Diet in Hinduism signifies the diverse traditions found across the Indian subcontinent. Hindu scriptures promote a vegetarian dietary ideal based on the concept of ahimsa—non-violence and compassion towards all beings.[1] According to a Pew Research Center survey, 44% of Hindus say they are vegetarian.[2]

A lacto-vegetarian thali from Indian state of Maharashtra

History edit

By mid-1st millennium BCE, all three major Indian religions – Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism – were championing non-violence as an ethical value, and something that affected one's rebirth. By about 200 CE, food and feasting on animal slaughter were widely considered as a form of violence against life forms, and became a religious and social taboo.[3][4]

Ralph Fitch, a merchant from London and one of the earliest English travellers to India wrote a letter home in 1580 stating:

"They have a very strange order among them ... They eat no flesh, but live by roots and rice and milk."[5]

Diet in Hindu scriptures and texts edit

Vegetarianism in ancient India
In that country they do not keep pigs and fowls, and do not sell live cattle; in the markets there are no butchers' shops and no dealers in intoxicating drink.

Faxian, Chinese pilgrim to India (4th/5th century CE)[6]

The Vedas edit

Evidence from the Vedas suggests the diet of the Vedic people consisted of cereals, initially barley but later dominated by rice, pulses such as māsha (urad), mudga (moong), and masūra (masoor), vegetables such as lotus roots, lotus stem, bottle gourd and milk products, mainly of cows, but also of buffaloes and goats.[7] The Vedas describe animals including bulls, horses, rams and goats being sacrificed and eaten.[8] Although cows held an elevated position in the Vedas,[9] barren cows were also sacrificed. Even then, the word aghnyā ('not to be eaten', 'inviolable') is used for cows multiple times, with some Rigvedic composers considering the whole bovine species, both cows and bulls, inviolable.[8]

Steven J. Rosen suggests that meat might only have been eaten as part of ritual sacrifices and not otherwise.[10] Acts of animal sacrifice were not fully accepted as there were signs of unease and tension owing to the 'gory brutality of sacrificial butchery' dating back to as early as the older Vedas.[11] The earliest reference to the idea of ahimsa or non-violence to animals (pashu-ahimsa) in any literature, apparently in a moral sense, is found in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda (KapS 31.11), written about the 8th century BCE.[12] The Shatapatha Brahmana contains one of the earliest statements against meat eating, and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, has an injunction against killing 'all living entities'. Injunctions against meat-eating also appear in the Dharmasutras.[13]

Dharmaśāstras edit

According to Kane, one who is about to eat food should greet the food when it is served to him, should honour it, never speak ill, and never find fault in it.[14][15]

The Dharmasastra literature, states Patrick Olivelle, admonishes "people not to cook for themselves alone", offer it to the gods, to forefathers, to fellow human beings as hospitality and as alms to the monks and needy.[14] Olivelle claims all living beings are interdependent in matters of food and thus food must be respected, worshipped and taken with care.[14] Olivelle states that the Shastras recommend that when a person sees food, he should fold his hands, bow to it, and say a prayer of thanks.[14]

The reverence for food reaches a state of extreme in the renouncer or monk traditions in Hinduism.[14] The Hindu tradition views procurement and preparation of food as necessarily a violent process, where other life forms and nature are disturbed, in part destroyed, changed and reformulated into something edible and palatable. The mendicants (sannyasin, ascetics) avoid being the initiator of this process, and therefore depend entirely on begging for food that is left over of householders.[14] In pursuit of their spiritual beliefs, states Olivelle, the "mendicants eat other people's left overs".[14] If they cannot find left overs, they seek fallen fruit or seeds left in field after harvest.[14]

The forest hermits of Hinduism, on the other hand, do not beg for left overs.[14] Their food is wild and uncultivated. Their diet would consist mainly of fruits, roots, leaves, and anything that grows naturally in the forest.[14] They avoided stepping on plowed land, lest they hurt a seedling. They attempted to live a life that minimizes, preferably eliminates, the possibility of harm to any life form.[14]

Manusmriti edit

The Manusmriti discusses diet in chapter 5, where like other Hindu texts, it includes verses that strongly discourage meat eating, as well as verses where meat eating is declared appropriate in times of adversity and various circumstances, recommending that the meat in such circumstances be harvested with minimal harm and suffering to the animal.[16] The verses 5.48-5.52 of Manusmriti explain the reason for avoiding meat as follows (abridged),

One can never obtain meat without causing injury to living beings... he should, therefore, abstain from meat. Reflecting on how meat is obtained and on how embodied creatures are tied up and killed, he should quit eating any kind of meat... The man who authorises, the man who butchers, the man who slaughters, the man who buys or sells, the man who cooks, the man who serves, and the man who eats – these are all killers. There is no greater sinner than a man who, outside of an offering to gods or ancestors, wants to make his own flesh thrive at the expense of someone else's.

— Manusmriti, 5.48-5.52, translated by Patrick Olivelle[16]

In contrast, verse 5.33 of Manusmriti states that a man may eat meat in a time of adversity, verse 5.27 recommends that eating meat is okay if not eating meat may place a person's health and life at risk, while various verses such as 5.31 and 5.39 recommend that the meat be produced as a sacrifice.[16] In verses 3.267 to 3.272, Manusmriti approves of fish and meats of deer, antelope, poultry, goat, sheep, rabbit and others as part of sacrificial food. However, Manusmriti is a law book, not a spiritual one. So it permits to eat meat but it doesn't promote it.[17] In an exegetical analysis of Manusmriti, Patrick Olivelle states that the document shows opposing views on eating meat was common among ancient Hindus, and that underlying emerging thought on appropriate diet was driven by ethic of non-injury and spiritual thoughts about all life forms, the trend being to reduce the consumption of meat and favour a non-injurious vegetarian lifestyle.[18]

Mahabharata edit

The Mahabharata contains numerous stories glorifying non-violence towards animals and has some of the strongest statements against slaughter of animals—three chapters of the epic are dedicated to the evils of meat-eating. Bhishma declares compassion to be the highest religious principle, and compares eating of animal flesh to eating the flesh of one's son. Nominally acknowledging Manu's authorisation of meat-eating in sacrificial context, Bhisma explains to Yudhishthira that "one who abstains from doing so acquires the same merit as that accrued from the performance of even a horse sacrifice" and that "those desirous of heaven perform sacrifice with seeds instead of animals". It is stated in Mahabharata that animal sacrifices were introduced only when people began to resort to violence in the treta yuga, a less pure and compassionate age, and were not present in the satya yuga, 'the golden age'.[19]

Tirukkuṛaḷ edit

Another ancient Indian text, the Tirukkuṛaḷ, originally written in the South Indian language of Tamil, states moderate diet as a virtuous lifestyle and criticizes "non-vegetarianism" in its Pulaan Maruthal (abstinence from flesh or meat) chapter, through verses 251 through 260.[20][21][22] Verse 251, for instance, questions "how can one be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other creatures." It also says that "the wise, who are devoid of mental delusions, do not eat the severed body of other creatures" (verse 258), suggesting that "flesh is nothing but the despicable wound of a mangled body" (verse 257). It continues to say that not eating meat is a practice more sacred than the most sacred religious practices ever known (verse 259) and that only those who refrain from killing and eating the kill are worthy of veneration (verse 260). This text, written before 400 CE, and sometimes called the Tamil Veda, discusses eating habits and its role in a healthy life (Mitahara), dedicating Chapter 95 of Book II to it.[23] The Tirukkuṛaḷ states in verses 943 through 945, "eat in moderation, when you feel hungry, foods that are agreeable to your body, refraining from foods that your body finds disagreeable". Valluvar also emphasizes overeating has ill effects on health, in verse 946, as "the pleasures of health abide in the man who eats moderately. The pains of disease dwell with him who eats excessively."[23][24][25][26]

Puranas edit

The Puranic texts fiercely oppose violence against animals in many places "despite following the pattern of being constrained by the Vedic imperative to nominally accept it in sacrificial contexts". The most important Puranic text, the Bhagavata Purana goes farthest in repudiating animal sacrifice—refraining from harming all living beings is considered the highest dharma. The text states that the sin of harming animals cannot be washed away by performing "sham sacrifices", just as "mud cannot be washed away by mud". It graphically presents the horrific karmic reactions accrued from the performance of animal sacrifices—those who mercilessly cook animals and birds go to kumbhipaka and are fried in boiling oil and those who perform sham sacrifices are themselves cut to pieces in viśasana hell. The Skanda Purana states that the sages were dismayed by animal sacrifice and considered it against dharma, claiming that sacrifice is supposed to be performed with grains and milk. It narrates that animal sacrifice was only permitted to feed the population during a famine, yet the sages did not slaughter animals even as they died of starvation. The Matsya Purana contains a dialogue between sages who disapprove of violence against animals, preferring rites involving oblations of fruits and vegetables. The text states that the negative karma accrued from violence against animals far outweighs any benefits.[27]

Diet and caste edit

Vegetarian castes are regarded to be superior to non-vegetarian castes. Eaters of clean animals like goats and sheep are considered higher compared to those who consume unclean animals like pigs and domesticated fowl. Carcass eaters are lower to those who consume the meat of animals that have been killed for food. In addition to being an indication of poor social, economic, and ritual status, eating carcasses is considered to be eating impure meat because death makes the animal impure.[28]

Sanskritisation edit

The process of Sanskritisation, a term coined by M. N. Srinivas in the 1950s, leads lower castes to adopt practices of ritually higher castes in order to improve the status of their community. One of these practices includes adoption of a vegetarian diet. Examples are the Patidar, and other Gujarati Hindu communities who have adopted Vaishnavism, and vegetarianism that goes with it.[29][30] This was also seen in the north Indian Chamar caste.[31]

Contemporary Hindu diet edit

According to a 2021 Pew Research Center survey, 44% of Hindus say they are vegetarian.[2]

Lacto-vegetarian diet edit

A Hindu, lacto-vegetarian meal served on a banana leaf

Vegetarianism is a dietary ideal among many Hindus, based on the concept of ahimsa—non-violence and compassion towards all beings.[1] It is also considered satvic, that is purifying the body and mind lifestyle in some Hindu texts.[32][33]

Lacto-vegetarianism is favoured by many Hindus, which includes milk-based foods and all other non-animal derived foods, but it excludes meat and eggs.[34] There are three main reasons for this: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals,[35] the intention to offer only vegetarian food to their preferred deity and then to receive it back as prasad, and the conviction that non-vegetarian food is detrimental for the mind and for spiritual development.[32][36]

A typical modern urban Hindu lacto-vegetarian meal is based on a combination of grains such as rice and wheat, legumes, green vegetables, and dairy products.[37] Depending on the geographical region the staples may include millet based flatbreads. Fat derived from slaughtered animals is avoided.[38]

A number of Hindus, particularly those following the Vaishnava tradition, refrain from eating onions and garlic either totally or during the Chaturmasya period (roughly July - November of the Gregorian calendar).[39] In Maharashtra, a number of Hindu families also do not eat any Brinjal preparations during this period.[40] The followers of ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Hare Krishna) abstain from meat, fish, and fowl. The related Pushtimargi sect followers also avoid certain vegetables such as onion, mushrooms and garlic, out of the belief that these are tamas (in this context dullness in nature).[38][41] The mainly Gujarati Swaminarayan movement members staunchly adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat, eggs, seafood, onions and garlic.[42]

Non-vegetarian diet edit

Machher Jhol is a spicy fish stew, notably in Bengali and Odia cuisines in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent.

A significant portion of Hindus are non-vegetarians,[43] although even those who identify as non-vegetarian eat very little meat. India has significantly lower meat consumption than other regions of the world.[44] [45] According to an estimate on diaspora Hindus, only about 10% of Hindus in Suriname are vegetarians and less than five percent of Hindus in Guyana are vegetarians.[46] Non-vegetarian Indians mostly prefer poultry, fish, other seafood, goat, and sheep as their sources of meat.[47] In Eastern and coastal south-western regions of India, fish and seafood is the staple of most of the local communities. For economic reasons, even meat-eating Hindus in India can only afford to have lacto-vegetarian meals on most days.[48][49] Globally, India consumes the least amount of meat per capita.[50] Hindus who eat meat, often distinguish all other meat from beef. Respect for cattle[a] is part of Hindu belief, and most Hindus avoid meat sourced from these animals,[38].Domestic cattle is treated as a member of their owners family.[51] But in some part of India, Hindus do consume buffalo meat.[52][53][54] In Nepal, Hindus consume Sukuti, a dried meat made from buffalo, lamb, or goat meat.[55]

Prasada and Naivedya edit

Prasada offered during Puja ceremony at a home in West Bengal, India

Prasada is a religious offering in Hinduism. Most often it is vegetarian food cooked for devotees after praise and thanksgiving to a deity. Mahaprasada (also called Bhandarā)[56] is the consecrated food offered to the deity in a Hindu temple which is then distributed and served to all the devotees regardless of their religious orientation.[57][58][59] Prasada is closely linked to the term naivedya. The food offered to God is called naivedya, while the sacred food sanctified and returned by God as a blessing is called prasada.

