Parashurama (Sanskrit: परशुराम, romanizedParasurama, lit.'Rama with an axe'), also referred to as Rama Jamadagnya, Rama Bhargava and Veerarama,[1] is the sixth incarnation among the Dashavatar of the God Vishnu in Hinduism. He is believed to be one of the Chiranjeevis (Long-Lived Ones Or Immortal Ones), who will appear at the end of the Kali Yuga to be the guru of Vishnu's tenth and last incarnation, Kalki. He carried a number of traits, which included aggression, warfare and valor; also, serenity, prudence and patience.

Parashurama
Member of Dashavatar and Chiranjivi
Parashurama with axe.jpg
Parashurama by Raja Ravi Varma
Other names
  • Bhargava rama
  • Jamadagnya rama
  • Rambhadra
Devanagariपरशुराम
Sanskrit transliterationParaśurāma
AffiliationSixth Incarnation of Vishnu, Vaishnavism
WeaponAxe named Vidyudabhi (Parashu)
Personal information
Parents
SiblingsVasu, Viswa Vasu, Brihudyanu and Brutwakanwa
SpouseDharani

Born to Jamadagni and Renuka, Parashurama was foretold to appear at a time when overwhelming evil prevailed on the earth. The Kshatriya class, with weapons and power, had begun to abuse their power, take what belonged to others by force and tyrannise people. He corrected the cosmic equilibrium by destroying the Kshatriya warriors twenty-one times. He is married to Dharani, an incarnation of Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu.[2] He is also the Guru of Bhishma, Dronacharya and Karna.[3][4]

LegendsEdit

 
Parashurama meet his Pitaras (Ancestors) after his mass killings.
 
Parashurama returning with the sacred calf with Jamadagni cautioning him to not be controlled by anger

According to Hindu legends, Parashurama was born to Sage Jamadagni and his Kshatriya wife, Renuka, living in a hut.[5] On top of the hills is a Shiva temple where Parshurama is believed to have worshipped Lord Shiva, the Ashram (Abbey) is known as Jamadagni Ashram, named after his father. The place also has a Kund (Pond) that is being developed by the state government.[6] They had a celestial cow called Surabhi, which gives all they desire (Surabhi was the daughter of cow Kamadhenu).[4][7] A king named Kartavirya Arjun (not to be confused with Arjun the Pandava)[8][note 1] – learns about it and wants it. He asks Jamadagni to give it to him, but the sage refuses. While Parashurama is away from the hut, the king takes it by force.[4] Parashurama learns about this crime, and is upset. With his axe in his hand, he challenges the king to battle. They fight, and Parushama defeats and kills the king, according to the Hindu scriptures.[1] The warrior class challenges him, and he kills all his challengers. The legend likely has roots in the ancient conflict between the Brahmin varna, with knowledge duties, and the Kshatriya varna, with warrior and enforcement roles.[3][4][9]

In some versions of the legend, after his martial exploits, Parashurama returns to his sage father with the Surabhi cow and tells him about the battles he had to fight. The sage does not congratulate Parashurama but reprimands him stating that a Brahmin should never kill a king. He asks him to expiate his sin by going on pilgrimage. After Parashurama returns from a pilgrimage, he is told that while he was away, his father was killed by Kartavirya Arjun's Sons seeking revenge. Parashurama again picks up his axe and killed them and also kills many warriors in retaliation. In the end, he relinquishes his weapons and takes up Yoga.

In Kannada folklore, especially in devotional songs sung by the Devdasis he is often referred to as a son of Yellamma.

Parasurama legends are notable for their discussion of violence, the cycles of retaliations, the impulse of Krodha (Anger), the inappropriateness of krodha, and repentance.[10][note 2]

Parasurama and origin of western coast (Konkan and Malabar)Edit

 
Parasurama,surrounded by settlers, commanding Lord Varuna, God of the waters to recede to make land known as 'Parasurama Kshetra' from Gokarna to Kanyakumari for the Brahmins.

