The following is a list of notable culinary and prepared sauces used in cooking and food service.

A cook whisking a sauce
Hollandaise sauce on asparagus
Sweet rujak sauce. Made of palm sugar, tamarind, peanuts, and chilli.

General

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Steak au poivre with a peppercorn sauce
 
Spaghetti being prepared with tomato sauce

Prepared sauces

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Ketchup

By type

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Brown sauces

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Pork fillet with Bordelaise sauce

Brown sauces – Sauce made with brown meat stock include:

  • Bordelaise sauce – French wine sauce
  • Chateaubriand sauce – Front cut of a beef tenderloin
  • Charcutiere sauce – Compound French sauce
  • Chaudfroid sauce – French culinary sauce[6]
  • Demi glace – Sauce in French cuisine
  • Gravy – Sauce made from the juices of meats
  • Mushroom gravy
  • Romesco sauce – Catalan sauce of tomatoes, garlic, and nuts
  • Sauce Africaine – French sauce, consisting of sauce espagnole with tomatoes, onions, peppers and herbs
  • Sauce au Poivre
  • Sauce Robert – French sauce consisting of onions, white wine, pepper, demi-glace, and mustard[7]

Butter sauces

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Seared ahi tuna in a beurre blanc sauce
  • Beurre blanc – Emulsified butter sauce
  • Beurre manie – Thickening agent
  • Beurre monté – Melted butter sauce – Butter emulsified with water
  • Beurre noisette – Brown butter sauce
  • Café de Paris – Butter-based sauce
  • Meuniere sauce – French brown butter, parsley, and lemon sauce

Emulsified sauces

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Remoulade seaweed sauce

Fish sauces

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Green sauces

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Tomato sauces

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  • Tomato sauces – Sauce made primarily from tomatoes
  • Ketchup – Sauce used as a condiment

Hot sauces

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  • Pepper sauces
 
Pique sauce
  • Mustard sauces
    • Mustard – Condiment made from mustard seeds
  • Chile pepper-tinged sauces
 
Phrik nam pla is a common hot sauce in Thai cuisine
  • Hot sauce – Condiment made from chili pepperss include:
    • Buffalo Sauce – American dish of spicy chicken wings
    • Chili sauce – Condiment prepared with chili peppers
    • Datil pepper – Variety of chili pepper sauce
    • Enchilada – Corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a sauce sauce
    • Pique Sauce
    • Sriracha sauce – Thai hot sauce
    • Tabasco sauce – American hot sauce brand

Meat-based sauces

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Neapolitan ragù sauce atop paccheri

Pink sauces

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Sauces made of chopped fresh ingredients

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Fresh-ground pesto sauce, prepared with a mortar and pestle

Sweet sauces

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Crème anglaise over a slice of pain d'épices
 
Pork with peach sauce

White sauces

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Mornay sauce poured over an orecchiette pasta dish

By region

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Africa

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Maafe sauce is based upon peanuts and calvados

Sauces in African cuisine include:

  • Chermoula – Relish from Maghrebi cuisine
  • Harissa – North African hot chili pepper paste
  • Maafe – Stew in West African cuisine
  • Moambe – Ingredient made from palm nuts
  • Shito – Ghanaian hot black pepper sauce

Asia

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East Asian sauces

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Sauces in East Asian cuisine include:

 
Choganjang, a Korean sauce prepared with the base ingredients of ganjang (a Korean soy sauce made with fermented soybeans) and vinegar
  • Doubanjiang – Chinese spicy bean paste
  • Doenjang – Korean fermented bean paste
  • Gochujang – Spicy fermented Korean condiment
  • Hoisin sauce – Sauce commonly used in Chinese cuisine
  • Mala sauce – Spicy Chinese seasoning
  • Mirin – Type of rice wine used in Japanese cuisine
  • Oyster sauce – Condiment made by cooking oysters
  • Plum sauce – Chinese condiment (Chinese; see umeboshi paste below for Japanese pickled plum sauce)
  • Ponzu – Japanese citrus-based condiment
  • Soy sauce – East Asian liquid condiment
    • Sweet soy sauce – Sweetened aromatic soy sauce, originating from Java, Indonesia
  • Ssamjang – Spicy soybean paste used in Korean cuisine
  • Tentsuyu – Tempura dipping sauce
  • Umeboshi paste – Sour, pickled Japanese fruit, or Japanese pickled plum sauce, a thick sauce from a fruit called a plum in English but which is closer to an apricot
  • XO sauce – Spicy seafood sauce from Hong Kong
Cooked sauces
  • Lobster sauce – type of sauce used in American-Chinese and Canadian-Chinese cuisine, made of chicken broth, garlic, ginger, fermented black beans, eggs, and cornstarch; does not contain any lobster, despite the name
  • Shacha sauce – Chinese condiment
  • Siu haau sauce – thick, savory, slightly spicy sauce generally known as the primary barbecue sauce used within Chinese and Cantonese cuisine
  • Sweet and sour sauce – Cooking method
  • Sweet bean sauce, also known as Tianmianjiang – Sweet savory sauce in China and Korea
  • Teriyaki – Japanese marinade – a way of cooking in Japan, a branch of sauces in North America

Southeast Asian sauces

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Sauces in Southeast Asian cuisine include:

 
Traditional sambal terasi served on stone mortar with garlic and lime
 
A bowl of Nước chấm
  • Budu – Fish sauce originating from east coast of Peninsular Malaysia
  • Fish sauce – Condiment made from fish
  • Mắm nêm – Condiment
  • Nam chim – Thai sauce
  • Nam phrik – Thai chili sauce
  • Nước chấm – Vietnamese dipping sauce
  • Padaek – Traditional Lao condiment made from pickled or fermented fish that has been cured
  • Pecel – Indonesian vegetable dish
  • Pla ra – Southeast Asian fermented fish seasoning
  • Sambal – Indonesian spicy relish or sauce
  • Peanut sauce, also known as Satay sauce – Indonesian sauce made from ground roasted or fried peanuts
  • Saus cabai – Condiment prepared with chili peppers
  • Sriracha sauce – Thai hot sauce
  • Sweet soy sauce – Sweetened aromatic soy sauce, originating from Java, Indonesia
  • Tương – Condiment made from soybeans

Caucasus

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Sauces in Caucasian cuisine include:

Mediterranean

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Sauces in Mediterranean cuisine include:

 
An historic Garum (fermented fish sauce) factory at Baelo Claudia in the Cádiz, Spain
  • Garum – Historical fermented fish sauce [15]

Middle East

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Commercially prepared red Sahawiq, a Middle Eastern hot sauce

Sauces in Middle Eastern cuisine include:

  • Muhammara – Hot pepper dip from Syrian cuisine
  • Sahawiq – Yemeni hot sauce
  • Toum – Garlic sauce common in the Levant
  • Cacık – Yogurt sauce or dip found in Turkey, Iran, and Greece

South America

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Sauces in South American cuisine include:

  • Ají (sauce) – Ají-based condiment traditional in Andean cuisine
  • Caruso sauce – Cream sauce for pasta
  • Chancaca – Sweet sauce traditional to southern Andean cuisine
  • Chimichurri – Green, uncooked sauce for meat
  • Hogao – Colombian style sofrito
  • Tucupi – Sauce used in Brazilian cuisine, extracted from the Cassava root

By country

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Argentina

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Salsa golf served at a "taste-off" in Buenos Aires

Sauces in Argentine cuisine include:

Barbados

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Sauces in the cuisine of Barbados include:

Belgium

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Sauces in Belgian cuisine include:

  • Andalouse sauce – a mildly spiced sauce made from mayonnaise, tomatoes and peppers
  • Brasil sauce – mayonnaise with pureed pineapple, tomato and spices[18]
  • Zigeuner sauce – cuisine 'gypsy style' – A "gypsy" sauce of tomatoes, paprika and chopped bell peppers, borrowed from Germany

Bolivia

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Llajwa

Sauces in Bolivian cuisine include:

  • Llajwa – Bolivian spicy sauce

Brazil

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Sauces in Brazilian cuisine include:

  • Vinagrete – Typical Brazilian condiment
  • Tucupi – Sauce used in Brazilian cuisine, extracted from the Cassava root

Canada

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Sauces in Canadian cuisine include:

Chile

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Sauces in Chilean cuisine include:

  • Pebre – Chilean condiment
  • Salsa Americana – Chilean relish made of pickles, pickled onions, and pickled carrots

China

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Soy sauce

Colombia

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Sauces in Colombian cuisine include:

  • Hogao – Colombian style sofrito
  • Ají (sauce) – Ají-based condiment traditional in Andean cuisine

Denmark

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Sauces in Danish cuisine include:

  • Persillesovs – cream sauce seasoned with parsley – a key ingrediant in the Danish national dish Stegt flæsk med persillesovs
  • Brun sovs – Sauce made with brown meat stock

England

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Sauces in English cuisine include:

France

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Sauces in French cuisine include:

 
Beef with espagnole sauce and fries
 
Rouille sauce
  • Allemande – Veal stock, veal velouté, lemon juice, mushrooms and egg yolks.[20]
  • Américaine – Mayonnaise, blended with puréed lobster and mustard.[21]
  • Béarnaise – Reduction of chopped shallots, pepper, tarragon and vinegar, with egg yolks and melted butter.[22]
  • Bercy – Chopped shallots, butter and white wine, with either fish stock or meat stock.[22]
  • Béchamel – milk-based sauce, thickened with a white roux. [23]
  • Beurre blanc – Reduction of butter, vinegar, white wine and shallots.[24]
  • Beurre maître d'hôtel – Fresh butter kneaded with chopped parsley, pepper and lemon juice.[25]
  • Beurre noir – Browned butter with lemon juice/vinegar and parsley; traditionally served with raie (Skate).[26]
  • Beurre noisette – Lightly browned butter with lemon juice.[27]
  • Beurre vert – Butter mixed with the juice extracted from spinach.[28]
  • Bordelaise – Chopped shallots, pepper, herbs, cooked in red wine and mixed with demi-glace.[29]
  • Bourguignonne – Chopped shallots, herbs and mushroom trimmings reduced in red wine and meat stock.[30]
  • Bigarade sauce – an orange sauce, commonly for duck à l'orange. [31]
  • Bretonne – Two forms: (i) chopped onions, butter, white wine tomatoes, garlic and parsley; (ii) julienne of leeks, celery, mushrooms and onions cooked slowly in butter and mixed with fish velouté.[32]
  • Charcutière – Sauce Robert (below) garnished with gherkins.[32]
  • Chasseur – Minced mushrooms, butter, shallots and parsley with red wine and demi-glace.[32]
  • Demi-glace – A brown sauce, generally the basis of other sauces, made of beef or veal stock, with carrots, onions, mushrooms and tomatoes.[33]
  • Espagnole sauce – a fortified brown veal stock sauce.[34]
  • Genevoise sauce - A brown sauce made with fish fumet, mirepoix, red wine, and butter usually accompanied with fish.
  • Gribiche – Mayonnaise with hard-boiled eggs, mustard, capers and herbs.[35]
  • Hollandaise – Vinegar, crushed peppercorns, butter, egg yolks and lemon juice.[36]
  • Lyonnaise – Fried onions with white wine and vinegar reduced and mixed with demi-glace.[37]
  • Mayonnaise – Egg yolks with vinegar or lemon juice, beaten with oil.[37]
  • Nantua – Diced vegetables, butter, fish stock, white wine, cognac and tomatoes.[38]
  • Périgueux – Demi-glace, chopped truffles and madeira.[39]
  • Poivrade – Diced vegetables with herbs, with demi-glace.[40]
  • Ravigote – Reduction of white wine and vinegar with velouté and shallot butter, garnished with herbs.[41]
  • Rémoulade – Mayonnaise seasoned with mustard and anchovy essence, garnished with chopped capers, gherkins, tarragon and chervil.[42]
  • Robert – Chopped onions in butter, with white wine, vinegar, pepper, cooked in demi-glace and finished with mustard.[41]
  • Rouennaise – Thin bordelaise mixed with puréed raw duck livers, gently cooked, finished with a reduction of red wine and shallots.[43]
  • Rouille – Garlic, pimento and chilli pepper sauce, traditionally served with fish soup.[44]
  • Soubise – Onion sauce. Versions include (i) béchamel and cooked chopped onions and (ii) onions and rice in white stock, reduced to paste and blended with butter and cream.[43]
  • Tartare – Cold sauce of mayonnaise with hard-boiled egg yolks, with onions and chives.[43]
  • Tomate – a tomato-based sauce.[45]
  • Velouté – white stock-based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison. [46]
  • Vénitienne – White wine with a reduction of tarragon vinegar, shallots and chervil, finished with butter.[43]

