Serbian cuisine (Serbian: српска кухиња / srpska kuhinja) is a Balkan cuisine that consists of the culinary methods and traditions of Serbia. Its roots lie in Serbian history, including centuries of cultural contact and influence with the Greeks and the Byzantine Empire, the Ottomans, and Serbia's Balkan neighbours, especially during the existence of Yugoslavia. Historically, Serbian food develops from pastoral customs that involved the keeping of sheep in mountain highlands, in a climate and regional context that favoured animal husbandry over vegetable farming; Serbian food is therefore traditionally richer in animal products and basic grains—corn, wheat and oats—than fresh vegetable dishes. Following the abandonment of widely practiced pastoral lifestyles, Serbian food emerged through the Middle Ages heavily dependent not on lamb or mutton, but on the keeping of pigs for the annual cull and the production of various cured meats, such as sausages, bacon and ham products.

The Serbian government has passed laws banning the production and import of genetically modified foods, a legislative decision which has been applauded by environmentalists but caused a long-running dispute with the World Trade Organization, preventing Serbia from being able to join the WTO.[1][2][3]

Overview edit

 
A typical Serbian dinner table at Christmas.
 
A Serbian rolled pie.

National dishes of Serbia include sarma (a mix of ground pork or beef with rice rolled in leaves of cabbage), gibanica (an egg and cheese pie made with filo dough), pljeskavica (a ground beef or pork patty), ćevapi (grilled meat), paprikaš (a soup made of paprika), gulaš (soup of meat and vegetables usually seasoned with paprika and other spices) and Karađorđeva šnicla (a schnitzel). The national drink is rakia (various traditional fruit brandies).

With Serbia being located on the crossroads between East and West, its cuisine has gathered elements from different cooking styles across the Middle East and Europe to develop its own hearty gastronomy with an intricate balance of rich meats, vegetables, breads, cheese, fresh pastries, and desserts. It has much in common with the cuisines of neighboring Balkan countries; its flavors are mild, fresh, and natural. Seasonings are usually salt, black pepper, and paprika, while ingredients are known for being fresh and high-quality. Seasonal food is an important element of Serbian cuisine, thus many dishes are strongly associated with a specific time of the year.

The average Serbian eats three meals a day: breakfast, lunch, and dinner—with lunch being the largest.[4][5] However, traditionally, only lunch and dinner existed, with breakfast being introduced in the second half of the 19th century.[5][6]

A number of foods which are usually bought in the West are often made at home in Serbia. These include rakija, slatko, jam, jelly, and various pickled foods—notably turšija, ajvar, or sausages. The reasons for this range from economical to cultural. Food preparation is a strong part of the Serbian family tradition.

History edit

 
Easter breakfast with Easter eggs, cheese, ham, horseradish, pepper salade with garlic, rye bread and cinnamon cakes

William, archbishop of Tyre, who visited Constantinople in 1179, described the Serbs:

They are rich in herds and flocks and unusually well supplied with milk, cheese, butter, meat, honey, and wax".[7]

Krušedol monk of the Serbian Orthodox Church Jerotej, wrote the oldest modern Serbian cookbook in 1855.[8]

The first published cookbook in Serbia is The Big Serbian Cookbook (Велики српски кувар), written by Katarina Popović-Midzina in 1877.[9]

The best known Serbian cookbook is Pata's Cookbook (Патин кувар), written by Spasenija Pata Marković in 1907; the book remains in publication even today.[10]

An old Serbian legend says that during the time of the 14th-century Serbian Empire, under the rule of Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, meals in the Serbian palace were eaten with golden spoons and forks. Historians say that medieval Serbian cuisine mainly consisted of milk, dairy, produce, and vegetables. Not a lot of bread was eaten, but when it was, the rich ate bread made from wheat and the poor ate bread made from oats and rye. The only meat consumed was wild game, with cattle reserved for agricultural use.[11]

