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List of English dishes

This is a list of prepared dishes characteristic of English cuisine. English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration.[1][2]

Ingredients that might be used to prepare these dishes, such as English vegetables, cuts of meat, or cheeses do not themselves form part of this list.

Contents

English dishesEdit

Name Image First known Savoury/
Sweet
Region Description
Bedfordshire clanger   1800s (century)[3] Savoury and Sweet Bedfordshire Suet crust dumpling with a savoury filling one end, sweet filling the other. The savoury filling is usually meat with diced potatoes and vegetables. The sweet filling can be jam, cooked apple or other fruit.
Bangers and mash   410 at latest (Roman Britain: sausages)[4][5] Savoury National[6] Mashed potatoes and sausages, sometimes served with onion gravy or fried onions. Note that while sausages may date to the time given, potatoes are from the Americas and were not introduced to Europe until the 16th century.
Chicken tikka masala   1900s (century)[7] Savoury Indian dish adopted by British. Pieces of chicken tikka in a spiced creamy sauce
Cobbler   1800s (century), perhaps earlier[8] Savoury or Sweet National, from British American colonies Fruit or savoury (e.g. beef) filling, covered with a scone mixture and baked
Beef Wellington   1939[9][10] Savoury National Beef cooked in a pastry crust
Black peas Savoury Lancashire Purple podded peas soaked overnight and simmered until mushy
Black pudding   800BC (in The Odyssey)[11] Savoury National[a] Blood sausage
Bubble and squeak   Savoury National[6] Fried mashed potato with cabbage
Cauliflower cheese   Savoury National Cauliflower in a thick cheese sauce
Cottage pie,
Shepherd's pie
  1791[12] Savoury National Meat, minced or in pieces, with mashed potato crust
Cumberland sausage   Savoury Cumberland Long sausage
Devilled kidneys   Savoury National [13][14]
Faggots   1851[15] Savoury Midlands
Fish and chips   1870 approx.[16] Savoury National[6][17] White fish fillets in batter (or egg-and-breadcrumbs), deep fried with potato chips
Full English breakfast   1861[b][18] Savoury National A selection of fried foods such as sausages, bacon, eggs, mushrooms, bread, tomatoes; options include kippers, baked beans
Game pie   Savoury National
Hog's pudding Savoury Devon, Cornwall
Jellied eels   Savoury East End of London
Kippers   Savoury National Smoked split herrings
Lancashire hotpot   Savoury Lancashire Meat stew with carrots, potatoes, onions
Lincolnshire sausage   Savoury Lincolnshire
Liver and onion/Liver and bacon   Savoury National Pictured is liver and onions
Pasty   1200s (century)[19] Savoury Cornwall, National Pastry shell filled with meat and potatoes
Pease pudding   Savoury North East Split peas or lentils cooked until soft and thick
Pie and mash   Savoury National
Ploughman's lunch   Savoury National Bread, cheese, apple, pickles
Pork pie   1780s[20][21] Savoury Melton Mowbray, National Cylindrical pie filled with pork and meat jelly
Potted shrimps   1800s (century) or earlier[22] Savoury Lancashire (Morecambe Bay) Shrimps preserved under melted butter
Rag pudding   Savoury Lancashire (Oldham) Minced meat with onions in a suet pastry, which is then boiled or steamed.
Stargazy pie   1900s (century) Savoury Cornwall Fish pie with sardines poking out of the piecrust, looking at the stars
Steak pie   1303[23] Savoury National Beef and gravy in a pastry shell. Can also include ingredients such as ale, kidney, oysters, potato and root vegetables
Steak and kidney pie   Savoury National[6] Beef, kidneys and gravy in a pastry shell.
Steak and kidney pudding   1861[24] Savoury National Suet pudding filled with pieces of beef and kidney in thick gravy
Steak and oyster pie, See Steak pies  
Stottie cake   Savoury North East England Heavy flat bread
Suet pudding 1714[25][26] Savoury or sweet National Steamed pudding made with flour and suet, with meat or fruit mixed in
Sunday roast   1700s (century) Savoury National Roast beef 1700s,[27] Yorkshire pudding (1747),[28] roast potatoes, vegetables. Roast beef with Yorkshire pudding is a national dish of the United Kingdom.[6]
Roast lamb with mint sauce Savoury National
Roast pork with apple sauce Savoury National
Shepherd's pie, see Cottage pie
Toad-in-the-hole   1747;[29] 1788[30] 1891[31] Savoury National[6] Sausages cooked in a tray of batter
Welsh rarebit   Savoury National Melted cheese on toast
Yorkshire pudding   1747[28] Savoury Yorkshire, National Souffle batter baked in very hot oven.
Game pie Savoury National
Panackelty Savoury North East England Slow-baked meat and root vegetables
Parmo Savoury Middlesbrough Chicken or other cutlet in breadcrumbs
Scouse   1706[32] Savoury Liverpool and other seaports, from Northern Europe Lamb or beef stew with potatoes, carrots and onions, cf Norwegian lapskaus
Apple pie   1390[33] Sweet National[c] A pie crust, whether all round or only on top, with a filling of sweetened apple
Bakewell tart   1900s (century)[34] Sweet Derbyshire Pastry shell filled with almond-flavoured sponge cake on a thin layer of jam. Developed from 1826 Bakewell pudding[35]
Banoffee pie   Sweet Hungry Monk Restaurant, East Sussex Pastry shell filled with bananas, cream and toffee
Battenberg Cake   Sweet National
Bread and butter pudding   Sweet National
Christmas pudding   Sweet National
Crumble   Sweet National
Eccles cake   1793[36] Sweet Greater Manchester Flaky pastry with butter and currants
Eton Mess   1800s (century)[37] Sweet Berkshire (Eton College)
Eve's pudding   Sweet National
Fool   Sweet National
Gypsy tart   Sweet National
Cornish Hevva Cake   Sweet Cornwall
Jam Roly-Poly Sweet National
Knickerbocker glory 1920s[38] Sweet National; possibly from New York[38] Ice cream sundae in a tall glass, often with nuts, fruits, meringue, and chocolate sauce; served with whipped cream and a glace cherry
Lardy cake   Sweet
Madeira cake   Sweet National
Mince pie   Sweet National Usually small pastry shells filled with sweet mincemeat; since Early Modern times actual meat omitted
Parkin   Sweet
Pound cake   Sweet National
Queen of Puddings   Sweet National
Saffron cake   Sweet Cornwall
Scones   Sweet National, from Scotland Small bread-like cakes often with raisins
Spotted dick   1800s (century)[39] Sweet National Pudding with suet pastry and dried vine fruits, usually served with custard
Sticky toffee pudding   Sweet National
Summer pudding   Sweet National
Sussex Pond Pudding   Sweet
Syllabub   Sweet National Cold dessert made with cream, alcohol and sugar, often with citrus flavouring
Trifle   Sweet National Cold dessert with varied ingredients, often sponge fingers and fortified wine, jelly, custard, and whipped cream, usually in layers
Treacle tart   Sweet National Pastry shell filled with thick sweet treacle mixture
Victoria Sponge Cake   Sweet National

