List of fermented foods
This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.
|Acidophiline||Russia, Ukraine||Fermented milk product with Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria.|
|Amasi||South Africa||A type of fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt.|
|Amazake||Japan||A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.|
|Appam||India||A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name as Hoppers.|
|Atchara||Philippines||A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue.|
|Ayran||A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt. In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (there called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus. Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.|
|Bagoong||Philippines||A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt. The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).|
|Bagoong monamon||Philippines||Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies|
|Bagoong terong||Philippines||Made by salting and fermenting the bonnetmouth fish.|
|Balao-balao||Philippines||A Filipino dish consisting of cooked rice and whole raw shrimp fermented with salt and angkak (red yeast rice)|
|Bánh cuốn||Northern Vietnam||Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.|
|Beer||A traditional alcoholic (depending on recipes) beverage made from grains and hops|
|Blaand||A fermented milk product made from whey, with a very low alcohol content.|
|Borș (bran)||Romania||Water in which wheat or barley bran, sometimes sugar beet or a slice of bread have fermented.|
|Boza||A traditional fermented drink with alcohol found in many countries.|
|Bread||Numerous varieties of this staple food are prepared with a biological leavening agent, commonly known as yeast, that produces gas bubbles through fermentation.|
|Brem||Indonesia||A traditional fermented food of Indonesia that uses rice.|
|Burong isda||Philippines||Raw fish, fermented in red rice and salt for up to one week. Similar to Japanese narezushi.|
|Burong mangga||Philippines||Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted.|
|Burong talangka||Philippines||Made by mixing crablets, and salt and left in a jar to ferment thoroughly. It can be eaten after 2-5 days. In the some communities, calamansi, chili, dayap, and/or soy sauce is/are added to enhance the flavor while fermentation is occurring.|
|Buttermilk||A fermented dairy drink.|
|Calpis||Japan||An uncarbonated soft drink, manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation.|
|Chass||India||The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati. Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.|
|Cheese||Some cheeses, such as Shanklish (pictured), are fermented as part of their production|
|Cheonggukjang||Korea||A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans|
|Chicha||Latin America||In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize. Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.|
|Chinese pickles||China||Various vegetables or fruits, which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes|
|Cincalok||Malaysia||Fermented shrimp dish.|
|Cocoa||Cocoa bean fermentation for chocolate, and other cocoa products|
|Cod liver oil (Traditional preparation method)||Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.|
|Crème fraîche||France||A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5. It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.|
|Curtido||Central America||A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice|
|Dhokla||Gujarat, India||A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.|
|Doenjang||Korea||A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation|
|Doogh||Iran||A savory yogurt-based beverage similar to Turkish ayran.|
|Dosa||India||A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is rava dosa, a type of dosa.|
|Doubanjiang||China||A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices|
|Douchi||A type of fermented and salted black soybean|
|Douzhi||Beijing||This is a fermented dish from Beijing cuisine. It is similar to soy milk, but made from mung beans. It is a by-product of cellophane noodle production. It is generally slightly sour, with an egg-like, or old socks like smell.|
|Fermented bean curd||China||Fermented tofu|
|Fermented bean paste||East Asia||A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.|
|Fermented fish||A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.|
|Fermented milk products||Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is matzoon, a fermented milk product of Armenian origin.|
|Filmjölk||Nordic countries||A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.|
|Ganjang||Korea||a kind of Korean soy sauce made from fermented soybeans Ganjang is a uniquely Korean condiment|
|Garri||a popular West African food made from cassava tubers|
|Garum||Ancient Rome||Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.|
|Gundruk||Nepal||Gundruk is made by fermenting leaves of vegetables of Brassica family.|
|Hákarl||Iceland||Made by fermenting shark meat, then hanging it to dry. Pictured is hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland.|
|Injera||Ethiopia||A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour, it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.|
|Jogijeot||Korea||Made with fish in Korea.|
|Kapusta kiszona duszona||Poland|
|Kaymak||A fermented dairy product.|
|Kefir||A fermented milk product|
|Kenkey||Ghana||A fermented maize dumpling.|
|Khanom chin||Thailand||Fermented rice noodles|
|Kimchi||Korea||Fermented cabbage or radish product|
|Kiviak||Greenland||Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food made of auks, a type of seabird, preserved in a seal skin.|
|Kumis||Central Asia||Fermented mare's milk product|
|Kusaya||Japan||A traditional salted and fermented fish dish originating in the Izu Islands, and often eaten with sake, shōchū, or a local drink called Shima Jiman.|
|Kuzhi paniyaram||India||Steamed rice and black lentils batter|