Animal sacrifice edit

The sacrificed buffalo's head kept in a large brass utensil

Naivedya and prasad can be non-vegetarian food prepared from animals such as goat sacrificed for deity such as Kali in Eastern India (including Kamakhya Temple), or Chhastisgarh.[60]

Animal sacrifice is practiced by Shaktism tradition where ritual offering is made to a Devi.[61] [62] Animal sacrifice is practiced in the states of Assam, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Tripura in Eastern India, as well as in the nation of Nepal. The sacrifice involves slaying of goats, chickens, pigeons and male Water buffaloes.[63][64] In Southern Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, it is most notably performed in front of local deities or clan deities. In Karnataka, the goddess receiving the sacrifice tends to be Renuka. The animal is either a male buffalo or a goat.[62] The warrior caste of Rajputs of North India worship their weapons and horses during the nine day Navratri festival; in autumn, and formerly offered a sacrifice of goat or male water buffalo to a goddess revered as Kuldevi (family or clan Goddess) – a practice that continues in some places.[65][66] The ritual requires slaying of the animal with a single stroke. In the past this ritual was considered a rite of passage into manhood and readiness as a warrior.[67]

During ritual animal sacrifice at Hindu temples, in the presence of his kin, the priest offers a buffalo before the shrine of the gods. The sacrificial buffalo is smeared with vermillion powder (abir) The blood sacrifice is given to the gods, and the head is raised in the sanctuary. The village will then process the buffalo, and as meat is a luxury in remote regions, no part of the animal will go to waste.[55]

The Kalika Purana distinguishes bali (sacrifice), mahabali (great sacrifice), for the ritual killing of goats, elephant, respectively, though the reference to humans in Shakti theology is symbolic and done in effigy in modern times.[68]

Diet on Hindu festivals and religious observations edit

Hindu fasting day lunch menu

The Hindu calendar has many festivals and religious observations, and dishes specific to that festival are prepared.[69][70]

Festival dishes edit

Hindus prepare special dishes for different festivals. Kheer and Halwa are two desserts popular for Diwali. Puran poli and Gujia are prepared for Holi in different parts of India.[71][72]

Diet on fasting days edit

Hindu people fast on certain days such as Ekadashi, in honour of Vishnu or his avatars: Chaturthi in honour of Ganesha, Pradosha in honour of Shiva and Parvati, Monday in honour of Shiva, Saturday in honour of Hanuman or Shani, Tuesday in honour of Hanuman, as well as Kali, Kartikeya, and Ganesha, Sunday in honour of Surya, Thursday in honour of Vishnu or his avatars and Brihaspati, Wednesday in honour of Krishna, Vithoba, Ganesha and Budha and Friday in honour of Mahadevi, Durga, Kali, Lakshmi, Saraswati, and Santoshi Mata.[73][74][75] Only certain kinds of foods are allowed to be eaten during the fasting period. These include milk and other dairy products such as curd, fruit and starchy Western food items such as sago,[76] potatoes,[77] purple-red sweet potatoes, amaranth seeds,[78] nuts and shama millet.[79] Popular fasting dishes include Farari chevdo, Sabudana Khichadi or peanut soup.[80]

See also edit

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Cattle here means animals belonging to the genus Bos, the domestic cows and bulls. It does not include the water buffalo