Georgia

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Chicken in satsivi sauce

Sauces in Georgian cuisine include:

Germany

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Sauces in German cuisine include:

Greece

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Tzatziki

Sauces in Greek cuisine include:

India

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Sauces in Indian cuisine include:

Indonesia

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Sauces in Indonesian cuisine include:

  • Dabu-dabu – Indonesian spicy condiment
  • Colo-colo – Indonesian hot and spicy condiment
  • Peanut sauce – Indonesian sauce made from ground roasted or fried peanuts
  • Pecel – Indonesian vegetable dish
  • Sambal – Indonesian spicy relish or sauce
  • Sweet soy sauce – Sweetened aromatic soy sauce, originating from Java, Indonesia

Iran

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Sauces in Iranian cuisine include:

  • Mahyawa – Iranian cuisine tangy sauce made out of fermented fish

Italy

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Pizza marinara – a simple pizza prepared with marinara sauce
 
Sauces at a family run parilla (grill) in Palermo, Sicily, Italy

Sauces in Italian cuisine include:

Jamaica

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Sauces in Jamaican cuisine include:

  • Jerk sauce – Style of cooking native to Jamaica

Japan

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Sauces in Japanese cuisine include:

  • Shottsuru – Japanese fish sauce
  • Tare sauce – Family of Japanese sauces
  • Ponzu – Japanese citrus-based condiment
  • Umeboshi paste – Sour, pickled Japanese fruit, or Japanese pickled plum sauce
  • Tonkatsu sauce – Japanese seasoning sauce

Korea

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Traditional Korean soy sauce

Sauces in Korean cuisine include:

Libya

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Sauces in Libyan cuisine include:

  • Filfel chuma – Israeli chilli-garlic paste[50]

Malaysia

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Sauces in Malaysian cuisine include:

  • Cincalok – Malay salted shrimp condiment

Mexico

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Chicken in a red mole sauce

Sauces in Mexican cuisine include:

Netherlands

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Sauces in Dutch cuisine include:

  • Fritessaus – Dutch condiment, usually served with French fries[53]
  • Joppiesaus – Type of sauce from the Netherlands

Peru

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Sauces in Peruvian cuisine include:

  • Huancaina – Peruvian appetizer
  • Ocopa

Crema de Rocoto Llatan Mayonesa de aceitunas (black olive mayonnaise)

Philippines

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Cassava suman with Latik

Sauces in Filipino cuisine include:

  • Bagoong – Type of Philippine condiment[54]
  • Banana ketchup – Sauce made from bananas
  • Latik – Filipino dessert garnishing and condiment
  • Chilli soy lime – a mixture of soy sauce, chopped bird's eye chillies, chopped onions, and calamansi lime juice—a traditional dipping sauce for grilled meats and seafood. The island of Guam has a similar sauce called finadene.
  • Liver sauce – Filipino condiment spread – used primarily as a dipping sauce for lechon or whole roasted pig. Flavour is savoury, sweet and piquant, vaguely reminiscent of British style brown sauces but with a coarser texture.