Meals edit

Breakfast edit

Breakfast in Serbia is an early but hearty meal, rich in calories and carbohydrates, meant to provide one with an abundance of energy to start the day. Bread is frequently served with butter, jam, yogurt, sour cream, or cheese, accompanied by bacon, sausage, salami, eggs, or kajmak. Serbians often stop by a bakery in the morning for fresh pastries such as pogačice, paštete, kifle (which in Serbian usage may or may not be crescent-shaped, and may be sweet, but may also be sprinkled with salt crystals), kiflice, perece, buhtle, pletenice, štapići, zemičke, djevreci, mekike, and uštipci. Other common breakfast dishes include burek, kačamak, and cicvara (types of polenta) and popara, proja (cornbread), and čalabrca. Before breakfast most people usually have a cup of kafa, or espresso, and with the breakfast itself either tea, milk, milk coffee, or chocolate milk is served.

Appetizers edit

Meza is an assortment of small dishes and appetizers, though, unlike the Middle Eastern meze, it does not usually include cooked dishes, and is therefore more similar to Italian antipasto. A Serbian meza typically includes slices of cured meats and sausages, cheeses, olives, fresh vegetables, and zimnica. Meza is served either to accompany alcoholic drinks or as a starter before a soup on bigger meals.

Soups edit

Soups are eaten as an entrée at almost every lunch. They are considered to be very important for good health. There are two types of soups in Serbian cuisine: thin soups called supa, and thicker soups with roux or eggs called čorba. The most common ones are simple pottages made of beef, offal or poultry with added noodles. Lamb, veal, and fish soups are considered delicacies.

Type Image Serbian Cyrillic Serbian Latin Notes
Consommé   Домаћа супа Domaća supa A simple chicken or beef soup with noodles or dumplings. The most common entrée in home cooking.
Veal soup Телећа чорба Teleća čorba
Lamb soup   Јагњећа чорба Jagnjeća čorba
Fisherman's soup   Рибља чорба Riblja čorba A paprika-spiced fish soup, common in the Panonian region.
Green soup Чорба од зеља Čorba od zelja
Tomato soup   Парадајз чорба Paradajz čorba
Cauliflower soup Чорба од карфиола Čorba od karfiola
Egg drop soup Супа с јајима (супа с дроњцима) Supa s jajima (supa s dronjcima)

Main course edit

The main course is most commonly a meat dish. Besides roštilj (barbecue) which is very popular, braising, stewing, and roasting in an oven are the most common cooking methods.

Type Image Serbian Cyrillic Serbian Latin Notes
Rotisserie   Печење Pečenje A whole pig or lamb roasted on a skewer over a fire.
Đuveč   Ђувеч Đuveč A vegetable dish similar to ratatouille. Either stewed or baked as a casserole.
Karađorđeva šnicla   Карађорђева шницла Karađorđeva šnicla A breaded rolled steak stuffed with kajmak, sliced ham and cheese.
Kavurma Кавурма Kavurma Pig intestines, not to be confused with Turkish kavurma.
Moussaka   Мусака Musaka A mince and potato, zucchini or eggplant casserole, common through the Balkans.
Mućkalica   Мућкалица Mućkalica A spicy stew of pork, tomatoes, and peppers. Typical of southern Serbia.
Goulash   Гулаш Gulaš A paprika-spiced meat stew originating in Hungary that is popular throughout Central Europe and the Balkans.
Rinflajš Ринфлајш Rinflajš A beef dish from Vojvodina. Similar to Tafelspitz.
Podvarak   Подварак Podvarak A fresh cabbage with grape vinegar casserole, usually with meat and other vegetables (tomatoes, aubergines, mushrooms, olives, and legumes. Can be made with sauerkraut, but that is not authentic. Black vinegar can be used.
Prebranac   Пребранац Prebranac A bean casserole. Called "tavce gravce" in Macedonia
Sarma   Сарма Sarma Cabbage, chard or vine leaves, stuffed with rice and minced meat. In northern Serbia, cabbage leaves are also used.
Sataraš   Сатараш Sataraš Bell peppers, tomatoes, onions and condiments.
Škembići Шкембићи Škembići A tripe stew.
Beans   Пасуљ Pasulj A bean stew.
Stuffed peppers   Пуњене паприке Punjene paprike Peppers stuffed with rice and minced meat.
Stuffed zucchini   Пуњене тиквице Punjene tikvice Zucchini stuffed with rice and minced meat.
Peas   Грашак Grašak A pea stew.
Green beans   Боранија Boranija A green bean stew.
Noodles with rice Флекице с рижом Flekice s rižom
Vrsnjik   Вршњик Vrsnjik Meat and vegetables cooked under a sač.

Roštilj (barbecue) edit

Grilling is very popular in Serbia. Grilled meats are the primary main course dishes offered in restaurants. They are commonly served as mixed grill on large oval plates. They are often also eaten as fast food. The cities of Leskovac and Novi Pazar are especially famous for their barbecue.

Type Image Serbian Cyrillic Serbian Latin Notes
Pljeskavica   Пљескавица Pljeskavica A ground pork or beef patty; a national dish.
Ćevapi (ćevapi)   Ћевапи (ћевапи) Ćevapčići (ćevapi) Ground pork or beef meat sticks; a national dish.
Pork loin Вешалица Vešalica Grilled strips of pork loin.
Skewers   Ражњићи Ražnjići Chunks of meat and vegetables grilled on skewers.
Sausages Кобасице Kobasice Various sausages, usually with spices

Bread edit

Bread is a staple of Serbian meals, and it is often treated almost ritually. A traditional Serbian welcoming is to offer the guest with bread and salt; bread also plays an important role in religious rituals. Many Serbs believe that it is sinful to throw away bread regardless of how old it is. Although pasta, rice, potato, and similar side dishes did enter the everyday cuisine over time, many Serbs still eat bread with meals.

In most bakeries and shops, white wheat bread loaves (typically 0.5 kg) are sold. In modern times, black bread and various graham bread variations have regained popularity. In many rural households bread is still baked in cast iron ovens, usually in bigger loaves.

Salads edit

In Serbia, salads are eaten as a side dish with the main course. The simplest of salads consist of sliced lettuce, cabbage, tomato, cucumber or carrot, olives with oil, vinegar, salt, and spices.

Type Image Serbian Cyrillic Serbian Latin Description
Serbian salad   Српска салата Srpska salata Diced tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions with a simple dressing of oil and vinegar.
Shopska salad   Шопска салата Šopska salata Similar to the above Serbian salad, but topped with white cheese.
Greek salad   Грчка салата Grčka salata Diced tomatoes, cucumbers and onions, topped with olives and feta cheese, and dressed with olive oil. Originally from Greece, but quite popular in Serbia.
Cabbage salad   Купус салата Kupus salata Shredded cabbage with a vinegar dressing.
Zimnica   Зимница Zimnica Pickled vegetables.
Russian salad   Руска салата Ruska salata Diced boiled potatoes, carrots, pickles, green peas, eggs and ham, dressed with mayonnaise.
Tarator   Тартар Tartar Yogurt with cucumber.

Relishes edit

Urnebes   Урнебес Urnebes A spread made predominantly with crushed white cheese, minced garlic and dry red peppers.
Ajvar   Ајвар Ajvar A pepper-based condiment made from red bell peppers. It can be mild or spicy.
Ljutenica   Љутеница Ljutenica A spicy relish. Ingredients include peppers, carrots, eggplant, onion, garlic and tomatoes. It can be smooth or with chunks. Spicier than ajvar. However, different regions and countries have substantially different interpretations of these relishes.
Pinđur   Пинђур Pinđur Similar to ajvar but generally made with eggplant. In some regions the words are used interchangeably.

Dairy edit

Dairy products are an important part of the Serbian diet. Fermented products such as sour milk, kajmak, yogurt and pavlaka are common breakfast foods, consumed daily. White cheeses, called sir are much more common in Serbia than yellow cheeses. There are numerous varieties, some of which have been awarded for their quality, such as the white cheese with walnuts from Babine, which won the 2012 "best autochtonic cheese" award.[12] Serbian Pule cheese, made from donkey milk, is the most expensive cheese in the world.[13] Although less common, several yellow cheese are locally produced.

