Chhatrapati (Devanagari: छत्रपति) is a royal title from the Indian subcontinent. It is often taken to be the equivalent of emperor, and was used by the Marathas. The word ‘Chhatrapati’ is a tatpurusha Sanskrit compound of chhatra (parasol or umbrella) and pati (master/lord/ruler). The parasol was considered a symbol of absolute, or even universal, sovereignty and consecrated kingship, and has been used by monarchies outside of India, as well. The title indicates a person who is a sovereign ruler over other princes, and not a vassal. In contrast, the Indian titles of Maharaja or Raja, Yuvraj, Rajkumar or Kumar, and Senapati, reflect a range of European equivalent meanings, from King, Crown Prince, and Prince, to Duke, Count, or Lord. Shivaji adopted 'Chhatrapati' it since other titles were bestowed by other lieges and paramount rulers, like the Adilshahis or Mughals.
House of BhosleEdit
The following list details the Chhatrapatis of the House of Bhosle. The title was held by his successors who were themselves very powerful like Sambhaji, Tarabai, Shahu. Although after the death of Chhatrapati Shahu, the increasing power of the Peshwas and later Maratha generals reduced it to a nominal position. The Grand Princes of Satara were generally considered the inheritors of the title, although the Rajas of Kohlapur did have a claim by descent, as their position began as a subsidiary title of Shivaji II due to location of his court. His mother, the Regent Tarabai, established a rival regime in Kohlapur, challenging both the power of Shahu.
|Chhatrapati Shivaji||c.19 February 1630||1674 - 1680||13 April 1680|
|Chhatrapati Sambhaji||14 May 1657||20 July 1680 - 11 March 1689||11 March 1689|
|Chhatrapati Rajaram||24 February 1670||1689 – 1700||3 March 1700|
|Shivaji II||9 June 1696||1700 – 1708||14 March 1726|
|Chhatrapati Shahu||18 May 1682||1708 – 1748||15 December 1749|
Chhatrapatis of SataraEdit
- Shahu (1708–1748)
- Ramraja (1749–1777) - Grandson of Rajaram and his wife, Tarabai.
- Shahu II of Satara (1777–1808)
- Pratapsingh (1808–1839)
- Shahaji of Satara (1839–1848)
- Pratapsinh Raje (1865-1874)
- Rajaram Maharaj-III (1874-1904)
- Pratapsinh Raje-II (1914-1925)
- Shahu III of Satara (1925-1960)
- Pratapsinhraje (1960-1978)
- Udayanraje (1978-present)
Rajas of KolhapurEdit
- Tarabai as a regent of Shivaji II (1700–1708)
- Shivaji II (1700–1712) - son of Rajaram and his senior wife, Tarabai.
- Sambhaji II (1712–1760) - son of Rajaram and his junior wife, Rajasbai.
- Shivaji III (1760–1812)
- Sambhaji III (1812–1821)
- Shivaji IV (1821-1822)
- Shahaji I (1822–1838)
- Shivaji V (1838–1866)
- Rajaram II (1866–1870)
- Shivaji VI (1871–1883)
- Shahu I, also known as Rajarshi Shahu (1874–1922) (adopted from the ruling Ghatge family of Kagal)
- Rajaram III (1922–1940)
- Shivaji VII (1941–1946)
- Shahaji II (1947-1949)
- Shahu II (1983–present)
- Sailendra., Sen, (2013-01-01). Textbook of medieval Indian history. Primus Books. ISBN 9789380607344. OCLC 822894456.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
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- D.B. Kasar, Rigveda to Rajgarh – Making of Shivaji the Great. Manudevi Prakashan, Mumbai.