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Lakshmi (/ˈləksm/; Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity.[1][5] She is the wife and shakti (energy) of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition.[4] Lakshmi is also an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples.[6] Lakshmi has also been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, and was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism.[7][8] In Buddhist sects of Tibet, Nepal and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi with minor iconographic differences.[9]

Lakshmi
Goddess of Wealth, Fortune and Prosperity[1]
goddess of wealth and beauty
Raja Ravi Varma's Gaja Lakshmi
Other names Sri[1]
Devanagari लक्ष्मी
Sanskrit transliteration lakṣmī
Affiliation Devi, Tridevi, Adi parashakti
Abode Vaikuntha[2]
Symbol Lotus
Mount Elephant, Owl[3]
Festivals Diwali, Lakshmi Puja, Varalakshmi Vratam/Mahalakshmi Vrata, Navratri
Consort Vishnu[4]

Lakshmi is also called Sri[1] or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, and is the divine strength of Vishnu. In Hindu religion, she was born from the churning of the primordial ocean (Samudra manthan) and she chose Vishnu as her eternal consort.[10] When Vishnu descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna, Lakshmi descended as his respective consort.[11][12] In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi.[13] The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi and Vishnu as wife and husband is the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu weddings.[14] Lakshmi is considered another aspect of the same supreme goddess principle in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism.[15]

Lakshmi is depicted in Indian art as an elegantly dressed, prosperity-showering golden-coloured woman with an owl as her vehicle, signifying the importance of economic activity in maintenance of life, her ability to move, work and prevail in confusing darkness.[3] She typically stands or sits like a yogin on a lotus pedestal and holds lotus in her hand, a symbolism for fortune, self-knowledge and spiritual liberation.[10][16] Her iconography shows her with four hands, which represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu way of life: dharma, kāma, artha, and moksha.[17][18]

Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for Lakshmi by the 1st millennium BCE.[19][20] Lakshmi's iconography and statues have also been found in Hindu temples throughout southeast Asia, estimated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium CE.[21][22] The festivals of Diwali and Sharad Purnima (Kojagiri Purnima) are celebrated in her honor.[23]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

 
A painting of Lakshmi on the inner walls of the Tanjore Big temple.

Lakshmi (Lakṣmī) is one of many Hindu deities whose meaning and significance evolved in ancient Sanskrit texts.[24]

Lakshmi is mentioned once in Rigveda, but the context suggests that the word does not mean goddess of wealth and fortune, rather it means kindred mark or sign of auspicious fortune.[1][24]

भद्रैषां लक्ष्मीर्निहिताधि वाचि
bhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci
"an auspicious fortune is attached to their words"

— Rig Veda, x.71.2, Translated by John Muir[24]

In Atharvaveda, composed about 1000 BCE, Lakshmi evolves into a complex concept with plural manifestations. Book 7, Chapter 115 of Atharva Veda describes the plurality, asserting that a hundred Lakshmis are born with the body of a mortal at birth, some good, punya (virtuous) and auspicious, while others bad, paapi (evil) and unfortunate. The good are welcomed, while the bad urged to leave.[24] The concept and spirit of Lakshmi and her association with fortune and the good is significant enough that Atharva Veda mentions it in multiple books: for example, in Book 12, Chapter 5 as punya Lakshmi.[25] In some chapters of Atharva Veda, Lakshmi connotes the good, an auspicious sign, good luck, good fortune, prosperity, success and happiness.[1]

Goddess Lakshmi
Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BC
Coins of Gandhara, 1st century BCE
Coinage of Gupta Empire
Cambodia
Vietnam, 10th century
Malaysia
Lakshmi is one of the trinity of Hindu goddesses. Her iconography is found in ancient and modern Hindu temples.

