Fried rice is a dish of cooked rice that has been stir-fried in a wok or a frying pan and is usually mixed with other ingredients such as eggs, vegetables, seafood, or meat. It is often eaten by itself or as an accompaniment to another dish. Fried rice is a popular component of East Asian, Southeast Asian and certain South Asian cuisines, as well as a staple national dish of Indonesia and Malaysia. As a homemade dish, fried rice is typically made with ingredients left over from other dishes, leading to countless variations. Fried rice first developed during the Sui Dynasty in China and as such all fried rice dishes can trace their origins to Chinese fried rice.
|Place of origin||China|
|Region or state||Worldwide|
|Main ingredients||Cooked rice, cooking oil|
Many varieties of fried rice have their own specific list of ingredients. In Greater China, common varieties include Yangzhou fried rice and Hokkien fried rice. Japanese chāhan is considered a Japanese Chinese dish, having derived from Chinese fried rice dishes. In Southeast Asia, similarly constructed Indonesian, Malaysian, and Singaporean nasi goreng and Thai khao phat are popular dishes. In the West, most restaurants catering to vegetarians have invented their own varieties of fried rice, including egg fried rice. Fried rice is also seen on the menus of American restaurants offering cuisines with no native tradition of the dish. Additionally, the cuisine of some Latin American countries includes variations on fried rice, including Ecuadorian chaulafan, Peruvian arroz chaufa, Cuban arroz frito, and Puerto Rican arroz mamposteao.
Fried rice is a common street food in Asia. In some Asian countries, small restaurants, street vendors and traveling hawkers specialize in serving fried rice. In Indonesian cities it is common to find fried rice street hawkers moving through the streets with their food cart and stationing it in busy streets or residential areas. Many Southeast Asian street food stands offer fried rice with a selection of optional garnishes and side dishes.
Cooked rice is the primary ingredient, with myriad additional ingredients, such as vegetables, eggs, meat (chicken, beef, pork, lamb, mutton), preserved meat (bacon, ham, sausage), seafood (fish, shrimp, crab), mushrooms, among others. Aromatics such as onions, shallots, scallions, leeks, and garlic are often added for extra flavor. Various cooking oils, such as vegetable oil, sesame oil, clarified butter, or lard can be used to grease the wok or frying pan to prevent sticking, as well as for flavor. Fried rice dishes can be seasoned with salt, different types of soy sauce, oyster sauce and many other sauces and spices. Popular garnishes include chopped scallions, sliced chili, fried shallots, sprigs of parsley or coriander leaves, toasted sesame seeds, seaweed flakes (gim or nori), sliced cucumber, tomato, lime, or pickled vegetables.
- Hokkien (or Fujian) fried rice (福建炒飯), a variation of Chinese fried rice, is from the Fujian region of China; it has a thick sauce poured and mixed over it which can include mushrooms, meat, vegetables, etc.
- Szechwan fried rice （四川炒飯）is a spicy stir-fried rice from Sichuan which uses doubanjiang chili sauce with garlic, green onions, and red onion.
- Yin Yang Fried Rice (駌鴦炒飯） is topped with two different types of sauce, typically a savory white sauce on one-half and a red tomato-based sauce on the other half. Elaborate versions use the sauces to create a yin-yang symbol.
- Yeung chow (or Yangzhou) fried rice (揚州炒飯) consists of generous portions of shrimp and scrambled egg, along with barbecued pork. This is the most popular fried rice served in Chinese restaurants, commonly referred to simply as "special fried rice" or "house fried rice".
- Chāhan (チャーハン) or Yakimeshi (焼飯) is a Chinese-derived fried rice suited to Japanese tastes by the addition of katsuobushi for flavor, prepared with myriad ingredients.
- Omurice is fried rice wrapped inside an egg omelette. The fried rice is generally mixed with a variety of vegetables and meat. Often a variant called "Chicken Rice" (チキンライス chikinraisu) is used. Ketchup or some other tomato sauce is added to make this.
- Bokkeum-bap (볶음밥; lit. "fried rice") is made by stir-frying bap (cooked rice) with other ingredients in oil. A wide range of fried rice dishes are common in Korean cuisine, often made with whichever ingredients are handy. In Korean restaurants, fried rice is a popular end-of-meal add-on. After eating the main dishes cooked on a tabletop stove, cooked rice along with gimgaru (seaweed flakes) and sesame oil is often added directly into the remains of the main dishes, stir-fried, and browned.
- Bai cha is a Khmer variation of fried rice that includes diced sausage, garlic, soy sauce, and herbs and is usually eaten as an accompaniment to meat.
