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A woman preparing kenkey

This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.

Many pickled or soured foods are fermented as part of the pickling or souring process, but many are simply processed with brine, vinegar, or another acid such as lemon juice.

Contents

Fermented foodsEdit

Name Image Origin Description
Amasi   A word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt. It is very popular in South Africa.
Amazake   Japan A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
Appam   India A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name as Hoppers.
Atchara   A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue. The name may come from several names for South Asian pickle and is related to acar from neighbouring Indonesia and Malaysia.
Ayran   A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[1] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (here called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus.[2] Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
Bagoong   Philippines A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt.[3] The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).[4]
Bagoong monamon   Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies
Bagoong terong   Made by salting and fermenting the bonnet mouth fish
Bánh cuốn   Northern Vietnam.[5] Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented[6] rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
Beer A traditional alcoholic (depending on recipes) beverage made from grains and hops
Blaand A fermented milk product made from whey. It is similar in alcohol content to wine.
Boza   A traditional fermented drink with alcohol found in many countries
Bread   Any biologically (yeast(s) as opposed to baking powder) leavened bread.
Brem   Indonesia A traditional fermented food of Indonesia that uses rice.
Burong mangga Philippines Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted
Buttermilk
Calpis Japan An uncarbonated soft drink, manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation
Chass Gujarat, India The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[7] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
Cheese   Some cheeses, such as Shanklish (pictured), are fermented as part of their production
Cheonggukjang   Korea A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans
Chicha   In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.[8] Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
Chinese pickles Various vegetables or fruits, which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes
Cincalok
Cocoa   Cocoa bean fermentation for chocolate, and other cocoa products
Cod liver oil (Traditional preparation method) Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.
Crème fraîche   A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[9] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
Curtido   A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice
Dhokla   Gujarat, India A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.[10]
Doenjang   Korea A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation
Doogh   Ancient Persia A savory yogurt-based beverage
Dosa   India A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is Rava dosa, a type of Dosa dish.Plain dosa and Masala dosa are better fermented dishes.The batter is fermented for 8 to 10 hrs.
Doubanjiang   A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices
Douchi   A type of fermented and salted black soybean
Douzhi Beijing This is a fermented dish from Beijing cuisine. It is similar to soy milk, but made from mung beans. It is a by-product of cellophane noodle production. It is generally slightly sour, with an egg-like, or old socks like smell.
Fermented bean curd   Fermented tofu (pictured) is a type of Fermented bean curd
Fermented bean paste   A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.[11]
Fermented fish   A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
Fermented milk products Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is matzoon, a fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
Filmjölk   Nordic countries A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[12][13]
Fish sauce  
Ganjang   Korea a kind of Korean soy sauce made from fermented soybeans Ganjang is a uniquely Korean condiment
Garri   a popular West African food made from cassava tubers
Garum Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.
Gejang   Korea
Gochujang   Korea
Gundruk   - Nepal Gundruk is made by fermenting leaves of vegetables of Brassica family.
Hákarl   Iceland Made by fermenting shark meat, then hanging it to dry. Pictured is Hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland
Hongeohoe   Korea
Idli   India
Igunaq  
Injera   A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour,[14] it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Iru (food)  
Jeotgal   Korea
Jogijeot Made with fish in Korea. Korea
Kapusta kiszona duszona   Poland
Katsuobushi   Japan
Kaymak  
Kefir   A fermented milk product
Kenkey  
Ketchup   In Indonesian cuisine, which is similar to Malay, the term kecap refers to fermented savory sauces.
Khanom chin  
Kimchi   Korea
Kiviak Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food from Greenland that is made of auks preserved in the hollowed-out body of a seal.
Kombucha  
Khanom chin  
Kumis  
Kusaya Japan A traditional salted and fermented fish dish originating in the Izu Islands, and often eaten with sake, shōchū, or a local drink called Shima Jiman.
Kuzhi paniyaram  
Kvass  
Lassi  
Leben (milk product)
Lufu (food)
Mageu  
Meigan cai  
Miso  
Mixian (noodle)  
Mohnyin tjin  
Murri (condiment)
Mursik
Myeolchijeot   Korea
Nata de coco  
Nattō   Japan
Nem chua   Vietnam Nem chua is a Vietnamese fermented pork dish, usually rolled or cut in bite sizes. The meat is sweet, sour, salty and spicy. It is often served with bird's eye chili, garlic and Vietnamese coriander.
Ngapi  
Ogi (cereal ferment)
Ogiri
Oncom  
Palappam
Pesaha Appam  
Peuyeum  
Pickles[15]  
Podpiwek Poland, Lithuania Soft drink usually made from grain coffee, hops, yeast, water and sugar, which undergo fermentation.
Poi (food)  
Pon ye gyi Myanmar (Burma)
Portuguese ground red pepper (Pimenta Moida) (Pee-men-tah Mo-ee-dah)

a.k.a. Massa de pimentão (pronounced “ mah-ssah de pea-meant-ow”)

Portugal. Salt substitute staple in the Azores. Base for many Portuguese dishes Shepherd peppers or Fresno or red Banana pepper or Cubanelle Chile Pepper or even Red bell peppers and salt. The addition of olive oil, paprika, wine vinegar and garlic varies. Wash peppers and de-stem and cut in 1/2 allowing peppers to air dry. Grind peppers with or 1/3 seeds are ground, salt and allow to ferment for 24-72hrs until boiling subsides. Jar adding salt olive oil to top for enhance preservation and taste.
  • Pepper heat range typically from 0-1000 Scoville.
Pulque  
Puto   Pictured is puto in banana leaf
Rakfisk  
Rượu nếp
Ryazhenka  
Saeujeot   Korea
Salami Italy
Sauerkraut   Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[16][17] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
SCOBY
Şalgam   Turkey Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.
Shark meat   Shark meat is sometimes fermented.
Shiokara  
Shrimp paste  
Sinki (food)
Skyr  
Smântână  
Smetana (dairy product)  
Som moo  
Sour cabbage   Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.
Sour cream   Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[18] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
Soured milk  
Sowans
Soy sauce   Korea, Japan, China Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce
Ssamjang   Korea
Stinky tofu  
Strained yogurt  
Suan cai  
Sumbala  
Surströmming  
Tabasco sauce  
Tapai  
Tarhana  
Tempeh   Indonesia A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form
Tesgüino
Tianjin preserved vegetable  
Tianmianjiang  
Tibicos  
Tsukemono  
Tương
Viili
Vinegar
Wine
White sugar sponge cake  
Worcestershire sauce  
Yakult  
Yellow soybean paste
Yogurt   A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk
Zha cai  
Chakuli pitha   India A rice-based fried pancake traditionally made in the Indian state of Odisha. It is made from fermented rice and black gram
Enduri Pitha   India A traditional pitha made in the northern and central region Indian state of Odisha. A fermented batter made of rice and black gram is steamed with/without stuffing made of coconut, jaggery and black pepper.
Žinčica Žinčica (in Slovakia), Žinčice (in the Czech Republic), Żentyca (in Poland) A drink made of sheep milk whey as a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.

Fermented cheesesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  2. ^ For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.  For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996. 
  3. ^ J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0. 
  4. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133. 
  5. ^ Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
  6. ^ T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
  7. ^ Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7. 
  8. ^ [1] Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
  9. ^ Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. , p. 181f
  10. ^ Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5. 
  11. ^ The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  12. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  13. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  14. ^ Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
  15. ^ "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  16. ^ Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4. 
  17. ^ "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  18. ^ "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". Homecooking.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 

External linksEdit