There are legends dealing with the origins of the western coast geographically and culturally. One such legend is the retrieval of the West Coast from the sea, by Parasurama, a warrior sage. It proclaims that Parasurama, an Incarnation of MahaVishnu, threw His battle axe into the sea. As a result, the land of the Western coast arose, and thus was reclaimed from the waters. The place from which he threw his axe (or shot an arrow) is on Salher fort (the second highest peak and the highest fort in Maharashtra) in the Baglan taluka of Nashik district of Maharashtra. There is a temple on the summit of this fort dedicated to Parshuram and there are footprints in the rock 4 times the size of normal humans. This fort on a lower plateau has a temple of goddess Renuka, Parshuram's mother and also a Yagya Kunda with pits for poles to erect a shamiyana on the banks of a big water tank.

According to the Sangam classic Purananuru, the Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between KanyaKumari and the Himalayas.[13] Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it.[13][14] According to the 17th-century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth Incarnation of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram 'The Land of Parasurama'[15]). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to KanyaKumari.[16] The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers.[17]

In present-day Goa (or Gomantak), which is a part of the Konkan, there is a temple in Canacona in South Goa district dedicated to Lord Parshuram.[18][19][20]

TextsEdit

He is generally presented as the fifth son of Renuka and Rishi (Seer) Jamadagni.[9] The legends of Parashurama appear in many Hindu texts, in different versions:[21]

  • In Chapter 6 of the Devi Bhagavata Puran, he is born from the thigh with intense light surrounding him that blinds all warriors, who then repent their evil ways and promise to lead a moral life if their eyesight is restored. The boy grants them the boon.[9]
  • In Chapter 4 of the Vishnu Puran, Rcika prepares a meal for two women, one simple, and another with ingredients that if eaten would cause the woman to conceive a son with martial powers. The latter is accidentally eaten by Renuka, and she then gives birth to Parashurama.[9]
  • In Chapter 2 of the Vayu Puran, he is born after his mother Renuka eats a sacrificial offering made to both Rudra (Shiva) and Vishnu, which gives him dual characteristics of Kshatriya and Brahmin.[22]

Parashurama is described in some versions of the Mahabharat as the angry Brahmin who with his axe, killed a huge number of Kshatriya warriors because they were abusing their power.[23]

He plays important roles in the Mahabharat serving as mentor to Bhishma (chapter 5.178), Drona (chapter 1.121) and Karna (chapter 3.286), teaching weapon arts and helping key warriors in both sides of the war.[24][note 3]

In the regional literature of Kerala, he is the founder of the land, the one who brought it out of the sea and settled a Hindu community there.[3] He is also known as Rama Jamadagnya and Rama Bhargava in some Hindu texts.[1] Parashurama retired in the Mahendra Mountains, according to chapter 2.3.47 of the Bhagavata Puran.[26] He is the only incarnation of Vishnu who never dies, never returns to abstract Vishnu and lives in meditative retirement.[8] Further, he is the only incarnation of Vishnu that co-exists with other Vishnu incarnations Ram and Krishna in some versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharat, respectively.[8][note 4]

Samanta PanchakaEdit

According to the Sangraha Parva, after killing 21 generations of Kshatriyas, he filled their blood in five pools collectively known as the Samantha Panchaka (Sanskrit: समंत पञ्चक). He later atoned for his sin by severe penance. The five pools are considered to be holy.

The Anukramanika Parva says that the Samantha Panchaka is located somewhere around Kurukshetra. It also mentions that the Pandavas performed a few religious rites near the Samantha Panchaka before the Mahabharat War at Kurukshetra.

Parashurama KshetraEdit

There is much interpretation of 'Parashurama Kshetra' (Land of Parasurama) mentioned in the Puranas.