Indonesia, Malaysia, SingaporeEdit
- Nasi goreng means fried rice in both the Indonesian and Malay languages. It is distinguished from other Asian fried rice recipes through the widespread use of sweet soy sauce (kecap manis) and ground shrimp paste. It is often accompanied by additional items such as a fried egg, fried chicken, satay, and condiments such as sambal, acar, and krupuk. It is endemic to Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and is also popular in the Netherlands.
- Nasi goreng jawa, which means "Javanese fried rice", commonly includes sambal ulek as a seasoning and has a spicy flavor.
- Nasi goreng pattaya is Malaysian-style nasi goreng wrapped inside an egg omelette. The fried rice is generally mixed with a variety of vegetables and meat and garnished with tomato sauce. In Indonesia, the dish is called nasi goreng amplop.
- Sambal fried rice found in Singapore is a variation of fried rice made with sambal, a condiment based on chilis and belachan, derived from Indonesian and Malay influences.
- Burmese fried rice (ထမင်းကြော်, htamin gyaw) normally uses Burmese fragrant short grain rice (rounder and shorter than other varieties). A popular plain version consists of rice, boiled peas, onions, garlic, and dark soy sauce. An accompanying condiment could be ngapi kyaw (fried fish paste with shredded flakes) and fresh cucumber strips mixed with chopped onions, green chili, and vinegar.
- Aligue rice, also known as "crab fat fried rice" or "aligue fried rice", is similar to sinangág, but with the notable addition of aligue (crab fat paste), which turns the dish a vivid orange-yellow. It can be combined with seafood like shrimp and squid and eaten as is, or eaten paired with meat dishes.
- Bagoong fried rice is a type of Filipino fried rice using bagoong alamang (shrimp paste) as its main flavoring agent. Meat, scallions, as well as green mangoes are optionally additions.
- Sinangág, also called "garlic fried rice", is a Filipino fried rice cooked by stir-frying pre-cooked rice with garlic. The rice used is preferably stale, usually leftover cooked rice from the previous day, as it results in rice that is slightly fermented and firmer. It is garnished with toasted garlic, salt, and black pepper. The rice grains are ideally loose and not stick together.
- Sinangág is rarely eaten on its own, but is usually paired with a "dry" meat dish like tocino, longganisa, tapa, or spam. Unlike other types of fried rice, it does not normally use ingredients other than garlic, so it does not overwhelm the flavour of the main dish. When they do use other ingredients, the most common additions are scrambled eggs, chopped scallions, and cubed carrots. Cashews might also be added. Sinangág is a common part of a traditional Filipino breakfast, and it usually prepared with leftover rice from the dinner before. It is one of the components of the tapsilog breakfast and its derivatives.
Fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัด, RTGS: Khao Phat), pronounced [kʰâ(ː)w pʰàt]) in Thailand is typical of central Thai cuisine. In Thai, khao means "rice" and phat means "of or relating to being stir-fried". This dish differs from Chinese fried rice in that it is prepared with Thai jasmine rice instead of regular long-grain rice. It normally contains meat (chicken, shrimp, pork, and crab are all common), egg, onions, garlic and sometimes tomatoes. The seasonings, which may include soy sauce, sugar, salt, possibly some chili sauce, and the ubiquitous nam pla (fish sauce), are stir-fried together with the other ingredients. The dish is then plated and served with accompaniments like cucumber slices, tomato slices, lime, sprigs of green onion and coriander, and prik nam pla, a spicy sauce made of Thai chili, fish sauce, and chopped garlic.
This dish has many variants denoted by main ingredient or region. Examples include:
- Khao phat tom yam (Thai: ข้าวผัดต้มยำ) is a type of fried rice that is adapted from tom yum soup and fried rice.
- American fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดอเมริกัน, RTGS: Khao Phat Amerikan) uses hot dogs, fried chicken, and eggs as side dishes or mixed into fried rice with ketchup added. It was served to U.S. soldiers in Thailand during the Vietnam War, but now has become common in Thailand. The Malaysian counterpart, substituting pork with chicken, is called nasi goreng USA.
- Green curry fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดแกงเขียวหวาน, RTGS: Khao Phat Kaeng Khiao Wan), fried rice mixed with green curry paste.
- Khao khluk kapi (Thai: ข้าวคลุกกะปิ, pronounced [kʰâːw kʰlúk kāpìʔ]; sometimes spelled as khao kluk kapi), fried rice mixed with shrimp paste.
- Basil fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดกะเพรา, khao phat kaphrao)
- Coconut fried rice (Thai: ข้าวผัดมะพร้าว, RTGS: khao phat maphrao)
- Pineapple fried rice, typically prepared as khao phat sapparot(Thai: ข้าวผัดสับปะรด), , or a more elaborate version known as khao op sapparot, served inside a hollowed out pineapple and garnished with raisins and nuts.
- Cơm chiên or Cơm rang is a Vietnamese variation of the Chinese fried rice that includes diced sausage, stirred eggs, soy sauce, and onions.
- Fried rice is one of the most popular Indian Chinese cuisine in eastern and northern India.
- Curry fried rice is standard fried rice mixed with curry powder for a spicier flavor.
- The Tava Pulav or Tawa Pulao is a fried rice dish from Mumbai.
- Bhuteko bhat (भुटेको भात) is a Nepalese version of fried rice generally eaten with Achar; However, curry and dhal may also be served alongside it.
- Sri Lankan fried rice (Sinhala: ෆ්රයිඩ් රයිස්) is a Sri Lankan variation of the original Chinese version. However, basmati rice is used and Sri Lankan spices are also added to it.
- Nasi goreng (Sinhala: නාසි ගොරේන්) is a popular fried rice dish widely eaten throughout the country. It entered Sri Lankan cuisine through cultural influences from the Malay and Indonesian cuisines.
- Hawaiian fried rice this common style of fried rice in Hawaii usually contains egg, green onions, peas, cubed carrots, and either Portuguese sausage or Spam, or both, and is sometimes available with kimchi added. It is normally cooked in sesame oil.
Arroz frito is a denomination used in the Spanish speaking world, meaning "fried rice", with adjectives describing the Chinese-inspired varieties, e.g. arroz chino, arroz cantonés, or local specialties arroz chaufa/chaulafán/chaufán/chofán, arroz frito tres delicias.
- Bacon and egg fried rice
- Chaulafan is the name for Chinese fried rice in Ecuador. In Ecuador and Peru, dark soy sauce is preferred in fried rice. Meats typically used are pork, beef, chicken or fish/seafood (e.g. shrimp).
- Arroz frito (Cuban fried rice) is very similar to "special fried rice". It can be found alongside typical criollo dishes in many Cuban restaurants. This dish features ham, grilled pork, shrimp, chicken, and eggs, along with a variety of vegetables. Some restaurants add lechón (Cuban-style suckling pig), lobster tails, or crab. Chinese Cubans are responsible for the dish's introduction.
- Arroz chaufa is a popular name for Chinese fried rice in Peru, belonging to the chifa kitchen. In Chile, it is called arroz chaufán. The most common varieties are made using the same ingredients used in China. Some exotic versions may use dried meat, beef tongue, alligator, or lizard in place of more traditional meats. In some regions, the rice is replaced with quinoa or pearled wheat, while in others the rice is mixed with noodles. Aeropuerto is a big Peruvian arroz chaufa dish containing fried noodles and many other additions.
- Arroz mamposteao is a kind of fried rice in Puerto Rico. It was brought to the island by Chinese immigrants and is usually made with leftover rice and typically Asian ingredients such as bean sprouts, soy sauce, combined with popular Puerto Rican ingredients such as red beans, sweet plantains, squash, longaniza. Puerto Rican fried rice is usually garnished with sesame seeds, avocado, cilantro, cheese, and/or aioli.
- Fried Rice with Oyster Sauce – is fried rice incorporating oyster sauce.
- Arroz chau-chau – is fried rice in Portuguese, and in Portugal it is often served as an accompaniment to other food.
Nigerian fried rice is made with long-grain rice, protein (such as beef liver, chicken, pork, or shrimp), vegetables (such as carrots, peas, green beans, onions, and chillies), herbs and spices (such as thyme, pepper, and curry powder), and so on.
Szechwan fried rice is an Indo-Chinese dish
Cheolpan-bokkeum-bap on iron griddle
Scorched bokkeum-bap as an add-on
Fuk gin caau faan, Hokkien fried rice
Jyun joeng caau faan, Hong Kong-style "mandarin ducks" fried rice
Khao phat, Thai fried rice
Khao phat kaeng khiao wan, green curry fried rice
Khao phat pu, Thai fried rice with crab meat
Nasi goreng with salted fish and egg
Nasi goreng istimewa, special fried rice
Javanese-Surinamese nasi goreng in The Netherlands
Nasi goreng pattaya, Malaysian omelette rice
Nigerian fried rice with fish, salad and steamed bean pudding
Omurice (Japanese omelette rice) cut open, with fried rice inside
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