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Sangli (About this soundpronunciation , is a metropolitan city and the district headquarters of Sangli District in the state of Maharashtra, in western India. It is known as the Turmeric City of Maharashtra due to its production and trade of the spice.[3] Sangli is situated on the banks of the river Krishna and houses many sugar factories.

Coordinates: 16°51′11″N 74°34′59″E / 16.853°N 74.583°E / 16.853; 74.583Coordinates: 16°51′11″N 74°34′59″E / 16.853°N 74.583°E / 16.853; 74.583
StateMaharashtra
DistrictSangli
Founded byHarbhat Patwardhan
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodySangali-Miraj-Kupwad Municipal Corporation (SMKMC)
 • MayorMrs. Sangita Khot (BJP)
 • Municipal commissionerRavindra Khebudkar
 • Member of ParliamentSanjaykaka Patil (Lok Sabha)[1]
Area
 • Total118.81 km2 (45.87 sq mi)
Elevation
549 m (1,801 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total513,862
 • Rank91
 • Density4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Sanglikar
Languages
 • OfficialMarathi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
416416[2]
Telephone code+91-233
Vehicle registrationMH-10, MH-60
Literacy81.48%
Lok Sabha constituencySangli (Lok Sabha constituency), Maharashtra
ClimateDry and Arid (Köppen)
Websitesangli.nic.in
Ganpati Temple, Heart of Sangli City

Contents

GeographyEdit

Sangli city is situated on the bank of Krishna river. The valley of the River Krishna and its tributaries offer many irrigation and agricultural advantages which drives the economy of the district and the city. Other small rivers, such as the Warana and the Panchganga, flow into the River Krishna.

HistoryEdit

The city’s original name was Sahagalli—from the Marathi words saha (“six”) and galli (“lanes”) describing the early street plan—which was later shortened to Sangli.[4] The district of Sangli is a recent creation, being made as late as in 1949. It was then known as South Satara and was renamed Sangli in 1961. It is partly made up of a few talukas which once formed part of the old Satara District and partly of the States and jahagirs belonging to Patwardhans, and Dafles which came to be merged during the post-independence period. Kundal, the region around Sangli, was once the capital of the Chalukyas. Kundal was an ancient village, around 1,600 years old. Kaundanyapur (its old name) was a part of Karnataka.[5] Pulakeshin I chose Vatapi (Badami in Karnataka) as his capital. During the time of Shivaji, Sangli, Miraj and surrounding areas were captured from the Mughal Empire. Until 1801, Sangli was included in Miraj Jahagir. Sangli separated from Miraj in 1801, following a family quarrel between Chintamanrao Patwardhan, and his paternal uncle, Gangadharrao Patwardhan, who had succeeded his childless elder brother as the sixth chief of Miraj in 1782. Chintamanrao, a born soldier, commanded the Miraj cavalry in the Maratha armies that served with the British against the Nizam, Tipu Sultan and Dhondia Waugh. When he returned to Miraj in 1800, after his many campaigns, and having reached his majority, he found his uncle unwilling to yield control to him. Disgusted with this state of affairs, the young nephew seized the family idol and left the palace in a huff. In 1801 he established himself at a new capital at Sangli and set about taking control over as much of his patrimony as he was able. Continuing quarrels and disagreements threatened to cause fighting until the British Resident at the Peshwa's court decided to settle the matter by effecting an agreement in 1812. This Treaty of Pandharpur was formally recognised by the British authorities in 1817 and further augmented by separate treaties with the HEIC in 1819.

Chintamanrao reigned for fifty years, during which he maintained very close relations with the British. His participation in the southern campaigns included a close association with the Duke of Wellington, with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. He served in several other campaigns, even offering to lead contingents to Persia and Afghanistan to fight the company's enemies. However, his interests ranged more widely than mere soldering. He encouraged industry and agriculture, took an interest in religious affairs, and promoted inter-communal and inter-faith understanding, more than a century before it became the norm. He died in 1851, aged seventy-five, full of honours and respect.

Dhundirajrao succeeded his father not merely as ruler, but also in continuing the good work begun by his father. However, he took a keener interest in education, building schools, colleges and vocational institutions. This interest extended to the fields of female education and the so-called backwards classes, for whom he built special schools. He even promoted education amongst his Muslim subjects, a community who until then were suspicious of modern innovations. Thanks to his efforts in promoting various agricultural enterprises, Sangli is today the centre of the world turmeric trade, has the largest sugar refinery in Asia and is the most important centre for grape production in India. Despite seven marriages, he only sired two daughters. The succession was left to a distant relative, chosen by the British authorities and adopted by his senior widow.

Vinayakrao Chintamanrao, who succeeded as Chintamanrao Dhundirajrao on adoption, was no less distinguished than his two predecessors. He also reigned for a long period of sixty-four years. During this time he vastly improved the material, educational, spiritual and political development of his people. He promoted industrial and agricultural development on an unprecedented scale, making his little state something of a powerhouse in the area. Educational facilities were expanded in many areas with the establishment of arts, science, engineering and medical colleges. Access to capital improved with the foundation of a state bank, which helped poor farmers and fledgeling industrialists to raise funds. Representative institutions at local and state level encouraged the growth of democracy. He took an active part in supporting the war effort, in the activities of the Chamber of Princes, the Indian Round Table Conferences in London, and on the committee established to create a federal structure for India. A friend of the British and Gandhi alike, he enthusiastically supported independence and acceded to the Dominion India in 1947, then merged his state with Bombay. Raja Vijaysinhrao Patwardhan succeeded his grandfather in 1965. In 1842 the first Marathi Drama named Sita Swayamvar had staged in the Patwardhan Wada Rajwada[6]

Brief History of the DistrictEdit

The district derives its name from its headquarters at Sangli, which

was erstwhile princely state,

and now forms a part of the district. The

district forms a part of Deccan Plateau. Its history is essentially linked with the southern Maratha territories also referred to as the Kuntala during the ancient period. After the death of the Emperor Ashoka in 236 B.C., this region witnessed the rise and fall of the dynasties of Satavahanas, Vakatakas, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas and the Bahamani kings. After the invasion of Devagiri by Alauddin Khalji (Ala-ud-din Khilji), the Deccan passed under the overlordship of Delhi emperors. The first Moghal invasion in Deccan began in 1593 during the reign of Akbar. The successive history of the region is marked by prolonged struggle for domination among the forces of the Moghal, Adilshahi’skindom and the Marathas. Maratha chieftains belonging to the Patwardhan family (Royal Patwardhan families) are said to have been the rulers of small principalities such as Sangli, Miraj and Tasgaon which came under the domination of British in 1818–19 and finally these were merged with the State of Bombay during the post independence period in 1948. Sangli District was formed in 1949 by the transfer of Tasgaon, Khanapur (Vita), Walwa and Shirala tahsils from old Satara district. Two more talukas of Miraj and Jat were formed out of the parts of erstwhile Indian states and merged in the new district. After this merger it was named as South Satara district. However, in 1960 the district was renamed as Sangli. In 1965, two talukas, viz. Miraj and Khanapur were splitted and two new talukas viz.Kavathe-Mahankal and Atpadi were added to the origional set-up of 6 tahsils. The district was thus 8 tahsils, viz.; Miraj, Khanapur, Jat, Tasgaon, Shirala, Walwa(Islampur), Atpadi and Kavathe-Mahankal. At the time of 1961 census, the district was comprised 5 talukas and 1 Mahal which in themselves included 526 inhabited villages and 6 towns. At the time of 1971 census, the district had 8 tahsils comprising 539 inhabited villages and 7 towns. Since the number of tahsils in the district has remained unchanged in 1981 and 1991. One new town was added in 1981. the number of tahsils and towns are same as it was seen in the year 1981 i.e. 8 tahsils and 8 towns. Only the number of inhabited villages increased from 708 in 1981 to 723 in 1991. During 2001 Census Sangli district recorded 724 villages and 8 towns. In 2011 census the district has 10 tahsils, 7 towns and 728 villages (including 3 uninhabited villages).

EtymologyEdit

The city’s original name was Sahagalli—from the Marathi words saha ("six") and galli ("lanes") describing the early street plan—which was later shortened to Sangli.[7]

Timeline of SangliEdit

1024 A.D.- Gonk (a shilahaar king) had Mirich (now Miraj) which included present Sangli city

1205 A. D.- Gangaditya (a shilahaar king) constructed a lake at Iskudi near Miraj

1250–1318 A.D.- Devgiri's Yadav kings ruled. Miraj area had 3000 villages.

1319–1347 A.D.- Muhammad Khilji and Tughlak ruled

1348–1489 A.D.- Bahamani Sultans ruled

1490–1659 A.D.- Adilshah of Bijapur ruled

1659 A.D.– Netaji Palkar, Army Chief of Shivaji Maharaj conquered territory followed by recapture by Adilshah

1672 A.D.– Maratha Rule: Shivaji Maharaj conquered and then Sardar Kadam governed the area

1730 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan received Phadnishi of Indroji Kadam's Paaga from Bajirao Peshwa

1736 A.D.– Death of Sardar Indroji Kadam

1741 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan received Sardarki of Indroji Kadam's Paaga

1761 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan received Miraj Fort and nearby army bases from Madhavrao Peshwa

1761 A.D.– Govind Hari Patwardhan established Haripur, a new village

1771 A.D.– Death of Govind Hari Patwardhan

1773 A.D.– Vaman Hari Patwardhan received charge of Miraj area

1776 A.D.– Death of Vaman Hari Patwardhan at Varangaon (Khandesh), Pandurang Govind Patwardhan took charge.

1777 A.D.– Pandurang Govind Patwardhan was defeated by Haider. Death of Pandurang Govind Patwardhan

1779 A.D.– Harihar Pandurang Patwardhan received charge

1782 A.D.– Death of Harihar Pandurang Patwardhan

1783 A.D.– Chintamanrao Patwardhan took charge

1786 A.D.– Nana Phadnavis visit to Miraj

1795 A.D.– Chintamanrao Patwardhan received grant of 25,521 Rs. as a reward from Peshwas. It was due to incredible performance of Patwardhan in war of Kharda against Nijam

1799 A.D.– Bajirao Peshwa II granted the permission for division of Miraj area

1801 A.D.– Sangli received status of Capital city. Chintamanrao Patwardhan started governance from Sangli. Construction of Ganesh Durg started

1806 A.D.– Plan of Ganesha Temple finalized

1807 A.D.– Plan of major roads and commercial establishments (Peth) started

1811 A.D.– Construction of Ganesh Durg completed

1818 A.D.– British Rule initiated: British ordered to work for them

1820 A.D.– Chintamanrao Patwardhan refused to work under British. Contract with East India Company at Belgaon by Chintamanrao Patwardhan (I)

1821 A.D.– Sangli stone Press established

1834 A.D.– Mint for coin production started

1838 A.D.– Birth of Dhundiraj Chintamanrao Patwardhan

1842 A.D.– Appointment of civil and crime Justice. Judgement was done based on old tradition and rules

1844 A.D.– Ganesha idol established at Ganesha Temple

1846 A.D.– Development of Gardens: Miraj Malaa, Ganpati Malaa, Gardens at Uplaavi and Kharshing.Development of Aamraai: Mango garden in city

1850 A.D.– Budhgaonkar Patwardhan took charge of Haripur

1851 A.D.– Death of Chintamanrao Patwardhan (I)

1853 A.D.– Major flood to Krishna river

1855 A.D.– Government Hospital started

1860 A.D.– Major drought

1861 A.D.– Public Literacy started

1853 A.D.– Marathi School and Library started

1864 A.D.– Sangli City Cleaning Office started

1865 A.D.– English medium school and Grammar School started. Vedashastra School started

1865 A.D.– Sangli Nagar Vachnalay (Library) started

1872 A.D.– First City Survey of Sangli. Appeal Court established

1876 A.D.– Sangli Municipal Corporation started

1877–78 A.D.- drought

1887 A.D.– Lord Ripon visits Sangli

1887 A.D.– Pune-Miraj Railway route started. Sangli gets water supply from Kakadwadi

1889 A.D.– Fire engine was purchased by Municipal Corporation

1891 A.D.– Miraj- Kolhapur Railway route and Post Office started

1893 A.D.– Plague took toll of 2159 people

1901 A.D.– Death of Dhundirao Patwardhan. Achyut Desai appointed as Administrator of Sangli

1903 A.D.– Chintamanrao (II) Pawardhan took charge of Sangli

1904 A.D.– Panjarpol: Animal Welfare House started

Notable PeopleEdit

Sangli is the birthplace of many notable people for their contributions as social, cultural, sports, literature as well as political reformers.

GovernanceEdit

The Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Municipal Corporation (S.M.K.M.C.) is the local self-government body which looks after the development of the Sangli-Miraj twin cities, serving more than 0.5 million citizens.

Educational institutesEdit

Education institutions in the area, aside from schools, include engineering colleges such as Walchand College of Engineering RIT college, Islampur, KBP College, and Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology. Government Medical College, Miraj,, is also present, as is the Willingdon College of Arts & Science at Vishrambaug.

ArchitectureEdit

Ganapati Temple

Ganesh temple is the greatest religious attraction in Sangli. It is the Kuldaivat of Patwardhans. Besides the main temple of Ganesh there are four more, but smaller ones, of Suryanarayan, Cintamanesvar, Laksmi-Narayan and Chinta−manesvari, which together with the chief deity forms the Ganapati panchayatan.

