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Kolhapur (Kolhapur.ogg (help·info)) is a historic and ancient holy city situated in the Indian state of Maharashtra, India. Situated on the banks of river Panchganga, Kolhapur is the largest city in Southern Maharashtra, and a prominent city in Paschim Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarter of Kolhapur district. Prior to Indian independence, Kolhapur was a 19 gun salute princely state (Kolhapur State) ruled by the Bhosale Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire. Kolhapur is known for world famous leather Kolhapuri chappal. Also known as paytans, these are known for its simple styles, quality of leather and design. Different artisans all over the city make these exquisite chappals.
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Mrs Nilofer Ajarekar|
|• Total||66.82 km2 (25.80 sq mi)|
|Elevation||545.6 m (1,790.0 ft)|
|• Rank||India : 80th |
Maharashtra : 11th
|• Density||8,400/km2 (22,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
The city has a unique and exclusive 'Kolhapuri Cuisine', which is known for is spicy but tasty and mouth watering dishes which include world famous delicacies like Tambda -Pandhara rassa, Kolhapuri missal, and Authentic Kolhapuri mutton thali, etc. Kolhapur is also renowned for its jaggery and 'Lavangi mirchi'.
The exquisite Kolhapuri jewelries, like special type of necklace called Kolhapuri saaj, Mohanmal, bormal, chaplahar, pohehar and putlihar, thushi, patlya (two broad bangles), Bangdya, Tode, Chinchpeti (choker), Tanmani (short necklace) and Nath (nose ring), bajuband (the amulet) which are made in Kolhapur, poses a prominent position in Marathi culture, and hence are popular all across Maharashtra.
- "O King of Mountains! Still I am now telling something out of My affection to My Bhaktas. Hear. There is a great place of pilgrimage named Kollapura in the southern country. Here the Devi Ambabai always dwells."
- The famous Jyotiba temple is also located in the Kolhapur.
Kolhapur is famous in west Maharashtra for religious accounts.
The Shilahara family at Kolhapur was the latest of the three and was founded about the time of the downfall of the Rashtrakuta Empire. They ruled over southern Maharashtra; the modern districts of Satara, Kolhapur and Belagavi (Karnataka). Their family deity was the goddess Ambabai, whose blessing they claimed to have secured in their copperplate grants (Mahalakshmi-labdha-vara-prasada). Like their relatives of the northern branch of Konkan, the Shilaharas of Kolhapur claimed to be of the lineage of the Vidyadhara Jimutavahana, a Jain scholar. They carried the banner of golden Garuda. One of the many titles used by the Shilaharas was Tagarapuravaradhisvara, supreme sovereign ruler of Tagara.
The first capital of the Shilaharas was probably at Karad during the reign of Jatiga-II as known from their copper plate grant of Miraj and 'Vikramankadevacharita' of Bilhana. Hence sometimes they are referred as 'Shilaharas of Karad'. Later, although the capital was shifted to Kolhapur, some of their grants mention Valavada and the hill fort of Pranalaka or Padmanala,(Panhala) as the places of royal residence. Even though the capital was shifted to Kolhapur, Karhad retained its significance during the Shilahara period. This branch rose to power the latter part of the Rashtrakuta rule and so, unlike the kings of the other two branches, those of this branch do not mention the genealogy of the Rashtrakutas even in their early grants. Later they acknowledged the suzerainty of the later Chalukya for some time. They had used Kannada as the official language as can seen from their inscriptions. This branch continued to hold the Southern Maharashtra from circa 940 to 1220.
From 940 to 1212 CE, Kolhapur was the centre of power of the Shilahara dynasty. An inscription at Teradal states that the king Gonka (1020 - 1050 CE) was bitten by a snake then healed by a Jain monk. Gonka then built a temple to Lord Neminath, the twenty-second Jain tirthankara (enlightened being). Jain temples in and around Kolhapur from this era are called Gonka-Jinalaya, after the king.
Around 1055 CE, during the reign of Bhoja I (Shilahara dynasty), a dynamic Acharya (spiritual guide) named Maghanandi (Kolapuriya), founded a religious institute at the Rupanarayana Jain temple (basadi). Maghanandi is also known as Siddhanta-Chakravarti, that is, the great master of the scriptures. Kings and nobles of the Shilahara dynasty such as Gandaraditya I who succeeded Bhoja I, were disciples of Maghanandi.
Kolhapur was the site of intense confrontation between rulers of the Western Chalukya Empire and the rulers of the Chola empire, Rajadhiraja Chola and his younger brother Rajendra Chola II. In 1052 CE, following the Battle of Koppam, the victor, Rajendra Chola II, marched on to Kolhapur and there he erected a jayastambha (victory pillar).
The state of Kolhapur was established by Tarabai in 1707 because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. The Maratha throne was then governed by descendants of Tarabai. One of the prominent Kings was Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj (Shahu of Kolhapur). In his reign, he promoted cost free education to people of all castes and fought against untouchability. The state was annexed by the British in the 19th century. After India's independence in 1947, the Maharaja of Kolhapur acceded to the Dominion of India on 14 August 1947 and merged with Bombay State on 1 March 1949. Kolhapur is sometimes found spelled as Colapore. Often, Kolhapur is also referred as Dakshin Kashi (Dakshin in Marathi/Hindi/Sanskrit means South, Kashi is a holy city in Northern India) due to its rich religious history.
Origin of nameEdit
According to the myth, Kolhapur (कोल्हापूर) was named after the demon Kolhasur. There are different stories behind the reason he was killed by the Goddess, but it was his dying wish to name the place where he was killed after him. Thus, Kolhapur comes from the name Kolhasur and, Pur which means a city.Shilahara ancient stone inscriptions mentions kolhapur as 'Kalapuri' or 'Kshullakpur' (Kshullaka- first stage of Jain monkhood).
Kolhapur is an inland city located in south-west Maharashtra state, 373 km (232 mi) south of Mumbai & 228 km (142 mi) south of Pune, 615 km (382 mi) north-west of Bengaluru and 530 km (330 mi) west of Hyderabad. Within Maharashtra, Kolhapur's nearest cities and towns are Ichalkaranji 27 km (17 mi), Kodoli 35 km (22 mi), Peth Vadgaon 15 km (9.3 mi) Kagal 21 km (13 mi), Kasaba Walva 30 km (19 mi) Sangli 19 km (12 mi), Satara 115 km (71 mi). Kolhapur has an elevation of 569 m (1,867 ft). It lies in the Sahayadri mountains in the Western Ghats. Chandgad is the coolest place in the Kolhapur district. Tambraparni river dam is the spectacular place near Umgaon village. Also nearby dams are Radhanagari and kalambawadi. Panhala 21.5 km (13.4 mi) and Jyotiba Temple 21.7 km (13.5 mi) are close by.
Kolhapur's climate is a blend of coastal and inland elements common to Maharashtra. The temperature has a relatively narrow range between 10 to 35 °C (50 to 95 °F). Summer in Kolhapur is comparatively cooler, but much more humid, than neighbouring inland cities. Maximum temperatures rarely exceed 40 °C (104 °F) and typically range between 33 and 35 °C (91 and 95 °F). Lows during this season are around 24 to 26 °C (75 to 79 °F).
The city receives abundant rainfall from June to September due to its proximity to the Western Ghats. The heavy rains often lead to severe flooding during these months. 2005, 2006 and 2019 were years when floods occurred. Temperatures are low in the rainy season and range between 19 and 30 °C (66 and 86 °F).
Kolhapur experiences winter from November to February. The winter temperatures are warmer than other cities in Maharashtra such as Pune and Nashik. Lows range from 9 to 16 °C (48 to 61 °F) while highs are in the range of 24 to 32 °C (75 to 90 °F) due to its high elevation and being adjacent to the Western Ghats. Humidity is low in this season making the weather much more pleasant.
|Climate data for Kolhapur (1981–2010, extremes 1946–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.4
|Average high °C (°F)||30.5
|Average low °C (°F)||15.2
|Record low °C (°F)||8.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||1.1
|Average rainy days||0.2||0.1||0.3||1.4||2.8||11.6||17.1||16.8||8.5||6.0||1.6||0.4||66.9|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||38||31||31||40||51||74||83||84||76||61||48||43||55|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department|
|Source 2: Government of Maharashtra|
The Panchaganga river originates in the Western Ghats. It has five tributaries which supply the city and surrounds: the Bhogavati, Tulsi, Kumbhi, Kasari and the Dhamani rivers. Kolhapur has a number of lakes. The Rankala lake was once a stone quarry
The Kalamba lake was built in 1873. These two lakes provide the city with domestic potable water.
Kolhapur is governed by the Kolhapur Municipal Corporation (KMC). The city is divided into five wards, named with the letters A to E. The corporation provides services such as sewrage treatment and free cremation for residents and has made a number of improvements, for example, the Kolhapur Road Project; the Anti-Encroachment Drive to stop unwanted building activity encroaching on the city's open space; and the Suvarna Jayanti Nagarotthan Project for improvement of roads and storm water management. However KMC faces problems like expansion of civic limits of Kolhapur city which are not increased from 1972, due to the same this city fails to avail the benefits of various government schemes.
On 16 August 2017, Kolhapur Municipal and Regional Development Authority has been established. This authority is operating in Kolhapur city and 42 villages around Kolhapur city. This authority formed for the balanced development of Kolhapur city and the surrounding 42 villages.
As per the reports of 2011 Census of India, population of Kolhapur city is 549,236 and population of 'Kolhapur Municipal and Regional Development Authority' is 561,837.
- Hindu – 460,774 (83.89%)
- Muslims – 59,760 (10.88%)
- Jain – 18,420 (3.35%)
- Christian – 5,251 (0.96%)
- Buddhist – 2,929 (0.53%)
- Not Stated – 1,289 (0.23%)
- Sikh – 581 (0.11%)
- Others – 232 (0.04%)
According to 2011 India census, Hinduism is majority religion in Kolhapur city with 83.89% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Kolhapur with approximately 10.88% following it. In Kolhapur city, Jainism by 3.35%, Christianity is followed by 0.96%, Buddhism by 0.53%, and Sikhism by 0.11%. Around 0.04% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.23% stated 'No Particular Religion'.
The city particularly known for the Kolhapuri chappal, a hand-crafted buffalo leather slipper that is locally tanned using vegetable dyes. Kolhapuri slippers are sold on Mahadwar road. Other handicrafts include: hand block printing of textiles; silver, bead and paste jewellery crafting; pottery; wood carving and lacquerware; brass sheet work and oxidised silver artwork;and lace and embroidery making.
Kolhapur is also an industrial city with approximately 300 foundries producing exports with a value of 15 billion rupees per year. A manufacturing plant of Kirloskar Oil Engines [KOEL] is set up in 5 star MIDC at Kagal near Kolhapur, besides this Raymond clothes plant is also located in the same industrial area. Kolhapur has two more industrial areas wiz. Gokul-Shirgaon MIDC, Shiroli MIDC & Udyamnagar is an industrial area in the city.
Tourism is another source of revenue with about three million visitors to the city per year. Kolhapur's attractions include: New Palace, world's first statue of Babasaheb Ambedkar at Bindu chowk, inaugurated on 7 December 1950, Rankala lake, the Tara Rani equestrian statue which stands on two of the horse's legs an 85 feet (26 m) idol of the Lord Ganesh at the Chinmaya mission (Top-Sambhapur). At the annual Dusshera procession, the Kolhapur Maybach car of the chhatrapatis of Kolhapur is displayed to the public. The rankala lake is place to visit in kolhapur.
On 1 December 1917, the Maharashtra Film Company was established in Kolhapur by Baburao Painter. The city has become the primary centre for the Marathi film industry. Kolhapur plays host to many film festivals, including the Kolhapur International Film Festival. The work of renovation and new locations of Kolhapur film city is going on. 
In Kolhapur, four malls are present which are DYP city shopping mall located near Kawala Naka and Reliance mall in Laxmipuri.Shoppers stop and Star Bazar is also available .
Kolhapur cuisine is especially noted for its mutton dishes, Kolhapuri Misal, Ethnic Meat  The city also lends its name to certain types of food and ingredients, such as Kolhapuri Lavangi (chili peppers), Kolhapuri jaggery (cane juice concentrate), Kolhapuri masala (spice mixture)and kolhapuri chutney (kanda-lasun chutney or onion garlic chutney) which is a staple in gravies and curries.
