Rhubarb

Rhubarb is the fleshy, edible stalks (petioles) of species and hybrids (culinary rhubarb) of Rheum in the family Polygonaceae, which are cooked and used for food.[2] The whole plant – a herbaceous perennial growing from short, thick rhizomes – is also called rhubarb. Historically, different plants have been called "rhubarb" in English. The large, triangular leaves contain high levels of oxalic acid and anthrone glycosides, making them inedible. The small flowers are grouped in large compound leafy greenish-white to rose-red inflorescences.

Rhubarb
Rheum rhabarbarum.2006-04-27.uellue.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Rheum
Species:
R. × hybridum (?)
Binomial name
Rheum × hybridum (?)

The precise origin of culinary rhubarb is unknown. The species Rheum rhabarbarum (syn. R. undulatum) and R. rhaponticum were grown in Europe before the 18th century and used for medicinal purposes. By the early 18th century, these two species and a possible hybrid of unknown origin, R. × hybridum, were grown as vegetable crops in England and Scandinavia. They readily hybridize, and culinary rhubarb was developed by selecting open-pollinated seed, so that its precise origin is almost impossible to determine.[3] In appearance, samples of culinary rhubarb vary on a continuum between R. rhaponticum and R. rhabarbarum. However, modern rhubarb cultivars are tetraploids with 2n = 44, in contrast to 2n = 22 for the wild species.[4]

Although rhubarb is a vegetable, it is often put to the same culinary uses as fruits.[5] The leaf stalks can be used raw, when they have a crisp texture (similar to celery, although it is in a different family), but are most commonly cooked with sugar and used in pies, crumbles and other desserts. They have a strong, tart taste. Many cultivars have been developed for human consumption, most of which are recognised as Rheum × hybridum by the Royal Horticultural Society.[6]

EtymologyEdit

The word rhubarb is likely to have derived in the 14th century from the Old French rubarbe, which came from the Latin rheubarbarum and Greek rha barbaron, meaning 'foreign rhubarb'.[7] The Greek physician Dioscorides used the Greek word ῥᾶ (rha), whereas Galen later used ῥῆον (rhēon), Latin rheum. These in turn derive from a Persian name for species of Rheum.[8] The specific epithet rhaponticum, applying to one of the presumed parents of the cultivated plant, means 'rha from the region of the Black Sea'.[8]

CultivationEdit

 
Young rhubarb flowers

Rhubarb is grown widely, and with greenhouse production it is available throughout much of the year. Rhubarb grown in hothouses (heated greenhouses) is called "hothouse rhubarb", and is typically made available at consumer markets in early spring, before outdoor cultivated rhubarb is available. Hothouse rhubarb is usually brighter red, tenderer and sweeter-tasting than outdoor rhubarb.[9] In temperate climates, rhubarb is one of the first food plants harvested, usually in mid- to late spring (April or May in the Northern Hemisphere, October or November in the Southern Hemisphere), and the season for field-grown plants lasts until the end of summer.

In the United Kingdom, the first rhubarb of the year is harvested by candlelight in forcing sheds where all other light is excluded, a practice that produces a sweeter, more tender stalk.[10] These sheds are dotted around the "Rhubarb Triangle" between Wakefield, Leeds, and Morley.[11]

In the northwestern US states of Oregon and Washington, there are typically two harvests, from late April to May and from late June into July;[12] half of all US commercial production is in Pierce County, Washington.[13] Rhubarb is ready to consume as soon as harvested, and freshly cut stalks are firm and glossy.

Rhubarb damaged by severe cold should not be eaten, as it may be high in oxalic acid, which migrates from the leaves and can cause illness.[14]

The colour of rhubarb stalks can vary from the commonly associated crimson red, through speckled light pink, to simply light green. Rhubarb stalks are poetically described as "crimson stalks". The colour results from the presence of anthocyanins, and varies according to both rhubarb variety and production technique. The colour is not related to its suitability for cooking.[15]

Historical cultivationEdit

 
A bundle of rhubarb

The Chinese call rhubarb "the great yellow" (dà huáng 大黃), and have used rhubarb root for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.[16] It appears in The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic, which is thought to have been compiled about 1,800 years ago.[17] Though Dioscurides' description of ρηον or ρά indicates that a medicinal root brought to Greece from beyond the Bosphorus may have been rhubarb, commerce in the drug did not become securely established until Islamic times. During Islamic times, it was imported along the Silk Road, reaching Europe in the 14th century through the ports of Aleppo and Smyrna, where it became known as "Turkish rhubarb".[18] Later, it also started arriving via the new maritime routes, or overland through Russia. The "Russian rhubarb" was the most valued, probably because of the rhubarb-specific quality control system maintained by the Russian Empire.[19]