Later, Lakshmi is referred to as the goddess of fortune, identified with Sri and regarded as wife of Viṣṇu (Nārāyaṇa).[1] For example, in Shatapatha Brahmana, variously estimated to be composed between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, Sri (Lakshmi) is part of one of many theories, in ancient India, about the creation of universe. In Book 9 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Sri emerges from Prajapati, after his intense meditation on creation of life and nature of universe. Sri is described as beautiful, resplendent and trembling woman at her birth with immense energy and powers.[24] The gods were bewitched, desire her and immediately become covetous of her. The gods approach Prajapati and request permission to kill her and then take her powers, talents and gifts. Prajapati refuses, tells the gods that males should not kill females and that they can seek her gifts without violence.[26] The gods then approach Lakshmi, deity Agni gets food, Soma gets kingly authority, Varuna gets imperial authority, Mitra acquires martial energy, Indra gets force, Brihaspati gets priestly authority, Savitri acquires dominion, Pushan gets splendour, Saraswati takes nourishment and Tvashtri gets forms.[24] The hymns of Shatapatha Brahmana thus describe Sri as a goddess born with and personifying a diverse range of talents and powers.

According to another legend, she emerges during the creation of universe, floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus flower; she is also variously regarded as wife of Dharma, mother of Kāma, sister or mother of Dhātṛ and Vidhātṛ, wife of Dattatreya, one of the nine Shaktis of Viṣṇu, a manifestation of Prakṛti as identified with Dākshāyaṇī in Bharatasrama and as Sita, wife of Rama.[1][27]

In the Epics of Hinduism, such as in Mahabharata, Lakshmi personifies wealth, riches, beauty, happiness, loveliness, grace, charm and splendour.[1] In another Hindu legend, about the creation of universe as described in Ramayana,[28] Lakshmi springs with other precious things from the foam of the ocean of milk when it is churned by the gods and demons for the recovery of Amṛta. She appeared with a lotus in her hand and so she is also called Padma.[1][29]

Root of the word

Lakshmi in Sanskrit is derived from the root word lakṣ (लक्ष्) and lakṣa(लक्ष), meaning to perceive, observe, know, understand and goal, aim, objective respectively.[30] These roots give Lakshmi the symbolism: know and understand your goal.[31] A related term is lakṣaṇa, which means sign, target, aim, symbol, attribute, quality, lucky mark, auspicious opportunity.[32]

Symbolism and iconographyEdit

 
Bas relief of Gaja Lakshmi at the Buddhist Sanchi Stupa, Stupa I, North gateway, Satavahana dynasty sculpture, 1st century CE.[33]

The image, icons and sculptures of Lakshmi are represented with symbolism. Her name is derived from Sanskrit root words for knowing the goal and understanding the objective.[31] Her four arms are symbolic of the four goals of humanity that are considered good in Hinduism - dharma (pursuit of ethical, moral life), artha (pursuit of wealth, means of life), kama (pursuit of love, emotional fulfillment) and moksha (pursuit of self-knowledge, liberation).[18][34]

In Lakshmi's iconography, she is either sitting or standing on a lotus and typically carrying a lotus in one or two hands. The lotus carries symbolic meanings in Hinduism and other Indian traditions. It symbolically knowledge, self-realisation and liberation in Vedic context, and represents reality, consciousness and karma (work, deed) in the Tantra (Sahasrara) context.[35] The lotus, a flower that blossoms in clean or dirty water, also symbolises purity and beauty regardless of the good or bad circumstances in which its grows. It is a reminder that good and prosperity can bloom and not be affected by evil in one's surrounding.[36][37] Below, behind or on the sides, Lakshmi is sometimes shown with one or two elephants and occasionally with an owl. Elephants symbolise work, activity and strength, as well as water, rain and fertility for abundant prosperity.[38] The owl signifies the patient striving to observe, see and discover knowledge particularly when surrounded by darkness. As a bird reputedly blinded by daylight, the owl also serves as a symbolic reminder to refrain from blindness and greed after knowledge and wealth has been acquired.[39]

 
Manuscript painting of Gaja-Lakshmi, ca 1780 AD.

In some representations, wealth either symbolically pours out from one of her hands or she simply holds a jar of money. This symbolism has a dual meaning: wealth manifested through Lakshmi means both material as well as spiritual wealth.[35] Her face and open hands are in a mudra that signify compassion, giving or daana(charity).[34]

Lakshmi typically wears a red dress embroidered with golden threads, symbolism for beauty and wealth. She, goddess of wealth and prosperity, is often represented with her husband Vishnu, the god who maintains human life filled with justice and peace. This symbolism implies wealth and prosperity is coupled with maintenance of life, justice, and peace.[35]

NamesEdit

Lakshmi has numerous names and numerous ancient Stotram and Sutras of Hinduism recite her various names:[13][40]