The construction of the temple was started by the late Sri Appasaheb Patwardhan. The basalt stone blocks used for the construction were brought from the Jyotiba hills near Kolhapur.

The whole structure stands on a fairly large quadrangular court. The Princely residence is close by and facing the river, on which side there is a wall flanked by two bastions and loopholed for musketry. Sri Chintamanrav Appahaheb Patvardhan built the mandap at a later date. The stone used is of the same type as that employed for the construction of the original temple and the sculptural work and the designs are also befitting the original shrine. It was completed in 1952 and was inaugurated by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

A huge and massive gate of red sand−stone, recently constructed, leads into the spacious courtyard. The gate has grandeur of its own and is the work of skilled architects and artisans of great repute. It is composed of three arches for entry. The central arch is bigger than the side ones. In the courtyard two lotus shaped fountains can be seen.

A mandap hall is supported on eight polished and ornamented pillars supporting galleries on both sides. The ceiling of the mandap bears beautiful designs, a huge chandelier hanging from the centre of the ceiling. In addition to the main entrance there are four more doors, two on either side. On the wall are reproduced sacred hymns from the Bhagavad Gita. On the right side of the hall, the sandalwood-crafted chariot with the images of Arjuna and Krushna can be seen. It delineates Krishna preaching Bhagvadgita to Arjuna when he refused to right ihe Kauravas on the historic battle−field of Kuruksetra.

The 1.16 sq. m pedestal of black stone supports white marble idol of Ganesh, with Riddhi and Siddhi idols. This part is approached by steps fixed at both the extreme ends. The Garbhagriha is crowned by a shikhar with a brass spire plated with gold. It bears various designs and carvings and figure−filled niches, In the corners there are smaller replicas of the main Shikhara.

The shrine as a whole is one of the excellent specimen of stone carvings and polished stone−work. Of the remaining four temples of the panchayatan, two, viz., Chintamanesvar and Suryanarayan are on the right side, arranged one behind the other, placing one of the fountains mentioned above in the middle. The other two, viz., Lakshmi−Narayan and Chintamanesvari are on the left also arranged in the same manner. Behind the temple of Suryanarayan there is the stone sculpture of a baby elephant trampling a tiger.

Ganapati Panchayatan Trust maintains the temple. The trust receives grants from Patvardhans, as a part of tradition which continues till the present day. In the backyard of the Ganesha temple court there is a small black stone idol of Kuranesvari housed in a small arch of stone.

  • The Irwin Bridge, built by the British
  • A royal palace (Rajwada)

ClimateEdit

Sangli
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
3.8
 
 
31
12
 
 
0.5
 
 
33
15
 
 
5.3
 
 
36
18
 
 
22
 
 
38
21
 
 
48
 
 
37
22
 
 
71
 
 
31
22
 
 
109
 
 
28
21
 
 
80
 
 
28
21
 
 
100
 
 
30
20
 
 
89
 
 
32
19
 
 
34
 
 
30
16
 
 
6.9
 
 
30
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Government of Maharashtra

Sangli has a semi-arid climate with three seasons, a hot, dry summer from the middle of February to the middle of June, a monsoon from the middle of June to late October and a mild cool season from early November to early February. The total rainfall is about 22 inches (580 mm). Sangli has a chill climate throughout winter; summers are dry but not as dry as in the larger metropolitan cities. Rain is within its limits.

Climate data for Sangli
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31
(88)
33
(91)
36
(97)
38
(100)
37
(99)
31
(88)
28
(82)
28
(82)
30
(86)
32
(90)
30
(86)
30
(86)
32
(90)
Average low °C (°F) 09
(48)
15
(59)
18
(64)
21
(70)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
19
(66)
11
(52)
10
(50)
17
(63)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.8
(0.15)
0.5
(0.02)
5.3
(0.21)
22.1
(0.87)
48.3
(1.90)
71.1
(2.80)
108.7
(4.28)
79.8
(3.14)
99.6
(3.92)
88.9
(3.50)
33.5
(1.32)
6.9
(0.27)
568.5
(22.38)
Source: Government of Maharashtra

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Fifteenth Lok Sabha Members Bioprofile". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Benzie, F. F.; Sissi Wachtel-Galo (2011). "13: Turmeric, The Golden Spice: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine". In F. F. Benzie (ed.). Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects (Second ed.). Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742, USA: CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-4398-0713-2.
  4. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/522386/Sangli
  5. ^ "Chalukya capital tells a tale of ruin". Radhesham Jadhav. Retrieved 14 April 2009.[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ http://www.royalark.net/India/sangli.htm
  7. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/522386/Sangli