The cost of transportation across Asia made rhubarb expensive in medieval Europe. It was several times the price of other valuable herbs and spices such as cinnamon, opium, and saffron. The merchant explorer Marco Polo therefore searched for the place where the plant was grown and harvested, discovering that it was cultivated in the mountains of Tangut province.[17] The value of rhubarb can be seen in Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo's report of his embassy in 1403–05 to Timur in Samarkand: "The best of all merchandise coming to Samarkand was from China: especially silks, satins, musk, rubies, diamonds, pearls, and rhubarb ..."[20]

The high price, as well as the increasing demand from apothecaries, stimulated efforts to cultivate the different species of rhubarb on European soil.[19] Certain species came to be grown in England to produce the roots.[21] The local availability of the plants grown for medicinal purposes, together with the increasing abundance and decreasing price of sugar in the 18th century, galvanised its culinary adoption.[19] Grieve claims a date of 1820 in England.[21] Rhubarb was grown in Scotland from at least 1786, having been introduced to the Botanical Garden in Edinburgh by the traveller Bruce of Kinnaird.[22]

Though it is often asserted that rhubarb first came to the United States in the 1820s,[23] John Bartram was growing medicinal and culinary rhubarbs in Philadelphia from the 1730s, planting seeds sent to him by Peter Collinson.[24] From the first, the familiar garden rhubarb was not the only Rheum in American gardens: Thomas Jefferson planted R. undulatum at Monticello in 1809 and 1811, observing that it was "Esculent rhubarb, the leaves excellent as Spinach."[25]

CultivarsEdit

The advocate of organic gardening Lawrence D. Hills listed his favourite rhubarb varieties for flavour as ‘Hawke's Champagne’, ‘Victoria’, ‘Timperley Early’, and ‘Early Albert’, also recommending ‘Gaskin's Perpetual’ for having the lowest level of oxalic acid, allowing it to be harvested over a much longer period of the growing season without developing excessive sourness.[26]

 
A homemade rhubarb pie

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:[27]

  • ’Grandad's Favourite’[28]
  • ’Reed's Early Superb’[29]
  • ’Stein's Champagne’[30]
  • ’Timperley Early’[31]

UsesEdit

Rhubarb, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy88 kJ (21 kcal)
4.54 g
Sugars1.1 g
Dietary fiber1.8 g
0.3 g
0.8 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Thiamine (B1)
2%
0.02 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.03 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.3 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
2%
0.085 mg
Vitamin B6
2%
0.024 mg
Folate (B9)
2%
7 μg
Choline
1%
6.1 mg
Vitamin C
10%
8 mg
Vitamin E
2%
0.27 mg
Vitamin K
28%
29.3 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
9%
86 mg
Iron
2%
0.22 mg
Magnesium
3%
12 mg
Manganese
9%
0.196 mg
Phosphorus
2%
14 mg
Potassium
6%
288 mg
Sodium
0%
4 mg
Zinc
1%
0.1 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water94 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Rhubarb is grown primarily for its fleshy leafstalks, technically known as petioles. The use of rhubarb stalks as food is a relatively recent innovation. This usage was first recorded in 18th to 19th-century England after affordable sugar became more widely available.[19][21]

Commonly, it is stewed with sugar or used in pies and desserts, but it can also be put into savoury dishes or pickled. Rhubarb can be dehydrated and infused with fruit juice. In the United States, it is usually infused with strawberry juice to mimic the popular strawberry rhubarb pie.

FoodEdit

The species Rheum ribes has been eaten in the Islamic world since the 10th century.[32]

In Northern Europe and North America, the stalks are commonly cut into pieces and stewed with added sugar until soft.[33] The resulting compote, sometimes thickened with corn starch, can then be used in pies, tarts and crumbles. Alternatively, greater quantities of sugar can be added with pectin to make jams. A paired spice used is ginger, although cinnamon and nutmeg are also common additions. In the United Kingdom, as well as being used in the typical pies, tarts and crumbles, rhubarb compote is also combined with whipped cream or custard to make respectively rhubarb fool. In the United States, the common usage of rhubarb in pies has led to it being nicknamed "pie plant", by which it is referred to in 19th-century cookbooks.[34] Rhubarb in the US is also often paired with strawberries to make strawberry-rhubarb pie, though some rhubarb purists jokingly consider this "a rather unhappy marriage".[34]

Rhubarb can also be used to make alcoholic drinks, such as fruit wines or Finnish Rhubarb sima (mead). It is also used to make Kompot.[35]

NutritionEdit

Raw rhubarb is 94% water, 5% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). In a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) reference amount, raw rhubarb supplies 88 kilojoules (21 kilocalories) of food energy, and is a rich source of vitamin K (28% of the Daily Value, DV), a moderate source of vitamin C (10% DV), and contains no other micronutrients in significant amounts (table).