  • Padma: Lotus-dweller
  • Kamala: Lotus-dweller
  • Padmapriya: One who likes lotuses
  • Padmamaladhara devi: One who wears a garland of lotuses
  • Padmamukhi: One whose face is as beautiful as a lotus
  • Padmakshi: One whose eyes are as beautiful as a lotus
  • Padmahasta: One who holds a lotus
  • Padmasundari: One who is as beautiful as a lotus
  • Sri: Goddess Sri Lakshmi, Opulence
  • Srija: Jatika of goddess Lakshmi
  • Jagadishwari: Supreme Mother who rules the universe
  • Vishnupriya: One who is the beloved of Vishnu
  • Ulkavahini: One who rides an owl

Her other names include:[13] Ambika, Manushri, Mohini, Chakrika, Kamalika, Aishwarya, Lalima, Indira, Kalyani, Nandika, Nandini, Rujula, Vaishnavi, Samruddhi, Narayani, Bhargavi, Sridevi, Chanchala, Jalaja, Madhavi, Sujata, Shreya, Prachi, Haripriya, Maheshwari, Madhu, Parama, Janamodini, Tripura, Tulsi, Ketki, Malti, Vidya, Vasuda, Vedavati, Trilochana, Tilottama, Subha, Chandika, Devi, Kriyalakshmi, Viroopa, Vani, Gayatri, Savitri, Apara or Aparajita, Aparna, Aruna, Akhila, Bala, Tara, Kuhu, Purnima, Aditi, Anumati, Avashya, Sita, Rama, Rukmini, Taruni, Jyotsna, Jyoti, Nimeshika, Atibha, Ishaani, Smriti, Durga, Sharanya, Shivasahodari Sri.[40]

Ancient literature on LakshmiEdit

UpanishadsEdit

Shakta Upanishads are dedicated to the trinity (Tridevi) of goddesses - Lakshmi, Saraswati and Parvati. Saubhagyalakshmi Upanishad, describes the qualities, characteristics and powers of Lakshmi.[41] In the second part of the Upanishad, the emphasis shifts to the use of yoga and transcendence from material craving in order to achieve spiritual knowledge and self-realisation, the true wealth.[42][43] Saubhagya-Lakshmi Upanishad synonymously uses Sri to describe Lakshmi.[41]

Stotrams and sutrasEdit

Numerous ancient Stotram and Sutras of Hinduism recite hymns dedicated to Lakshmi.[13] She is a major goddess in Puranas and Itihasa of Hinduism. In ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi. For example,[13]

Every woman is an embodiment of you.
You exist as little girls in their childhood,
As young women in their youth
And as elderly women in their old age.

— Sri Kamala Stotram[13]

Every woman is an emanation of you.

— Sri Daivakrta Laksmi Stotram[13]

Ancient prayers dedicated to Lakshmi seek both material and spiritual wealth in prayers.[44]

PuranasEdit

Lakshmi features prominently in Puranas of Hinduism. Vishnu Purana, in particular, dedicates many sections to her and also refers to her as Sri.[45] J. A. B. van Buitenen translates passages describing Lakshmi in Vishnu Purana as, "Sri, loyal to Vishnu, is the mother of the world. Vishnu is the meaning, Sri is the speech. She is the conduct, he the behavior. Vishnu is knowledge, she the insight. He is dharma, she the virtuous action. She is the earth, he earth's upholder. She is contentment, he the satisfaction. She is wish, he is the desire. Sri is the sky, Vishnu the Self of everything. He is the moon, she the beauty of moon. He is the ocean, she is the shore".[45]

Subhasita, gnomic and didactic literatureEdit

Lakshmi, along with Parvati and Saraswati, is a subject of extensive Subhashita, gnomic and didactic literature of India.[46] Composed in the 1st millennium BC through the 16th century AD, they are short poems, proverbs, couplets, or aphorisms in Sanskrit written in a precise meter. They sometimes take the form of dialogue between Lakshmi and Vishnu or highlight the spiritual message in Vedas and ethical maxims from Hindu Epics through Lakshmi.[46] An example Subhashita is Puranartha Samgraha, compiled by Vekataraya in South India, where Lakshmi and Vishnu discuss niti(right, moral conduct) and rajaniti(statesmanship, right governance) - covering in 30 chapters and ethical and moral questions about personal, social and political life.[47]

