmeal is a staple food in the East Africa region. It is used to make Ugali and Uji.

Indian OceanEdit

This is a local dessert dish made from maize flour in which milk, sugar, dried sultanas and cardamon powder are cooked together. The cooked paste is poured on a tray and coconut powder is sprinkled thereon and left to cool. This dessert is often cut into triangular shapes and can be bought from food vendors in the streets of Port Louis and also in market fairs around the island.

Mesoamerica and South AmericaEdit

 
Grindstones inside Mingus Mill, in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina. Corn is placed in a hopper (top right) which slowly feeds it into the grindstone (center). The grindstone grinds the corn into cornmeal, and empties it into a bucket (lower left). The grindstones are turned by the mill's water-powered turbine.

North AmericaEdit

 
A corn muffin.

South AsiaEdit

In parts of northern India and Pakistan ground corn flour is used to make thick slabs of bread which can be eaten with a wide variety of curry dishes or it can be coated in clarified butter or ghee and eaten with yogurt or lassie which is a yogurt based drink especially in summer.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Herbst, Sharon, Food Lover's Companion, Third Edition, Pg. 165, Barrons Educational Series Inc, 2001
  2. ^ a b c Kilbride, Philip; Goodale, Jane; Ameisen, Elizabeth, eds. (1990). Encounters With American Ethnic Cultures. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama. p. 82. ISBN 0-8173-0471-1. Retrieved July 24, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Section II: Food Commodity Fact Sheets". Commodities Reference Guide. USAID. Archived from the original on 2013-02-17. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  4. ^ a b Blazes, Marian. "Masarepa - - Precooked Corn Flour for Making Arepas". About Food. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  5. ^ "La storia della polenta" [The history of polenta]. I primi d'Italia (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2016.