The region on the western coast of India from Gokarna to Kanyakumari was known as Parashurama Kshetra.[27]

The region of Konkan was also considered as Parashurama Kshetra.[28]

The ancient Saptakonkana is a slightly larger region described in the Sahyadrikhanda which refers to it as Parashuramakshetra (Sanskrit for "The Land Of Parashurama"), Vapi to Tapi is an area of South Gujarat, India. This area is called "Parshuram Ni Bhoomi".[29]

IconographyEdit

 
Parashurama with his axe (two representations)

The Hindu literature on iconography such as the Vishnudharmottara Puran and Rupamandana describes him as a man with matted locks, with two hands, one carrying an axe. However, the Agni Puran portrays his iconography with four hands, carrying his axe, bow, arrow and sword. The Bhagavata Puran describes his icon as one with four hands, carrying his axe, bow, arrows and a shield like a warrior.[30] Though a warrior, his representation inside Hindu temples with him in war scenes is rare (the Basohli temple is one such exception). Typically, he is shown with two hands, with an axe in his right hand either seated or standing.[30]

Claim Of DescendentsEdit

The Sampangirama family is one of the many families that claim to be the descents of Parshurama.[31] The Sampangirama family[32] goes by many last names, the most notable being Sampangirama, Nagar, and Rao.[33] The Sampangirama family follows the pravara (bloodline): Bhargava, Chyavana, Apnavana, Aurva, Jamadagni, Parashurama. Majority of the Sampangirama family lives in the state of Karnataka. Additionally, the family follows the Bhargava gotra, an ancient line of lineage starting from Sage Bhrigu.[34]

Vats (Clan) gotra brahmins of Hindi belt region (Saryupareen Brahmins) also have five pravaras- Bhrigu, Chyavana, Apnavana, Aurva and Jamadagni. These gotra can be found in people of surname Dubey, Mishra, Jha, etc of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and other parts of Awadh, Purvanchal, Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand and Mithilanchal region. Vats (Clan) gotra originated from Sage Bhrigu, that is why Vats (Clan) gotra is a gotra of Brahmins belonging to Bhrigu lineage. [35] [36]

Sage Vats, also known as Vatsa, was the grandfather of Sage Aurva and great-great grandfather of Sage Ṛchika (Ruchika), and son of Ṛchika was Jamadagni. And hence Vats (Clan) gotra brahmins are direct descendent of Sage Parshurama.[37][38]

GalleryEdit

TemplesEdit

Temples for Parashurama are found at Chiplun in Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra and at Udupi, Karnataka. In Karnataka, there are a group of 7 temples in the stretch of Tulunadu (coastal Karnataka), known as Parashurama Kshetras, namely, Kollur, Koteshwara, Kukke Subrahmanya, Udupi, Gokarna, Anegudde (Kumbhasi) and Shankaranarayana.

The temple called Athyarala in Rajempet, Andhra Pradesh, is dedicated to Parashuram. There is a Parshuram Kund, a Hindu pilgrimage centre in Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh which is dedicated to the sage Parashurama. Thousands of pilgrims visit the place in winter every year, especially on the Makar Sankranti day for a holy dip in the sacred kund which is believed to wash away one's sins.[39][40]

Mahurgad is one of the Shaktipeeth in Maharashtra's Nanded District, where a famous temple of Goddess Renuka exists. This temple at Mahurgad is always full of pilgrims. People also come to visit Lord Parashuram temple on the same Mahurgad.

The 108 temples in Kerala which are believed to be consecrated by Parasurama are listed below:

  1. Velorevattam Mahadeva Temple, Cherthalai (Velorevattam), Alleppey, Kerala.
  2. Sree Mahadevar Temple Chittukkulam (Thrichattukulam), Alappuzha
  3. Pattinikkad (Pattanakkad) Alappuzha, Kerala
  4. Chengannur Mahadeva temple Alappuzha, Kerala
  5. Kandiyoor Alappuzha, Kerala
  6. Cherthala (Nalpathenneeshwaram) Alappuzha, Kerala
  7. Gokarnam Samsthan Sri Mahabaleswara Temple, Karnataka State
  8. Chowwara Ernakulam, Kerala
  9. Thrikkariyoor Mahadeva Temple, Ernakulam, Kerala
  10. Ernakulam Mahadeva Temple, Kerala
  11. Parivaloor (Pazhoor Perunthirukkoil) Ernakulam, Kerala
  12. Vyttila (Nettur) Ernakulam, Kerala
  13. Vaikkam Kottayam, Kerala
  14. Aluva Ernakulam, Kerala
  15. Adampalli (Chakkamkulangara) Ernakulam, Kerala
  16. Cheranalloor Ernakulam, Kerala
  17. Thashtam (Uliyanoor) Ernakulam, Kerala
  18. Chenthamangalam Ernakulam, Kerala
  19. Thiruvaloor Ernakulam, Kerala
  20. Chirakkal Ernakulam, Kerala
  21. Karikkodu (Kanchiramattam) Idukki, Kerala
  22. Thrikkapaleswaram Kannur, Kerala
  23. Kottiyoor Kannur, Kerala
  24. Puthur Kannur, Kerala
  25. Chellur – Perinchellur (Thalipparambu) Kannur, Kerala
  26. Kottur (Karivellur) Kannur, Kerala
  27. Ramashwaram Kollam, Kerala
  28. Kollam (Anandavalleeswaram) Kollam, Kerala
  29. Pancharkulam (Padanayarkulangara) Kollam, Kerala
  30. Puthuppalli (Changangulakkara) Kollam, Kerala
  31. Kottarakkara Kollam, Kerala
  32. Vellur (Perunthatta) Kottayam
  33. Parippu Kottayam, Kerala
  34. Ettumanoor Mahadeva Temple, Kottayam, Kerala
  35. Thaliyil Kottayam, Kerala
  36. Kaduthuruthi Kottayam, Kerala
  37. Thirunakkara Kottayam, Kerala
  38. Edakkulam (Kanchilachery) Kozhikode, Kerala
  39. Kollur Uduppi, Karnataka
  40. Mahadeva Temple Thali Kozhikode, Kerala
  41. Mannur Kozhikode, Kerala
  42. Thriprangodu Malappuram, Kerala
  43. Sree Mandhankunnu Malappuram, Kerala (Thirumandhamkunnu Bhagavthy temple)
  44. Mahadeva templePorandekkad (Puramundekkad) Malappuram, Kerala
  45. Paraparambu (Perumparambu) Malappuram, Kerala
  46. Maniyoor Malappuram, Kerala
  47. Thirunavaya Malappuram, Kerala
  48. Thirukkandiyur Malappuram, Kerala
  49. Sucheendram Nagarkoil, Tamil Nadu State
  50. Peroor (Kaipayil) Palakkad, Kerala
  51. Panaiyoor (Paloor) Palakkad, Kerala
  52. Thirumittakkodu Palakkad, Kerala