Manifestations and aspectsEdit

 
Vishnu resting on the ocean accompanied by Lakshmi

In eastern India, Lakshmi is seen as a form of one goddess Devi, the Supreme power; Devi is also called Durga or Shakti. Lakshmi, Saraswati, and Parvati are typically conceptualised as distinct in most of India, but in states such as West Bengal and Odisha, they are regionally believed to be forms of Durga.[48]

Lakshmi is seen in two forms, Bhudevi and Sridevi, both at the sides of Sri Venkateshwara or Vishnu. Bhudevi is the representation and totality of the material world or energy, called the aparam Prakriti, in which she is called Mother Earth. Sridevi is the spiritual world or energy called the Prakriti. Lakshmi is the power of Vishnu.[4][49]

Inside temples, Lakshmi is often shown together with Vishnu. In certain parts of India, Lakshmi plays a special role as the mediator between her husband Vishnu and his worldly devotees. When asking Vishnu for grace or forgiveness, the devotees often approach Him through the intermediary presence of Lakshmi.[50] She is also the personification of spiritual fulfillment.[51] Lakshmi embodies the spiritual world, also known as Vaikunta, the abode of Lakshmi-Narayana or what would be considered heaven in Vaishnavism. Lakshmi is the embodiment of the creative energy of Vishnu,[52] and primordial Prakriti who creates the universe.[53]

Secondary manifestationsEdit

Ashta Lakshmi(Sanskrit: अष्टलक्ष्मी,Aṣṭalakṣmī, lit. eight Lakshmis) is a group of eight secondary manifestations of Lakshmi. The Ashta Lakshmis preside over eight sources of wealth and thus represent the eight powers of Shri Lakshmi. Temples dedicated to Ashta Lakshmi are found in Tamil Nadu, such as Ashtalakshmi Kovil near Chennai and in many other states of India.[54]

The Ashta Lakshmis are as follows:

 
Gaja Lakshmi at Shravanabelagola Temple, Karnataka.
Ashta Lakshmi
Adi Lakshmi The First manifestation of Lakshmi
Dhanya Lakshmi Granary wealth
Dhairya Lakshmi Wealth of courage
Gaja Lakshmi Elephants spraying water, wealth of fertility, rains and food.[55]
Santana Lakshmi Wealth of continuity, progeny
Vijaya Lakshmi Wealth of victory
Vidya Lakshmi Wealth of knowledge and education
Dhana Lakshmi Monetary wealth
 
Ashta Lakshmi murti worshipped in a Golu display during Dusshera.

Other secondary representations of the goddess include Lakshmi manifesting in three forms: Sri Devi, Bhudevi and Nila Devi. This threefold goddess can be found, for example, in Sri Bhu Neela Sahita Temple near Dwaraka Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh, and in Adinath Swami Temple in Tamil Nadu.[56]

In Nepal, Mahalakshmi is shown with 16 hands, each holding a sacred emblem, expressing a sacred gesture, or forming a mudra(lotus, pot, mudra of blessing, book, rosary, bell, shield, bow, arrow, sword, trident, mudra of admonition, noose, skull cap and kettledrum.)[57] In this representation, Mahalakshmi manifests as a kind, compassionate, tranquil deity sitting not on a lotus, but on a lion.[57]

Jain templesEdit

Some Jain temples also depict Sri Lakshmi as a goddess of artha(wealth) and kama(pleasure). For example, she is exhibited with Vishnu in Parshvanatha Jain Temple at the Khajuraho Monuments of Madhya Pradesh,[58] where she is shown pressed against Vishnu's chest, while Vishnu cups a breast in his palm. The presence of Vishnu-Lakshmi iconography in a Jain temple built near the Hindu temples of Khajuraho, suggests the sharing and acceptance of Lakshmi across a spectrum of Indian religions.[58] This commonality is reflected in the praise of Lakshmi found in the Jain text Kalpa Sūtra.[59]

Creation and legendsEdit

 
A manuscript depicting Samudra Manthan, with Lakshmi emerging with lotus in her hands.