Traditional Chinese medicineEdit

In traditional Chinese medicine, rhubarb roots of several species were used as a laxative for several millennia,[36] although there is no clinical evidence to indicate such use is effective.[37]

Phytochemistry and potential toxicityEdit

The roots and stems contain anthraquinones, such as emodin and rhein.[16] The anthraquinones have been separated from powdered rhubarb root for purposes in traditional medicine,[36] although long-term consumption of the plant has been associated with acute kidney failure.[37]

The rhizomes contain stilbenoid compounds (including rhaponticin), and the flavanol glucosides (+)-catechin-5-O-glucoside and (−)-catechin-7-O-glucoside.[38]

Oxalic acidEdit

Rhubarb leaves contain poisonous substances, including oxalic acid, a nephrotoxin.[37] The long term consumption of oxalic acid leads to kidney stone formation in humans. Humans have been poisoned after ingesting the leaves, a particular problem during World War I when the leaves were mistakenly recommended as a food source in Britain.[39][40][41] The toxic rhubarb leaves have been used in flavouring extracts, after the oxalic acid is removed by treatment with precipitated chalk (i.e., calcium carbonate).

The LD50 (median lethal dose) for pure oxalic acid in rats is about 375 mg/kg body weight,[42] or about 25 grams for a 65-kilogram (143 lb) human. Other sources give a much higher oral LDLo (lowest published lethal dose) of 600 mg/kg.[43] While the oxalic acid content of rhubarb leaves can vary, a typical value is about 0.5%,[44] meaning a 65 kg adult would need to eat 4 to 8 kg (9 to 18 lbs) to obtain a lethal dose, depending on which lethal dose is assumed. Cooking the leaves with baking soda can make them more poisonous by producing soluble oxalates.[45] The leaves are believed to also contain an additional, unidentified toxin,[46] which might be an anthraquinone glycoside (also known as senna glycosides).[47]

In the petioles (leaf stalks), the proportion of oxalic acid is about 10% of the total 2–2.5% acidity, which derives mainly from malic acid.[10] Serious cases of rhubarb poisoning are not well documented.[48] Both fatal and non-fatal cases of rhubarb poisoning may be caused not by oxalates, but rather by toxic anthraquinone glycosides.[37][48][49]

PestsEdit

The rhubarb curculio, Lixus concavus, is a weevil. Rhubarb is a host, damage being visible mainly on the leaves and stalks, with gummosis, and oval or circular feeding and/or egg-laying sites.[50]

Hungry wildlife may dig up and eat rhubarb roots in the spring, as stored starches are turned to sugars for new foliage growth.

In Zoroastrian mythologyEdit

According to certain Middle Persian Zoroastrian texts dealing with the creation of humankind, Mashya and Mashyana, the first human couple, first manifested on the earth as conjoined homunculi growing attached to a (ghostly) rhubarb plant. When Gayomart, the prototype of humanity, finally died as a result of the machinations of Ahriman the principle of evil and Jeh the demonic whore, he fell onto his left side and ejaculated onto the ground. The sun's rays gradually purified his semen, two parts being cared for by the messenger deity Neryosang and one part by Spendarmad, Amesha Spenta of the Earth. After the passage of forty years, Spendarmad's portion gave rise to the rhubarb plant bearing the human couple, who were then animated by the supreme deity Ohrmazd by means of the Farr ('kingly glory').[51][52]

5. After Gayomard had emitted his seed as he lay dying, they filtered the seed by means of the light of the Sun; Neryosang guarded two parts of it, and Spandarmad accepted one part; and [it remained within the earth] for forty years.

6. [On the completion of forty years,] Mashye and Mashyane grew up from the earth in the astral body of a rivas (= rhubarb) plant having one stem of fifteen leaves, in such wise that their hands rested behind over their shoulders, and they were joined to each other, of the same height, and of the same product.

7. Betwixt them both light came up; and they were of such uniform height that it [was] not evident which was the male and which the female, and [with] which [of them] was the light [given by] Ohrmazd, [that is, the light onto which the seed of the mortal being was affixed.]...

9. Then both of them changed from the astral body of a plant in to the astral body of a man, and that light, which is the soul, entered spiritually into them, that is, verily, they had grown up in the semblance of a tree, whose fruit was the ten races of mankind.


Iranian or Greater Bundahishn ( 8th–9th century CE )
selected verses from Chapter 14: 'Concerning Humankind'
( extract from the English translation by Behramgore Tehmuras Anklesaria ).[53]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit