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Doogh, Ayran or Tan (Albanian: Dhallë; Persian: دوغ‎‎, duq; Azerbaijani: ayran, ајран; Armenian: թան tan, Arabic: شنينة šinīna Turkish: ayran) is a savory yogurt-based beverage.[1][2] It is popular in Iran,[3] Turkey,[4] Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan,[2] North Caucasus,[5] the Balkans,[6] Afghanistan[7] and Lebanon.[8] It is made by mixing yoghurt and chilled or iced water[9] and has been variously described as "diluted yogurt".[4] It is sometimes carbonated and seasoned with mint.[10]

Doogh
Dough at rest stop.jpg
Alternative names Doogh Ayran, Tan
Type Dairy product
Course Beverage
Place of origin Iran
Region or state Asia
Serving temperature Cold
Main ingredients Yogurt, water, salt, little of cohol
Cookbook: Doogh  Media: Doogh
Bottle of carbonated tan sold in Yerevan, Armenia

Contents

HistoryEdit

According to Shirin Simmons, doogh has long been a popular drink and was consumed in ancient Persia (modern-day Iran and western Afghanistan).[11] Described by an 1886 source as a cold drink of curdled milk and water seasoned with mint,[12] its name derives from the Persian word for milking, dooshidan.[10]

According to turkish scientist Nevin Halıcı, ayran is a traditional Turkish drink and was consumed by nomadic Turks prior to 1000 CE.[4] According to turkish popular scientists Celalettin Koçak and Yahya Kemal Avşar (Professor of Food Engineering at Mustafa Kemal University), ayran was first developed thousands of years ago by the Göktürks, who would dilute bitter yogurt with water in an attempt to improve its flavor.[13]

VariationsEdit

Salt (and sometimes pepper) is added, and dried mint or pennyroyal can be mixed in as well. One variation includes diced cucumbers to provide a crunchy texture to the beverage. Some varieties of doogh have carbonation.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  2. ^ a b Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081. 
  3. ^ Sarina Jacobson,Danya Weiner. Yogurt: More Than 70 Delicious & Healthy Recipes" Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2008. ISBN 1402747594 p 6
  4. ^ a b c Halici, Nevin (27 April 2013). "Turkish Delights". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. University of California Press. 1 (1): 92–93. 
  5. ^ Smih, Sebastian (2006). Allah's Mountains: The Battle for Chechnya. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 25. ISBN 9781850439790. 
  6. ^ Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996. 
  7. ^ Nazif Shahrani, M. (2013). The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. 9780295803784: University of Washington Press. pp. 92–93. 
  8. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 96. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  9. ^ Davis, P. H. (1956). "Lake Van and Turkish Kurdistan: A Botanical Journey". The Geographical Journal. 122 (2): 156–165. doi:10.2307/1790844. 
  10. ^ a b Islamic Republic of Iran (26–29 January 2009). Project Document for a Regional Standard for Doogh (CX/NEA 09/5/8) (PDF). Tunis, Tunisia: United Nations. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme of the FAO/WHO coordinating committee for the Near East. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  11. ^ Simmons, Shirin (2007). Treasury of Persian Cuisine. Stamford House Publishing. ISBN 1-904985-56-4. 
  12. ^ Grosart, Alexander (17 July 1886). "Soor-doock" and "doogh". The Academy and literature. 30. Blackburn. p. 59. 
  13. ^ Kocak, C., Avsar, Y.K., 2009. Ayran: Microbiology and Technology. In: Yildiz, F. (Ed.), Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press, Boca Raton, U.S., pp. 123–141