Citations edit

  1. ^ a b Sen 2014, p. 1168: "Still, certain attitudes and practices are shared by many Hindus, especially related to food. The concept of ahimsa, or noninjury to all forms of life, emerged in the sixth century BCE, and avoiding meat, especially beef, became a dietary ideal."
  2. ^ a b Corichi, Manolo (8 July 2021). "Eight-in-ten Indians limit meat in their diets, and four-in-ten consider themselves vegetarian". Pew Research Center.
  3. ^ Lisa Kemmerer (2011). Animals and World Religions. Oxford University Press. pp. 59–68 (Hinduism), pp. 100–110 (Buddhism). ISBN 978-0-19-979076-0.
  4. ^ Marvin Harris (1990), India's sacred cow Archived 2017-03-29 at the Wayback Machine, Anthropology: contemporary perspectives, 6th edition, Editors: Phillip Whitten & David Hunter, Scott Foresman, ISBN 0-673-52074-9, pages 201–204
  5. ^ French, Patrick (8 September 2011). "Part I". Liberty or Death: India's Journey to Independence and Division. Penguin UK. ISBN 9780241950418. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  6. ^ Sen 2014, p. 1165.
  7. ^ Achaya 1994, p. 31–35.
  8. ^ a b Achaya 1994, p. 53–55.
  9. ^ Staples 2020, p. 38–40.
  10. ^ Rosen 2020, p. 409–410: "Nonetheless, it is likely that even if flesh eating was widespread, and indulged in by certain sages, it occurred solely within the sacrificial context, or, beyond that, only by hunters and warriors in the forest, who also used it in sacrifice. In fact, this is what is indicated by the vast majority of Vedic texts on the subject, and it is certainly the version that has been passed down in later Hindu traditions. For further proof that meat eating occurred in Vedic culture only within the confines of sacrifice, see Schmidt 2010."
  11. ^ Bryant 2006, p. 195–196: "At the same time, preliminary signs of tension or unease with such slaughter are occasionally encountered even in the earlier Vedic period. As early as the Ṛgveda, sensitivity is shown toward the slaughtered beasts; for example, one hymn notes that mantras are chanted so that the animal will not feel pain and will go to heaven when sacrificed. The Sāmaveda says: "we use no sacrificial stake, we slay no victims, we worship entirely by the repetition of sacred verses." In the Taittiriīya Āraṇyaka, although prescriptions for offering a cow at a funeral procession are outlined in one place, this is contradicted a little further in the same text where it is specifically advised to release the cow in this same context, rather than kill her. Such passages hint, perhaps, at proto-tensions with the gory brutality of sacrificial butchery, and fore-run the transition between animals as objects and animals as subjects."
  12. ^ Tähtinen, Unto (1976). Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition. London. pp. 2–3 (English translation: Schmidt p. 631). ISBN 0-09-123340-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  13. ^ Bryant 2006, p. 196–197.
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  15. ^ Kane, History of the Dharmaśāstras Vol. 2, p. 762
  16. ^ a b c Patrick Olivelle (2005), Manu's Code of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195171464, pages 139-141
  17. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2005), Manu's Code of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195171464, page 122
  18. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2005), Manu's Code of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195171464, pages 279-280
  19. ^ Bryant 2006, p. 198–199.
  20. ^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. BRILL Academic. pp. 156–157. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.
  21. ^ Krishna, Nanditha (2017). Hinduism and Nature. New Delhi: Penguin Random House. p. 264. ISBN 978-93-8732-654-5.
  22. ^ Meenakshi Sundaram, T. P. (1957). "Vegetarianism in Tamil Literature". 15th World Vegetarian Congress 1957. International Vegetarian Union (IVU). Retrieved 17 April 2022. Ahimsa is the ruling principle of Indian life from the very earliest times. ... This positive spiritual attitude is easily explained to the common man in a negative way as "ahimsa" and hence this way of denoting it. Tiruvalluvar speaks of this as "kollaamai" or "non-killing."
  23. ^ a b Tirukkuṛaḷ see Chapter 95, Book 7
  24. ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ Translated by V.V.R. Aiyar, Tirupparaithurai: Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam (1998)
  25. ^ Sundaram, P. S. (1990). Tiruvalluvar Kural. Gurgaon: Penguin. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-14-400009-8.
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  28. ^ Srinivas 1984, pp. 165:"That caste hierarchy is also a dietetic hierarchy is a matter of common knowledge. By and large vegetarian castes are superior to non-vegetarian castes, and there is a hierarchy among non-vegetarian castes. Those who eat clean animals, such as sheep and goat, are superior to those who eat unclean animals, such as domestic fowl and pig. People who eat carrion are lower than those who eat the flesh of animals slaughtered for the table. Eating carrion is eating impure meat, for death renders the animal impure, besides carrion-eating is a sure sign of low social, economic and ritual status. It may be stated at this point that many things which the Untouchable has to do with a dead cow or goat, are matters which are beyond his control. He has to do them. Otherwise, the dominant castes will beat him up, and probably also the members of his family"..
  29. ^ Sopher, David E. “Pilgrim Circulation in Gujarat.” Geographical Review, vol. 58, no. 3, 1968, pp. 392–425. JSTOR, Accessed 24 Sep. 2022
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  35. ^ Tähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London 1976, p. 107-109.
  36. ^ Mahabharata 12.257 (note that Mahabharata 12.257 is 12.265 according to another count); Bhagavad Gita 9.26; Bhagavata Purana 7.15.7.
  37. ^ Sanford, A Whitney."Gandhi's agrarian legacy: practicing food, justice, and sustainability in India". Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture 7 no 1 Mr 2013, p 65-87.
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