Poland

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Sauces in Polish cuisine include:

  • Black Polish sauce (Polish: Czarny sos polski) – Based on honey, vinegar, ginger and black pepper. This sauce is not very common today. [citation needed]
  • Ćwikła – Made of horseradish and cooked, minced beets. Very common during Easter [citation needed]. Served with various meats to eat with bread.
  • Cranberry horseradish sauce – Consists of horseradish, minced cranberries, sour cream and mayonnaise.
  • Dill sauce – Sauce which can be made hot or cold. Cold is made of dill, yoghurt and spices. Hot consists of roux, single/double cream or is starch thickened instead of a yoghurt. Hot version can be served with golabki or meatballs, cold one with cooked fish.
  • Horseradish sauce – Made with sour cream, mayonnaise, lemon juice and minced horseradish. It may be eaten with hard-boiled eggs, bacon or baked/fried meats. It can also be put on sandwiches.
  • Garlic sauce – Its main ingredients are garlic, mayonnaise, sour cream or yoghurt, herbs and spices. Similar, perhaps, to ranch dressing. It's eaten with pizza or used as a dressing to side salad (usually cauliflower or broccoli). It can be also made with only garlic and melted butter, to be tossed with asparagus, broad beans or green beans.
  • Grey Polish sauce (Polish: Szary sos polski) – Consists of roux and beef, fish, or vegetable stock seasoned with wine or lemon juice. Additions include caramel, raisins, almonds, chopped onions, grated gingerbread or double cream.
  • Hunter's sauce (Polish: sos myśliwski) – Tomato puree, onions, mushrooms, fried bacon and pickled cucumbers. [citation needed]
  • Mizeria – Type of salad from Poland – A kefir or sour cream sauce or salad with thinly sliced cucumbers, sugar and herbs.
  • Muślinowy sauce – A sauce perhaps similar to Hollandaise mixed with whipped cream or beaten egg whites. [citation needed]
  • Polonaise – Sauce in Polish cuisine – Garnish made of melted butter, chopped boiled eggs, bread crumbs, salt, lemon juice and herbs. In Poland it's usually used as a dressing, served with cooked vegetables like green beans, cauliflower, broccoli or Brussels sprouts next to potatoes and meat. [citation needed]
  • Salsza sauce (Polish: Salsza) – Sauce with butter, onion, parsley root, garlic, bay leaves, thyme, basil, vinegar, flour and wine.
  • Velouté à la polonaise – Classic French sauce – A velouté sauce mixed with horseradish, lemon juice and sour cream.[55]
  • Yellow Polish sauce (Polish: Żółty sos polski) – Made with wine, egg yolks, butter, sugar, cinnamon and saffron.

Portugal

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Sauces in Portuguese cuisine include:

  • Cebolada – An onion sauce of Portuguese origin used for fish and game.
  • Cervejeira sauce – A beer sauce predominantly used for steaks.
  • Escabeche sauce – A vinegar-based sauce predominantly used for fish.
  • Francesinha sauce – Portuguese sandwich – A red or orange sauce, often tomato-based, that includes beer along with a variety of other possible ingredients.

Puerto Rico

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Sauces in Puerto Rican cuisine include:

 
Chicken with Ajilimójili, rice, and salsa
 
Mojito Isleño

Romania

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Sauces in Romanian cuisine include:

  • Mujdei – Spicy Romanian sauce made mostly from garlic and vegetable oil[56]

Russia

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Khrenovina sauce, a spicy horseradish sauce originating from Siberia

Sauces in Russian cuisine include:

Spain

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Sauces in Spanish cuisine include:

Canary Islands

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Sauces used in the cuisine of the Canary Islands include:

  • Mojo – Several types of sauces

Catalonia

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Romesco ingredients and sauce

Sauces in Catalan cuisine include:

  • Salvitxada – Sauce from Catalan cuisine
  • Xató – Sauce in Catalan cooking
  • Romesco – Catalan sauce of tomatoes, garlic, and nuts
  • Alioli – Mediterranean sauce made of garlic and olive oil, optionally egg yolks and seasonings

Sweden

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Sauces in Swedish cuisine include:

  • Brunsås – Sauce made with brown meat stock
  • Hovmästarsås - made with mustard and dill
  • Lingonberry sauce
  • Skagen sauce - made with shrimp, mayonnaise and other ingredients