Kolhapur is famous for its unique soup-like curries called "Pandhara Rassa" and "Tambda Rassa" which are served as a part of a Thali. "Pandhara Rassa", which can be loosely translated to white curry, is a soup-like dish made from mutton stock and coconut milk infused with spices like cinnamon, coriander, ginger, and garlic. It is served as an appetizer, and also as a part of the main course. It is noted for its medicinal uses against cough and throat ailments. "Tambda Rassa", red curry, is a spicier form of the dish made by substituting coconut milk with red chilies.
International fast food chains have a presence as well, McDonald's and Domino's Pizza have a couple of outlets each, whereas Pizza Hut and Subway, each, have a single outlet. Numerous cafes are also spread throughout the city which serve local as well as other types of cuisines.
Media and telecommunicationEdit
Wrestling - Kolhapur is known as wrestling capital of India. Kolhapur has a long history of kushti (wrestling) and has produced many noted wrestlers. The sport flourished during the reign of Shahu of Kolhapur Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj(1894–1922), remembered for being a progressive ruler who brought about many social reforms. During this golden age, he built Akharas or Taleems (as colloquially called here) all over Kolhapur and organized wrestling tournaments, inviting legendary wrestlers from across undivided India. Since then, Kolhapur's wrestling culture has been dominated by various Taleems like Gangavesh taleem,Shahupuri taleem, Motibag taleem, etc. In each of these, more than 70 wrestlers undertake training.
India's first individual Olympian Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav, India's first Hind Kesari Shripati Khanchnale, Rustam-E-Hind Dadu Chougule belonged to Kolhapur.
B.B. Nimbalkar (former Ranji cricketer), Suhas Khamkar (Mr. Asia, Winner), Virdhawal Khade (Indian Olympian in swimming), Jaysingrao Kusale (Indian shooter), Tejaswini Sawant (Arjuna awardee,world championship gold medalist shooter), Dadu Chowgule (Rustam E Hind), Rahi Sarnobat (Arjuna awardee, Asian Gold medalist in shooting), Rucha Pujari (chess - Woman International Master), Shahu Mane also belong to the city. Aniket Jadhav who played the FIFA U-17 World Cup 2017 is from Kolhapur.
The Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj Terminus links Kolhapur via rail to India's major cities with express services to Pune, Mumbai, Bengaluru and New Delhi. A daily shuttle service connects Kolhapur with the main rail hub of Miraj on the Central Railway main line. A new railway route from Miraj via Kolhapur till Vaibhavwadi has been confirmed, which will connect Kolhapur and many other towns with to the Western coastal region of India.
Kolhapur is located on National Highway 4 and National Highway 204. The city has three state transport bus stands: Central Bus Stand (CBS), Rankala Bus Stand and Sambhajinagar Bus Stand. Kolhapur Municipal Transport (KMT) provides local bus services. The CBS of Kolhapur is the busiest bus stand in western Maharashtra with more than 50,000 commutators a day.
Kolhapur's domestic airport, also known as Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj Airport, is located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) south east of the city at Ujalaiwadi.
There are daily flights from Kolhapur to Hyderabad and Bengaluru operated by Alliance Air. Indigo operates daily flights to Hyderabad and Tirupati as well as three times a week to Ahemdabad & Trujet operates flights to Mumbai five days a week.
The nearest international airports to Kolhapur are Pune International Airport (240 km [150 mi]) and Goa International Airport (220 km [140 mi]). Expansion of runway and construction of and airport terminal building is in progress.
Kolhapur has educational institutions for engineering, medicine, management studies, pharmaceutical sciences and agriculture. Shivaji University is located in Kolhapur city. There are international schools and a pre-IAS training centre. The pre-IAS training centre is in Rajaram college campus. The admissions to pre-IAS centre are allotted purely on merit in entrance exam. The city attracts students form all over India and Africa.
Kolhapur has a distinct way of using the Marathi language. This could be attributed to the princely rule over the population which has brought a certain masculinity to the language. For example, one will find that women will also use words which are normally used by men while speaking. Names are uniquely shortened to utter them faster. For example, शंकर becomes शंक्रोबा. Some phrases are unique to the local dialect, and especially popular among the youth, such as ‘काय भावा?’, ‘नाद नाही करायचा’, ‘काटा कीर्रर्र’, ‘खटक्यावर बोट, and 'जाग्यावर पल्टी'.
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