|Kvass||Russia||Fermented low-alcohol beverage based on rye bread|
|Leben||Levant||A buttermilk-type drink|
|Lufu||China||A type of fermented bean curd|
|Mageu||Southern Africa||A fermented maize-based drink|
|Meigan cai||China||A fermented brassica product|
|Miso||Japan||Fermented soya bean|
|Nata de coco||Philippines||A jelly-like dessert made from fermented coconut water|
|Nata de piña||Philippines||A jelly-like dessert made from fermented pineapple juice|
|Nattō||Japan||Nattō (なっとう or 納豆) is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Some eat it as a breakfast food.It is served with soy sauce, karashi mustard and Japanese bunching onion. Nattō may be an acquired taste because of its powerful smell, strong flavor, and slimy texture.In Japan nattō is most popular in the eastern regions, including Kantō, Tōhoku, and Hokkaido.|
|Nem chua||Vietnam||Nem chua is a Vietnamese fermented pork dish, usually rolled or cut in bite sizes. The meat is sweet, sour, salty and spicy. It is often served with bird's eye chili, garlic and Vietnamese coriander.|
|Ogi (cereal ferment)|
|Podpiwek||Poland, Lithuania||Soft drink usually made from grain coffee, hops, yeast, water and sugar, which undergo fermentation.|
|Pon ye gyi||Myanmar (Burma)|
|Portuguese ground red pepper (Pimenta Moida) (Pee-men-tah Mo-ee-dah)
a.k.a. Massa de pimentão (pronounced “ mah-ssah de pea-meant-ow”)
|Portugal. Salt substitute staple in the Azores. Base for many Portuguese dishes||Shepherd peppers or Fresno or red Banana pepper or Cubanelle Chile Pepper or even Red bell peppers and salt. The addition of olive oil, paprika, wine vinegar and garlic varies. Wash peppers and de-stem and cut in 1/2 allowing peppers to air dry. Grind peppers with or 1/3 seeds are ground, salt and allow to ferment for 24-72hrs until boiling subsides. Jar adding salt olive oil to top for enhance preservation and taste.
|Pulque||Mesoamerica||An ancient drink possibly created by the Olmecs or Toltecs of South-Central Mexico. It is made from the fermented sap of the Agave Americana plant and appears very similar to milk. During the epoch of Mesoamerican history, it was believed by the Indigenous Peoples to be a sacred beverage and contain godly powers when drunk. Pulque is very much like its sister drinks, (however, the more clearer) Tequila and Mezcal. The original Classical Nahuatl name for the drink is Iztāc Octli.|
|Puto||Philippines||Philippine rice cakes. Some varieties are fermented.|
|Sauerkraut||Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.|
|Şalgam||Turkey||Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.|
|Shark meat||Shark meat is sometimes fermented.|
|Shrimp paste (Belacan)||Malaysia||Fermented Shrimp paste|
|Smetana (dairy product)|
|Sour cabbage||Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.|
|Sour cream||Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.|
|Soy sauce||Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia||Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce|
|Stinky tofu||China, Hong Kong, Taiwan||Fermented Tofu|
|Taba ng Talangka||Philippines||The crab roe and meat of a sack of crablets are carefully taken out and preserved in a single jar using sea salt. Traditionally, the number of female (V-lined underbelly) and 'gay' crabs (D-lined underbelly) should always have more weight than the male crabs (T-lined underbelly). Taba ng talangaka is usually used as a condiment to enhance the flavor of rice and other seafood.|
|Tempeh||Indonesia||A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form|
|Tianjin preserved vegetable|
|White sugar sponge cake|
|Yellow soybean paste|
|Yogurt||A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk|
|Yongfeng chili sauce||Yongfeng, Shuangfeng County, Loudi city, Hunan province, China||Fermented hot sauce from Hunan|
|Chakuli pitha||India||A rice-based fried pancake traditionally made in the Indian state of Odisha. It is made from fermented rice and black gram|
|Enduri Pitha||India||A traditional pitha made in the northern and central region Indian state of Odisha. A fermented batter made of rice and black gram is steamed with/without stuffing made of coconut, jaggery and black pepper.|
|Žinčica||Žinčica (in Slovakia), Žinčice (in the Czech Republic), Żentyca (in Poland)||A drink made of sheep milk whey as a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.|
- A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.
For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996.
- For use in Afghanistan by Kirghiz, see Nazif Shahrani, M. (2013). The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. 9780295803784: University of Washington Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN 9780295803784.CS1 maint: location (link)
- For Lebanon, see A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 96. ISBN 9781405172387.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- For presence in the North Caucasus, see Smih, Sebastian (2006). Allah's Mountains: The Battle for Chechnya. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 25. ISBN 9781850439790.
- J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0.
- National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133.
- Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
- T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
- Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7.
-  Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
- Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0., p. 181f
- Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5.
- The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
- "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
- Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
- "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4.
- "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10.
- "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". Homecooking.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- Media related to Fermented food at Wikimedia Commons