Leuconostoc[2] is a genus of gram-positive bacteria, placed within the family of Lactobacillaceae. They are generally ovoid cocci often forming chains. Leuconostoc spp. are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin and are catalase-negative (which distinguishes them from staphylococci). All species within this genus are heterofermentative and are able to produce dextran from sucrose. They are generally slime-forming.

Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Bacillota
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Leuconostoc
van Tieghem 1878 (Approved Lists 1980)[1]
Type species
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
(Tsenkovskii 1878) van Tieghem 1878 (Approved Lists 1980)[1]

See text.

  • "Ascococcus" Tsenkovskii 1878

Blamed for causing the 'stink' when creating a sourdough starter, some species are also capable of causing human infection.[3] Because they are an uncommon cause of disease in humans, standard commercial identification kits are often unable to identify the organism.[4]

Leuconostoc spp., along with other lactic acid bacteria such as Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, are responsible for the fermentation of cabbage, making it sauerkraut. In this process, fresh cabbage is fermented in a light brine, where the sugars in the cabbage are transformed by lactofermentation to lactic acid which gives the cabbage a sour flavour and good keeping qualities. Leuconostoc spp. are similarly part of the symbiotic colonies of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) involved in the fermentation of kefir, a fermented milk beverage[5] and kombucha, a fermented tea.

Species edit

The genus Leuconostoc comprises the following species:[6]

Leuconostoc citrovorum edit

The name Leuconostoc citrovorum (Hammer) Hucker and Pederson 1931 was rejected in 1971 as a nomen dubium by the Judicial Commission of International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (in Opinion 45).[8][9]

Phylogeny edit

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature[6] and the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences.[10]


Leuconostoc gelidum

Leuconostoc kimchii

Leuconostoc lactis

Leuconostoc citreum

Leuconostoc carnosum

Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

Leuconostoc fallax




References edit

  1. ^ a b Van Tieghem P. (1878). "Sur la gomme de sucrerie (Leuconostoc mesenteroides)" [On sugar-mill gum (Leuconostoc mesenteroides)]. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique. 7: 180–203.
  2. ^ Björkroth, J., and W. Holzapfel. 2006. Genera Leuconostoc, Oenococcus and Weissella, p.267 -319. In M. Dworkin (ed.), The prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, vol. 4, 3rd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. [1]
  3. ^ Vagiakou-Voudris E, Mylona-Petropoulou D, Kalogeropoulou E, Chantzis A, Chini S, Tsiodra P, Malamou-Lada E (2002). "Multiple Liver Abscesses Associated with Bacteremia due to Leuconostoc lactis". Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 34 (10): 766–7. doi:10.1080/00365540260348572. PMID 12477331. S2CID 6532754.
  4. ^ Kulwichit W, Nilgate S, Chatsuwan T, et al. (2007). "Accuracies of Leuconostoc phenotypic identification: a comparison of API systems and conventional phenotypic assays". BMC Infectious Diseases. 7: 69. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-69. PMC 1947989. PMID 17605772.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: unflagged free DOI (link)
  5. ^ Farnworth, Edward R (4 April 2005). "Kefir—A complex probiotic" (PDF). Food Science and Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods. 2 (1): 1–17. CiteSeerX doi:10.1616/1476-2137.13938. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b Euzéby JP, Parte AC. "Acetilactobacillus". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  7. ^ Kim MH, Shim ST, Kim YS, Kyung KH. (2002). "Diversity of Leuconostocs on Garlic Surface, an Extreme Environment" (PDF). Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 12 (3): 497–502.
  8. ^ Lapage SP; et al. (1992). "List 5. Rejected specific and subspecific epithets in names of species and subspecies of bacteria (epitheta specifica et subspecifica rejicienda)". ASM Press.
  9. ^ Lapage SP; et al. (1992). International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision. ASM Press.
  10. ^ Zheng J, Wittouck S, Salvetti E, Franz CMAP, Harris HMB, Mattarelli P, O'Toole PW, Pot B, Vandamme P, Walter J, Watanabe K, Wuyts S, Felis GE, Gänzle MG, Lebeer S. (2020). "A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 70 (4): 2782–2858. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.004107. PMID 32293557.

External links edit