Meat products edit

Traditional Serbian meat products are simple ham, bacon, dry ribs, and a kind of pork rinds called čvarci.[5] They are usually produced every autumn or in early winter, during an event called svinjokolj, where pigs are slaughtered and meat is preserved for the winter. Cured meats, bacon, salo, čvarci, sausages such as krvavica, and kulen are produced. Offal and cheaper cuts of meat are utilized as well, and made into processed products such as švargla.

Serbian meat products—especially those which attained protected designation of origin[14] status—include:

Various kinds of sausages and similar more complex meat products were created under Austrian influence in Vojvodina.[5] They include:

Pies edit

Pies are very popular in Serbia. They are eaten either for breakfast, dinner, or as a snack. They are most commonly made with thin layers of phyllo dough. There are several methods of preparation and numerous types of fillings, both sweet and savory. Serbian pies are usually named after either the preparation method or the filling.

One variety of pie that is not made with phyllo is the štrudla, which, in turn, isn't similar to strudel, but rather to a nut roll.

Filling Form Ruffled phyllo Rolled phyllo Layered phyllo Rolled dough
Serbian name Бурек Савијача Штрудла
white cheese Пита са сиром/Сирница  Y  Y
white cheese and eggs Гибаница  Y Gibanica  Y
meat Пита с месом  Y  Y
potatoes Пита с кромпиром/Кромпируша  Y  Y
spinach, greens Пита са зељем/Зељаница  Y  Y
mushrooms Пита с печуркама  Y  Y
sour cherries Пита са вишњама  Y  Y  Y
apples Пита с јабукама  Y  Y  Y
pumpkin Пита с бундевом/Бундевара  Y  Y
poppy seeds Штрудла с маком/Маковњача  Y
walnuts Штрудла са орасима/Орасница  Y Česnica (in Vojvodina)  Y
no filling  Y

Sweets and desserts edit

 
The most popular cake in Belgrade is the Moskva Shnit (Moscow Cake) made by Hotel Moskva.

Sweets are served at the end of meals. Sweets and desserts enjoyed in Serbia typically include both Middle Eastern and European ones, as well as some authentically Serbian ones. Besides the ones mentioned here, pies with sweet fruit fillings are also common.

Type Image Serbian Cyrillic Serbian Latin Description
Plazma cake   Плазма торта Plazma torta A cake made with ground Plazma biscuits as the primary ingredient.
Vasa's cake   Васина торта Vasina torta A walnut and chocolate cake. Amongst the more popular Serbian desserts.
Qurabiya   Гурабија Gurabija Shortbread-type biscuit
Dobos cake   Добош торта Doboš torta A five-layer sponge cake, layered with chocolate buttercream and topped with thin caramel slices.
Reforma cake   Реформа торта Reforma torta A layered cake with chocolate butter-cream filling.
Slatko   Слатко Slatko A fruit preserve.
Ratluk   Ратлук Ratluk Turkish delight.
Halva   Алва Alva Dense flour or nut-based sweet confections.
Baklava   Баклава Baklava Sweet pastry made from layers of phyllo dough, filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey.
Tulumbe   Тулумбе Tulumbe A fried batter soaked in syrup.
Tufahije   Туфахије Tufahije A dessert made of walnut-stuffed apples stewed in water with sugar.
Compote   Компот Kompot Kompot is a non-alcoholic sweet beverage, that may be served hot or cold. It is obtained by cooking fruit in a large volume of water, together with sugar or raisins as additional sweeteners.
Quince cheese   Китникес Kitnikes A sweet, thick jelly made of the pulp of the quince fruit.
Knedle   Кнедле са шљивама Knedle sa šljivama Boiled potato-dough dumplings filled with plums. Called gomboce in Vojvodina.
Krofne   Крофне Krofne Airy doughnuts filled with chocolate or jam.
Krempita   Кремпита Krempita A chantilly and custard cream cake dessert.
Orasnice   Ораснице Orasnice Walnut cookies.
Palačinke   Палачинке Palačinke Crêpes.
Šampita   Шампита Šampita A whipped marshmallow-type dessert with fillo dough crust.
Ruske kape   Руске капе Ruske kape
Vanilla cookies   Ванилице Vanilice
Uštipci   Уштипци Uštipci Doughnut-like fried dough balls.