Devas (gods) and asuras (demons) were both mortal at one time in Hinduism. Amrita, the divine nectar that grants immortality, could only be obtained by churning Kshirasagar (Ocean of Milk). The devas and asuras both sought immortality and decided to churn the Kshirasagar with Mount Mandhara. The samudra manthan commenced with the devas on one side and the asuras on the other. Vishnu incarnated as Kurma, the tortoise and a mountain was placed on the tortoise as a churning pole. Vasuki, the great venom-spewing serpent-god, was wrapped around the mountain and used to churn the ocean. A host of divine celestial objects came up during the churning. Along with them emerged the goddess Lakshmi. In some versions, she is said to be daughter of the sea god since she emerged from the sea.[citation needed]

In Garuda Purana, Linga Purana and Padma Purana, Lakshmi is said to have been born as daughter of the divine sage Bhrigu and his wife Khyati and was named Bhargavi. According to Vishnu Purana, the universe was created when the Devas(god) and Asuras(evil) churn the cosmic ocean of milk(Ksheera Sagara). Lakshmi came out of the ocean bearing lotus, along with divine cow Kamadhenu, Varuni, Parijat tree, Apsaras, Chandra(the moon) and Dhanvantari with Amrita(nectar of immortality). When she appeared, she had a choice to go to Devas or Asuras. She chose Devas' side and among thirty deities, she chose to be with Vishnu. Thereafter, in all three worlds, the lotus-bearing goddess was celebrated.[45]

Celebration in Hindu societyEdit

Many Hindus worship Lakshmi on Diwali, the festival of lights.[60] It is celebrated in autumn, typically October or November every year.[61] The festival spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, good over evil and hope over despair.[62]

Before Diwali night, people clean, renovate and decorate their homes and offices.[63] On Diwali night, Hindus dress up in new clothes or their best outfits, light up diyas (lamps and candles) inside and outside their home, and participate in family puja (prayers) typically to Lakshmi. After puja, fireworks follow,[64] then a family feast including mithai (sweets), and an exchange of gifts between family members and close friends. Diwali also marks a major shopping period, since Lakshmi connotes auspiciousness, wealth and prosperity.[65] This festival dedicated to Lakshmi is considered by Hindus to be one of the most important and joyous festivals of the year.

Gaja Lakshmi Puja is another autumn festival celebrated on Sharad Purnima in many parts of India on the full-moon day in the month of Ashvin (October).[23] Sharad Purnima, also called Kojaagari Purnima or Kuanr Purnima, is a harvest festival marking the end of monsoon season. There is a traditional celebration of the moon called the Kaumudi celebration, Kaumudi meaning moonlight.[66] On Sharad Purnima night, goddess Lakshmi is thanked and worshipped for the harvests.

HymnsEdit

Countless hymns, prayers, shlokas, stotra, songs and legends dedicated to Mahalakshmi are recited during the ritual worship of Lakshmi.[13]

These include Sri Mahalakshmi Ashtakam, Sri Lakshmi Sahasaranama Stotra(by Sanathkumara), Sri Stuti(by Sri Vedantha Desikar), Sri Lakshmi Stuti By Indra, Sri Kanakadhara Stotra(by Sri Adi Shankara), Sri Chatussloki(by Sri Yamunacharya), Sri Lakshmi Sloka(by Bhagavan Sri Hari Swamiji) and Sri Sukta, which is contained in the Vedas. Sri Sukta contains Lakshmi Gayatri Mantra(Om Shree Mahalakshmyai ca vidmahe Vishnu patnyai ca dheemahi tanno Lakshmi prachodayat Om).[67]

ArchaeologyEdit

A representation of the goddess as Gaja Lakshmi or Lakshmi flanked by two elephants spraying her with water, is one of the most frequently found in archaeological sites.[19][20] An ancient sculpture of Gaja Lakshmi (from Sonkh site at Mathura) dates to the pre-Kushan Empire era.[19] Atranjikhera site in modern Uttar Pradesh has yielded terracotta plaque with images of Lakshmi dating to 2nd century BCE. Other archaeological sites with ancient Lakshmi terracotta figurines from the 1st millennium BCE include Vaisali, Sravasti, Kausambi, Campa, and Candraketugadh.[20]

