Mahishasura

Mahishasura was a buffalo Asura in Hinduism. He is known among Hindus of most sects as a deceitful demon who pursued his evil ways by shape-shifting.[1][2][3] Mahishasura was the son of Rambha, and the great-grandson of Brahmarshi Kashyapa. He was ultimately killed by Goddess Durga - after which She gained the epithet Mahishasuramardini ("Slayer of Mahishasura"). The Navaratri ("Nine Nights") festival eulogizes this battle between Mahishasura and Durga, culminating in Vijaya Dasami, a celebration of his ultimate defeat. This story of the "triumph of Good over Evil" carries profound symbolism in Hinduism, particularly Shaktism, and is both narrated as well as reenacted from the Devi Mahatmya at many South- and Southeast Asian Hindu temples.[4][5][6] The story is also told in the Sikh text Chandi di Var, also called Var Durga Di, which many in Sikh tradition believe was included in the Dasam Granth by Guru Gobind Singh.[7]

Demon Mahishasura statue in Mysuru, Karnataka, India

The Legend of MahishasuraEdit

Mahishasura is a Sanskrit word composed of Mahisha meaning buffalo and asura meaning demon, thus meaning Buffalo Demon. As an asura, Mahishasura waged war against the Devas, as the Devas and asuras were perpetually in conflict. Mahishasura had gained the boon that no man could kill him. In the battles between the Devas and the demons (asuras), the Devas, led by Indra, were defeated by Mahishasura. Subjected to defeat, the Devas assembled in the mountains where their combined divine energies coalesced into Goddess Durga. The newborn Durga led a battle against Mahishasura, riding a lion, and killed him. Thereafter, she was named Mahishasuramardini, meaning The Killer of Mahishasura.[3][8]

 
Artwork depicting the goddess Durga slaying the buffalo demon Mahishasura is found all over India, Nepal and southeast Asia. Clockwise from top: 9th-century Kashmir, 13th-century Karnataka, 9th century Prambanan Spain, 2nd-century Uttar Pradesh.

Mahishasura's legend is told in the major texts of the Shaktism traditions known as the Devi Mahatmya, which is part of Markandeya Purana. The story of Mahishasura is being told in the chapter where Markandeya is narrating the story of the birth of Savarnika Manu (Ref: Vishnu Purana). As per the Markandeya Purana, the story of Mahishasura was narrated in the 2nd Manvantar (approximately 1.3 billion years ago, as per the Vishnu Purana) by Maharishi Medha to a king named Soorut, as an incident which occurred in times ancient for even the 2nd Manvantara. Therefore this ostensibly dates the Mahishasura story to several billion years ago, as per the narrative of the Markandeya Purana. A proper explanation of a manvantara as a unit of time is given in the Vishnu Purana. The geography, society, and the living things on earth were all different as compared to the social set up described in other Hindu mythology. Mahishasura is described as an evil being who can change his outer form, but never his demonic goals.[8] According to Christopher Fuller, Mahishasura represents the forces of ignorance and chaos hidden by outer appearances.[9][2] The symbolism is carried in Hindu art found in South Asia and South-East Asia (e.g., Javanese art), where Durgaa is shown as a serene, calm, collected and graceful symbol of good as She pierces the heart and kills the scared, overwhelmed and outwitted Mahishasura.[10][2]

Mahishasura in ArtEdit

Durga slaying Mahishasura is a prominent theme which was sculpted in various caves and temples across India. Some of the prominent representations are seen at the Mahishasuramardini caves in Mahabalipuram, the Ellora Caves, in the entrance of Rani ki vav[11] Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebidu and many more temples across India. The worship of Durga during Durga Puja in Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and other eastern states is represented in Pandal which depict Durga killing Mahishasura.[12] The legend of Mahishasura has also been inspiration to films, plays and dance dramas.[13]

Mahishasura & MysoreEdit

The popular legend is that Maisuru gets its name from Mahishasuramardini, a manifestation of Goddess Durga. The Buffalo demon Mahishasura, states the regional tradition, had terrified the local population. Goddess Durga (Chamundeshwari) killed Mahishasura, an event that is annually celebrated at Navratri and Mysore Dasara.[14]

The temple of the city's guardian deity, Chamundeshwari, has a giant statue of Mahishasura on the hill facing the city. The earliest mention of Mysore in recorded history may be traced to 245 B.C., i.e., to the period of Ashoka when on the conclusion of the third Buddhist convocation, a team was dispatched to Mahisha Mandala.[15]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bane, Theresa (2012). Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures. McFarland. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-7864-8894-0.
  2. ^ a b c Amazzone, Laura (2012). Goddess Durga and Sacred Female Power. University Press of America. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-7618-5314-5.
  3. ^ a b Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Tradition. University of California Press. pp. 96–103. ISBN 978-0-520-90883-3.
  4. ^ Jones, Constance; Ryan, James (2014). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 399. ISBN 978-0816054589.
  5. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 191-192.
  6. ^ June McDaniel 2004, pp. 215-216, 219-220.
  7. ^ Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 241–243. ISBN 978-0-19-100412-4.
  8. ^ a b Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  9. ^ Fuller, Christopher John (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-691-12048-X.
  10. ^ Zimmer, Heinrich (1990). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 195–198. ISBN 978-81-208-0751-8.
  11. ^ mahishasuramardini. "Rani ki vav". Frontline. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  12. ^ Durga Puja, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  13. ^ Ahalya, Performing Arts. "Mahishasura Mardhanam - Dance drama". Ahalya Performing Arts. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  14. ^ "Mysuru name". mysore.org.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  15. ^ "DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK MYSORE" (PDF). Census of India 2011 KARNATAKA. SERIES-30 PART XII-B: 8. 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2016.

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