Ritual food edit

Type Image Serbian Cyrillic Serbian Latin Occasion Description
Česnica   Чесница Česnica Christmas Plays a central role in a ritual. A coin is put inside it, and it is then rotated and broken into pieces, and each family member takes one. The one who gets the coin is said to have a lucky and blessed following year.
Koljivo   Кољиво Koljivo Slava Boiled wheat, almonds/walnuts, and tahini—ritual food during slava.
Slavski kolač   Славски колач Slavski kolač Slava

Drinks edit

Non-alcoholic edit

 
Traditional coffee cooked in dzezva, a first coffeehouse (kahvana) in Serbia was opened in 1522 in Belgrade

Domestic coffee (or Serbian coffee) is the most commonly consumed non-alcoholic beverage in Serbia. It is mostly prepared at home, rather than bought in coffee shops, and preferably consumed in the company of friends or family. Slatko, ratluk, and raki may be served alongside coffee. The majority of the Serbian population starts a day with a cup of coffee in the morning. Herbal teas are consumed as a medication, rather than a beverage. Yogurt and kefir are commonly consumed dairy beverages. They frequently accompany savory pastries. A beverage made from maize, called boza or kvas, was once popular, but today is rarely consumed.

A number of fruit juice and mineral water brands are produced locally. The Knjaz Milos mineral water is considered a national brand.

Alcoholic edit

Rakija edit

 
Raki in special bottle, as the national drink of Serbia
 
Slivovitz from Valjevo region

Rakija is a general term for distilled beverages made from fruits. There are numerous varieties, which are usually named after the type of fruit they are made from. Comparatively many people brew their own rakija. Loza, made from grapes, is considered the national drink.

Beer edit

Beer has become recently popular and is enjoyed in Serbia, even outpacing the traditional raki and wine. The largest brewery in the country is Apatinska pivara.

Wine edit

There are nearly 110,000 hectares of vineyards in Serbia, producing about 645,000 tons of grapes annually, with South Serbia producing the most. Because of that, Serbia is internationally recognized as a great wine producer.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Serbia Agriculture". Sputnik News. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2018.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ "GMO Free Europe". 26 February 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  3. ^ "Ljajic: GMO preventing Serbia from joining World Trade Organization". eKapija. Tanjug. 9 February 2017.
  4. ^ Antonić, Dragomir (2006-07-23). Царство за гибаницу. Politika 33300 (in Serbian). Politika. p. 11.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nikola Vrzić (December 28, 2000). "Sve srpske kašike" (Windows-1250). NIN (in Serbian). Retrieved 13 June 2012.
  6. ^ Antonić, Dragomir (2006-07-23). Царство за гибаницу. Politika 33300 (in Serbian). Politika. p. 11.
  7. ^ William of Tyre, Historia Transmarina 20.4.
  8. ^ Ilic, Miodrag (2019-03-27). "Prvi srpski kuvar - Srbskij kuvar jeromonaha Jeroteja Draganovića | Recepti i Kuvar online" (in Serbian). Retrieved 2022-11-30.
  9. ^ Poglaviti majstori svakog krkanluka
  10. ^ Istorija pisanja kuvara u Srbiji
  11. ^ "Food « National Tourism Organisation of Serbia". www.serbia.travel. Archived from the original on 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2016-03-17.
  12. ^ Press Online :: Društvo :: Srpski sir pobedio švajcarski
  13. ^ "TELEGRAF OTKRIVA: Najskuplji sir na svetu proizvodi se u Srbiji, kilogram košta 1.000 evra! (FOTO)". 29 September 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Списак ОГП

External links edit