The goddess Lakshmi is frequently found in ancient coins of various Hindu kingdoms from Afghanistan to India. Gaja Lakshmi has been found on coins of Scytho-Parthian kings Azes II and Azilises; she also appears on Shunga Empire king Jyesthamitra era coins, both dating to 1st millennium BCE. Coins from 1st through 4th century CE found in various locations in India such as Ayodhya, Mathura, Ujjain, Sanchi, Bodh Gaya, Kanauj, all feature Lakshmi.[68] Similarly, ancient Greco-Indian gems and seals with images of Lakshmi have been found, estimated to be from 1st millennium BCE.[69]

A 1400-year-old rare granite sculpture of Lakshmi has been recovered at the Waghama village along Jehlum in Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir.[70]

A statuette of Lakshmi found in Pompeii, Italy, dates to before the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE.[71]

Related goddessesEdit

JapanEdit

Goddess Kishijoten of Japan corresponds to Lakshmi.[72] Kishijoten is the goddess of beauty, fortune, and prosperity.[73] Kishijoten is considered the sister of the deity Bishamon (毘沙門, also known as Tamon or Bishamon-ten); Bishamon protects human life, fights evil, and brings good fortune. In ancient and medieval Japan, Kishijoten was the goddess worshiped for luck and prosperity, particularly on behalf of children. Kishijoten was also the guardian goddess of Geishas. While Bishamon and Kishijoten are found in ancient Chinese and Japanese Buddhist literature, their roots have been traced to deities in Hinduism.[73]

Tibet and NepalEdit

Goddess Vasudhara in Tibetan and Nepalese culture is closely analogous to goddess Lakshmi as well.[9]