  53. Alathur (Pokkunni) Palakkad, Kerala
  54. Thrippalur Palakkad, Kerala
  55. Thrithala Palakkad, Kerala
  56. Mangalam (Anchumoorthy) Palakkad, Kerala
  57. Kodumboor (Kodumbu) Palakkad, Kerala
  58. Killikurishimangalam Palakkad, Kerala
  59. Thrikkapaleswaram Pathanamthitta, Kerala
  60. Perumala (Panaiyannarkavu) Pathanamthitta, Kerala
  61. Thiruvalla (Thiruvatta) Pathanamthitta
  62. Vazhappalli Pathanamthitta
  63. Kunnappuram (Kunnam) Thiruvananthapuram
  64. Chathamangalam Thiruvananthapuram
  65. Amaravila Rameswaram Sri Mahadeva Temple
  66. Vanchiyoor (Srikanteshwaram) Thiruvananthapuram
  67. Vadakkunathar Thrushiva Perur
  68. Raveeswarapuram Thrushiva Perur
  69. Mathur Thrushiva Perur (Mathur Malappuram)
  70. Mundaiyur Thrushiva Perur
  71. Chowwallur Thrushiva Perur
  72. Pananchery (Mudikkoda) Thrushiva Perur
  73. Koratty (Annamanada) Thrushiva Perur
  74. Avungannur (Avanur Sreekanteshwaram) Thrushiva Perur
  75. Thirumangalam Sree Maha Vishnu Siva Temple Thrushiva Perur
  76. Ashtamangalam Thrushiva Perur
  77. Iranikulam Sree Mahadeva Temple Thrushiva Perur
  78. Kainoor Thrushiva Perur
  79. Adattu Thrushiva Perur
  80. Thrikkur Thrushiva Perur
  81. Chemmanthitta Thrushiva Perur
  82. Kallattuppuzha Thrushiva Perur
  83. Thrikkunnu Thrushiva Perur
  84. Kunnamkulam Cheruvathur Mahadeva Temple,  Thrushiva Perur
  85. Ponganam (Pungunnam) Thrushiva Perur
  86. Avittathur Thrushiva Perur
  87. Kattakambala Thrushiva Perur
  88. Pazhayannur (Eravimangalam Siva temple) Thrushiva Perur
  89. Perakam Thrushiva Perur
  90. Ambalikkadu Thrushiva Perur
  91. Nediyathali Thrushiva Perur
  92. Kodungallur Thrushiva Perur
  93. Vanchuleswaram – Tiruvanchikulam Siva Kshethram  Thrushiva Perur
  94. Perunthatta Thrushiva Perur
  95. Ashtamichira Thrushiva Perur
  96. Sree Someswaram Thrushiva Perur
  97. Venganellur Thrushiva Perur
  98. Palaiyoor Thrushiva Perur
  99. Nedumpura (Kulasekharanallur) Thrushiva Perur
  100. Sringapuram Thrushiva Perur
  101. Mammiyur Thrushiva Perur
  102. Parampanthali Thrushiva Perur
  103. Kottappuram Thrushiva Perur
  104. Muthuvara Thrushiva Perur
  105. Velappaya Thrushiva Perur
  106. Peruvanam Mahadeva temple Peruvanam Thrushiva Perur
  107. Thrikkapaleswaram – Siva Temple
  108. Thrichaliyoor (Thrissileri) Wayanad, Kerala

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Mahabharata includes legends about both Arjuna, one is dharmic (moral) and other adharmic (immoral); in some versions, Arjuna Kartavirya has mixed moral-immoral characteristics consistent with the Hindu belief that there is varying degrees of good and evil in every person.[8]
  2. ^ According to Madeleine Biardeau, Parasurama is a fusion of contradictions, possibly to emphasize the ease with which those with military power tend to abuse it, and the moral issues in circumstances and one's actions, particularly violent ones.[11][12]
  3. ^ The Sanskrit epic uses multiple names for Parashurama in its verses: Parashurama, Jamadagnya, Rama (his name shortened, but not to be confused with Rama of Ramayana), etc.[25]
  4. ^ These texts also state that Parasurama lost the essence of Vishnu while he was alive, and Vishnu then appeared as a complete avatar in Rama; later, in Krishna.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Julia Leslie (2014). Myth and Mythmaking: Continuous Evolution in Indian Tradition. Taylor & Francis. pp. 63–66 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-136-77888-9.
  2. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (4 July 2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-96390-3.
  3. ^ a b c Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.
  4. ^ a b c d James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 500–501. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.
  5. ^ "Parashurama | Hindu mythology".
  6. ^ "Janapav to be developed into international pligrim centre". One India. 8 May 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  7. ^ Khazan Ecosystems of Goa: Building on Indigenous Solutions to Cope with Global Environmental Change (Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research) (1995). Khazan Ecosystems of Goa: Building on Indigenous Solutions to Cope with Global Environmental Change. Abhinav Publications. p. 29. ISBN 978-9400772014.
  8. ^ a b c d e Lynn Thomas (2014). Julia Leslie (ed.). Myth and Mythmaking: Continuous Evolution in Indian Tradition. Routledge. pp. 64–66 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-136-77881-0.
  9. ^ a b c d Thomas E Donaldson (1995). Umakant Premanand Shah (ed.). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8.
  10. ^ Thomas E Donaldson (1995). Umakant Premanand Shah (ed.). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. pp. 161–70. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8.
  11. ^ Madeleine BIARDEAU (1976), Études de Mythologie Hindoue (IV): Bhakti et avatāra, Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient, École française d’Extrême-Orient, Vol. 63 (1976), pp. 182–191, context: 111–263
  12. ^ Freda Matchett (2001). Krishna, Lord Or Avatara?. Routledge. pp. 206 with note 53. ISBN 978-0-7007-1281-6.
  13. ^ a b Menon, A. Sreedhara (1987). Kerala History and its Makers. D C Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-8126421992.
  14. ^ Ancient Indian History By Madhavan Arjunan Pillai, p. 204[ISBN missing]
  15. ^ S.C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006) "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: Volume 14.", p. 18
  16. ^ Aiya VN (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government Press. pp. 210–12. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
  17. ^ Srinivisa Iyengar, P. T. (1929). History of the Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Madras: Asian Educational Services. p. 515. ISBN 978-8120601451.
  18. ^ Shree Scanda Puran (Sayadri Khandha) -Ed. Dr. Jarson D. Kunha, Marathi version Ed. By Gajanan Shastri Gaytonde, published by Shree Katyani Publication, Mumbai
  19. ^ Gomantak Prakruti ani Sanskruti Part-1, p. 206, B. D. Satoskar, Shubhada Publication
  20. ^ Aiya VN (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government Press. pp. 210–212. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
  21. ^ Cornelia Dimmitt (2012). Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas. Temple University Press. pp. 82–85. ISBN 978-1-4399-0464-0.
  22. ^ Thomas E Donaldson (1995). Umakant Premanand Shah (ed.). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8.
  23. ^ Ganguly KM (1883). "Drona Parva Section LXX". The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa. Sacred Texts. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  24. ^ Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1896). "Mahabaratha, Digvijaya yatra of Karna". The Mahabharata. Sacred Texts. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  25. ^ Lynn Thomas (2014). Julia Leslie (ed.). Myth and Mythmaking: Continuous Evolution in Indian Tradition. Routledge. pp. 69–71 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-136-77881-0.
  26. ^ Thomas E Donaldson (1995). Umakant Premanand Shah (ed.). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. pp. 174–175. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8.
  27. ^ L Eck, Diana (27 March 2012). India : A Sacred Geography. Harmony/Rodale. p. 37.
  28. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2006), Encyclopedia of India, Thomson Gale, ISBN 0-684-31350-2, page 80
  29. ^ Chandra, Suresh (1998). Encyclopedia of Hindu Gods & Goddesses. Sarup & Sons. p. 376. ISBN 9788176250399.
  30. ^ a b Thomas E Donaldson (1995). Umakant Premanand Shah (ed.). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. pp. 178–180. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8.
  31. ^ "Welcome to Travancore Devaswom Board – Travancore Devaswom Board". Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  32. ^ "Champakadhama Temple Bannerghatta Bangalore". travel2karnataka.com. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  33. ^ "rainlonginsect47.life". rainlonginsect47.life. Retrieved 10 April 2021.[permanent dead link]
  34. ^ "श्री क्षेत्र परशुराम". www.parshuramdevasthan.org. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  35. ^ Datta 1989, p. 126.
  36. ^ Datta 1989, pp. 125–126, 133.
  37. ^ Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas. 1. Sarup & Sons. 2001. p. 129. ISBN 9788176252263. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  38. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India Through the Ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 73.
  39. ^ "Thousands gather at Parshuram Kund for holy dip on Makar Sankranti". The News Mill. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  40. ^ "70,000 devotees take holy dip in Parshuram Kund". Indian Express. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2014.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

Regnal titles
Preceded by Dashavatara
Treta Yuga
Succeeded by