Skyr (// SKEER; Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈscɪːr̥]) is an Icelandic cultured dairy product. It has the consistency of strained yogurt, but a milder flavor. Skyr can be classified as a fresh sour milk cheese (similar to curd cheese eaten in Germany and Russia) but is consumed like a yogurt. It has been a part of Icelandic cuisine for centuries.
Skyr has a slightly sour dairy flavor, with a hint of residual sweetness. It is traditionally served cold, either plain or with cream. Commercial manufacturers of skyr have added flavors such as vanilla or fruit.
A staple of Icelandic diet since the Viking age, Skyr is mentioned in a number of medieval Icelandic sources, including Egil's saga and Grettis saga. It is unclear how similar this was to modern-day skyr, as no detailed descriptions of skyr exist from this period. Culinary historian Hallgerður Gísladóttir has suggested that skyr was known throughout Scandinavia at the time of the settlement of Iceland, but eventually forgotten outside of Iceland.
Skyr is usually mixed with sugar and milk. A traditional Icelandic dish exists which consists of roughly equal amounts of skyr and porridge. Skyr is often mixed with jam or fruit for a dessert, with prepared fish for dinner, or with cereals for breakfast. Contemporary uses include using skyr as a cheesecake topping and as an ingredient in milkshake or fruit smoothies.
Skyr is made from skimmed milk which has been brought close to a boiling point and then cooled down to 37 °C (99 °F). A small portion of a previous batch of skyr is then added to the warm milk to introduce the essential culture (the active bacterial culture), and with the addition of rennet the milk starts to curdle. It is left to ferment for 5 hours before being cooled to 18 °C (64 °F). After pasteurization the product is strained through fabric to remove the liquid whey.
Bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus play an important role in the fermentation of skyr. They also play a major role in the production of yogurt, but the yeast which is active in the low temperature step ensures that the product becomes a skyr and not a yogurt.
Skyr is commonly consumed in Iceland. Efforts at marketing it outside of Iceland began in 2005 when it was exported to the U.S. and sold at Whole Foods. Licensed production began the next year in Denmark and Scotland. Mjólkursamsalan (the major dairy cooperative in Iceland) and its associates registered "skyr" as a trademark in some countries, but this was later ruled to be invalid, as "skyr" was found to be a generic term like "milk".
The commercial distribution of skyr outside of Iceland increased in the 2010s, with marketing as a low-sugar, no-fat, high-protein product consumed as a snack. In 2012, 80% of exported Icelandic skyr went to Finland and 20% to the U.S. Numerous skyr parlors were opened in Finland in 2019.
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- "MS missir spón úr aski sínum: Skyr er vörutegund en ekki vörumerki". Stundin. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
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- "Skyr selt erlendis fyrir 650 milljónir - Viðskiptablaðið". www.vb.is. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
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