Bali (Indonesia)Edit

Goddess Lakshmi is closely linked to two goddesses worshipped in BaliDewi Sri, as the goddess of fertility & agriculture and Dewi Laxmi as the goddess of wealth.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2. 
  3. ^ a b Laura Amazzone (2012). Goddess Durga and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-0-7618-5314-5. 
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    Robert S. Ellwood; Gregory D. Alles (2007). The Encyclopedia of World Religions. Infobase Publishing. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-4381-1038-7. 
  7. ^ "The Goddess Lakshmi in Buddhist Art: The goddess of abundance and fortune, Sri Lakshmi, reflected the accumulated wealth and financial independence of the Buddhist monasteries. Her image became one of the popular visual themes carved on their monuments" in Images of Indian Goddesses: Myths, Meanings, and Models, Madhu Bazaz Wangu, Abhinav Publications, 2003, p. 57 [1]
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  16. ^ Heinrich Robert Zimmer (2015). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-4008-6684-7. 
  17. ^ Constantina Rhodes (2011), Invoking Lakshmi: The Goddess of Wealth in Song and Ceremony, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438433202, pages 29–47, 220–252
  18. ^ a b Divali - THE SYMBOLISM OF LAKSHMI National Library and Information System Authority, Trinidad and Tobago (2009)
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  21. ^ Vitorio Roveda (June 2004), The Archaeology of Khmer Images, Aséanie, Volume 13, Issue 13, pages 11–46
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  31. ^ a b Carol Plum-Ucci, Celebrate Diwali, ISBN 978-0766027787, pages 79-86
  32. ^ lakṣaṇa Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany
  33. ^ The Toranas are dated to the 1st century CE. See: Ornament in Indian Architecture, Margaret Prosser Allen, University of Delaware Press, 1991, p.18 [2]
  34. ^ a b A Parasarthy (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, pages 57-59
  35. ^ a b c A Parasarthy (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, pages 91-92, 160-162
  36. ^ R.S. Nathan (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, page 16
  37. ^ Lynne Gibson (2002), Hinduism, Heinemann, ISBN 978-0435336196, page 29
  38. ^ Hope Werness (2007), Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art, Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-0826419132, pages 159-167
  39. ^ Ajnatanama (1983), Symbolism in Hinduism, Chinmaya Mission Publication, ISBN 978-8175971493, page 317-318
  40. ^ a b Vijaya Kumara, 108 Names Of Lakshmi, Sterling Publishers, ISBN 9788120720282
  41. ^ a b A Mahadeva (1950), Saubhagya-Lakshmi Upanishad in The Shakta Upanishads with the Commentary of Sri Upanishad Brahma Yogin, Adyar Library Series No. 10, Madras
  42. ^ Saubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad Original text of the Upanishad in Sanskrit
  43. ^ A. G. Krishna Warrier (1931, Translator), Saubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad, The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai, ISBN 978-0835673181
  44. ^ Constantina Rhodes (2011), Invoking Lakshmi: The Goddess of Wealth in Song and Ceremony, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438433202,
    Quote: Through illusion,
    A person can become disconnected,
    From his higher self,
    Wandering about from place to place,
    Bereft of clear thought,
    Lost in destructive behaviour.
    It matters not how much truth,
    May shine forth in the world,
    Illuminating the entire creation,
    For one cannot acquire wisdom,
    Unless it is experienced,
    Through the opening on the heart.[...]
  45. ^ a b c J. A. B. van Buitenen (Translator), Cornelia Dimmitt (Editor), Classical Hinduism: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas, Temple University Press, ISBN 978-0877221227, pages 95-99
  46. ^ a b Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature, A History of Indian literature, Volume 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447015462
  47. ^ Ludwik Sternbach (1974), Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature, A History of Indian literature, Volume 4, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447015462, page 22
  48. ^ Christopher John Fuller (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691120485, page 41
  49. ^ Edward Balfour (1873). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. Adelphi Press. pp. 10–11. 
  50. ^ Pages 31 and 32 in Kinsley, David. Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-520-06339-6
  51. ^ Srimad Devi Bhagwata Purana
  52. ^ Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-135-96390-3. 
  53. ^ Tracy Pintchman (2001). Seeking Mahadevi: Constructing the Identities of the Hindu Great Goddess. State University of New York Press. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-7914-5007-9. 
  54. ^ Vidya Dehejia and Thomas Coburn, Devi: the great goddess : female divinity in South Asian art, Smithsonian, ISBN 978-3791321295
  55. ^ Anna Dallapiccola (2007), Indian art in detail, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674026919, pages 11-27
  56. ^ Stephen Knapp, Spiritual India Handbook, ISBN 978-8184950243, page 392
  57. ^ a b Pratapaditya Pal (1985), Art of Nepal: A Catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520054073, page 120
  58. ^ a b Vidya Dehejia (2009), The Body Adorned: Sacred and Profane in Indian Art, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231140287, page 151
  59. ^ Hermann Jacobi (Editor: Max Muller, Republished with edits by Mahendra Kulasrestha), The Golden Book of Jainism, ISBN 978-8183820141, page 213
  60. ^ Vera, Zak (February 2010). Invisible River: Sir Richard's Last Mission. ISBN 978-1-4389-0020-9. Retrieved 26 October 2011. First Diwali day called Dhanteras or wealth worship. We perform Laskshmi-Puja in evening when clay diyas lighted to drive away shadows of evil spirits. 
  61. ^ Diwali Encyclopædia Britannica (2009)
  62. ^ Jean Mead, How and why Do Hindus Celebrate Divali?, ISBN 978-0-237-534-127
  63. ^ Pramodkumar (March 2008). Meri Khoj Ek Bharat Ki. ISBN 978-1-4357-1240-9. Retrieved 26 October 2011. It is extremely important to keep the house spotlessly clean and pure on Diwali. Lamps are lit in the evening to welcome the goddess. They are believed to light up her path. 
  64. ^ Solski, Ruth (2008). Big Book of Canadian Celebrations. S&S Learning Materials. ISBN 978-1-55035-849-0. Retrieved 26 October 2011. Fireworks and firecrackers are set off to chase away evil spirits, so it is a noisy holiday too. 
  65. ^ India Journal: ‘Tis the Season to be Shopping Devita Saraf, The Wall Street Journal (August 2010)
  66. ^ "Sharad Poornima". 
  67. ^ Lakshmi Stotra Sanskrit documents
  68. ^ Upinder Singh (2009), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, ISBN 978-8131711200, Pearson Education, pages 438, 480 for image
  69. ^ Duffield Osborne (1914), A Graeco-Indian Engraved Gem, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pages 32-34
  70. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Jammu & Kashmir". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  71. ^ http://www.pompeiiinpictures.com/pompeiiinpictures/R1/1%2008%2005.htm
  72. ^ Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. pp. 102, 285, 439. ISBN 978-1-135-96390-3. , Quote (p 102): "Kishijoten, a goddess of luck and beauty who corresponds to Lakshmi, the Indian goddess of fortune..."
  73. ^ a b Charles Russell Coulter and Patricia Turner (2013), Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 9781135963903, page 102

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