Switzerland

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Sauces in Swiss cuisine include:

Thailand

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Nam chim chaeo sauce

Sauces in Thai cuisine include:

United Kingdom

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Homemade apple sauce being prepared
 
Mint sauce

Sauces in British cuisine include:

  • Albert sauce – British sauce, made of grated horseradish in a clear bouillon, thickened with cream and egg yolks, and spiced with a little prepared mustard diluted in vinegar
  • Apple sauce – Purée made from apples
  • Bread sauce – Sauce made with milk and bread crumbs
  • Brown sauce – Condiment served with food in the UK and Ireland
  • Cheddar sauce – Type of sauce made with cheddar cheese
  • Cumberland sauce – Fruit sauce (Oxford sauce)
  • Gravy – Sauce made from the juices of meats
  • Horseradish sauce – Species of flowering plants in the cabbage family Brassicaceae
  • Marie Rose sauce – British condiment
  • Mint sauce – Sauce made of chopped mint
  • Mushroom sauce – White or brown sauce prepared with mushrooms
  • Onion gravy – Type of sauce
  • Parsley sauce – cream sauce seasoned with parsley
  • Redcurrant sauce – English condiment
  • Shrewsbury sauce – English savoury sauce
  • Tewkesbury mustard
  • Whisky sauce
  • White sauce – Sauce of the French cuisines
  • Worcestershire sauce – English fermented condiment
  • Wow-Wow sauce, also known as Bow Wow Sauce

United States

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Sausage gravy served atop biscuits

Sauces in the cuisine of the United States include:

  • Alfredo sauce – Creamy pasta dish with butter and cheese
  • Barbecue sauce – Sauce used as a marinade, basting, topping, or condiment
  • Brown gravy – Sauce made from the juices of meats
  • Buffalo sauce – American dish of spicy chicken wings
  • Cincinnati chili – Spiced meat sauce used as a topping for spaghetti
  • Coffee sauce – Culinary sauce that includes coffee
  • Comeback sauce – Sauce for fried food from Mississippi
  • Coney sauce – American fast food item[59]
  • Cranberry sauce – Sauce or relish made from cranberries
  • Duck sauce – American Chinese condiment with a translucent orange appearance
  • Étouffée sauce – American seafood and rice dish
  • Henry Bain sauce – American condiment for meats
  • Huli-huli sauce – Hawaiian chicken dish
  • Lobster sauce – type of sauce used in American-Chinese and Canadian-Chinese cuisine, made of chicken broth, garlic, ginger, fermented black beans, eggs, and cornstarch; does not contain any lobster, despite the name
  • Mumbo sauce – American regional sauce
  • Michigan sauce – Style of hot dog
  • Old Sour
  • Red-eye gravy – Type of gravy
  • Remoulade – Mayonnaise-based cold sauce
  • Sausage gravy – Breakfast dish from the Southern United States
  • Tomato sauce – Sauce made primarily from tomatoes
  • Vodka sauce – Pasta dish with vodka, cream and tomato sauce

Uruguay

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Sauces in the cuisine of Uruguay include:

Vietnam

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Sauces in Vietnamese cuisine include:

Dipping sauces are a mainstay of many Vietnamese dishes. Some of the commonly used sauces are:[60][better source needed]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Bruce Bjorkman (1996). The Great Barbecue Companion: Mops, Sops, Sauces, and Rubs. Ten Speed Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-89594-806-0.
  2. ^ Dictionnaire Larousse Gastronomique (in French). p. 334-335.
  3. ^ "Here's a Classic Cream Sauce for Fish and Seafood". The Spruce Eats.
  4. ^ Peterson, J. (2017). Sauces: Classical and Contemporary Sauce Making. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-544-81982-5. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  5. ^ Peterson, J. (2017). Sauces: Classical and Contemporary Sauce Making, Fourth Edition. HMH Books. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-544-81983-2. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  6. ^ Whitehead, J. (1889). The Steward's Handbook and Guide to Party Catering. J. Anderson & Company, printers. p. 273. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
  7. ^ Escoffier, Auguste (1969). The Escoffier Cookbook. Crown Publishers, Inc.
  8. ^ Corriher, Shirley (1997). "Ch. 4: sauce sense". Cookwise, the Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking (1st ed.). New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-688-10229-8.
  9. ^ Prosper Montagné (1961). Charlotte Snyder Turgeon; Nina Froud (eds.). Larousse gastronomique: the encyclopedia of food, wine & cookery. Crown Publishers. p. 861. ISBN 0-517-50333-6. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  10. ^ Beck, Bertholle and Child, pp. 94−95
  11. ^ "Béchamel definition". Merriam-Webster. 13 February 2024.
  12. ^ Escoffier, Auguste (1903). Le guide culinaire, aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique. Par A. Escoffier, avec la collaboration de MM. Philéas Gilbert, E. Fétu, A. Suzanne, B. Reboul, Ch. Dietrich, A. Caillat, etc.,... (in French). au bureau de "l'Art culinaire". p. 151.
  13. ^ Escoffier, Auguste (1903). Le guide culinaire, aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique. Par A. Escoffier, avec la collaboration de MM. Philéas Gilbert, E. Fétu, A. Suzanne, B. Reboul, Ch. Dietrich, A. Caillat, etc.,... (in French). au bureau de "l'Art culinaire". p. 145.
  14. ^ Escoffier, Auguste (1903). Le guide culinaire, aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique. Par A. Escoffier, avec la collaboration de MM. Philéas Gilbert, E. Fétu, A. Suzanne, B. Reboul, Ch. Dietrich, A. Caillat, etc.
  15. ^ Zahn, R. (1912). Real-Encyclopaedia der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. pp. 841–849.
  16. ^ Victor Ego Ducrot (1998), Los sabores de la Patria, Grupo Editorial Norma. (in Spanish)
  17. ^ Carrington, Sean; Fraser, Henry C. (2003). "Pepper sauce". A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean. p. 150. ISBN 0-333-92068-6.
  18. ^ D&L Archived August 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, La William
  19. ^ Vos, Heidemarie (2010). Passion of a Foodie. Strategic Book. p. 591. ISBN 978-1-934925-63-8.
  20. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 54
  21. ^ Hering, p. 37
  22. ^ a b Saulnier, p. 17
  23. ^ Dictionnaire Larousse Gastronomique (in French). p. 946.
  24. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 80
  25. ^ Hering, p. 46
  26. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 81
  27. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 82
  28. ^ Saulnier, p. 6
  29. ^ Saulnier, p. 18
  30. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 16
  31. ^ Dictionnaire Larousse Gastronomique. p. 946.
  32. ^ a b c Saulnier, p. 18
  33. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 29
  34. ^ Escoffier, A. (1979) [1921]. Le guide culinaire=The complete guide to the art of modern cookery: the first complete translation into English (1st American ed.). New York: Mayflower Books. p. 64. ISBN 0-8317-5478-8. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  35. ^ Saulnier, p. 20
  36. ^ Fuller and Renold, recipe no. 34
  37. ^ a b Saulnier, p. 21
  38. ^ Saulnier, p. 22
  39. ^ Beck, Bertholle and Child, p. 184
  40. ^ Saulnier, p. 23
  41. ^ a b Saulnier, p. 23
  42. ^ Hering, p. 54
  43. ^ a b c d Saulnier, p. 24
  44. ^ Beck, Bertholle and Child, p. 51
  45. ^ Escoffier, Auguste (1903). Le guide culinaire, aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique. Par A. Escoffier. Emile Colin (imprimerie de Lagny). pp. 132–135.
  46. ^ Escoffier, Auguste (1903). Le guide culinaire, aide-mémoire de cuisine pratique. Par A. Escoffier, avec la collaboration de MM. Philéas Gilbert, E. Fétu, A. Suzanne, B. Reboul, Ch. Dietrich, A. Caillat, etc.,... (in French). au bureau de "l'Art culinaire". p. 133.
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