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ But also traditional across Europe in both Latin and Germanic countries from Portugal in west to Lithuania in east, and from Italy in south to Sweden in north.
  2. ^ Date is for Mrs Beeton's book, but not exactly the breakfast eaten today.
  3. ^ Apple pies are also found in North America, Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-658-2
  2. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  3. ^ "How do you cook a proper Bedfordshire Clanger?". Bedfordshire on Sunday. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  4. ^ Hickman, Martin (30 October 2006). "The secret life of the sausage: A great British institution". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Sausage Varieties". Northampton NN3 3AJ, United Kingdom: Sausage Links. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. It is estimated that there are around 400 sausage varieties available in the UK.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Minahan, J.B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 563. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8.
  7. ^ Grove, Peter; Grove, Colleen (2008). "Is It or Isn't It? (The Chicken Tikka Masala Story)". Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Cobbler". ifood.tv. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  9. ^ Hyslop, Leah (21 August 2013). "Potted histories: Beef Wellington". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 February 2016. The Oxford English Dictionary pinpoints a 1939 guide to eating out in New York as the first reliable reference: “Tenderloin of Beef Wellington. Larded tenderloin of beef. Roast very rare. Allow to cool and roll into pie crust. Slice in portions and serve with sauce Madire."
  10. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa, and Scott, Johnny "Sunday Roast" Kyle Cathie Limited, 2006, p26. Speculates name is from the city in New Zealand.
  11. ^ "Traditional Black Pudding". English Breakfast Society. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Cottage pie". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  13. ^ Meyer, E. (2010). 1200 Traditional English Recipes. Bod Third Party Titles. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-86195-289-3. Book first published in 1898.
  14. ^ O'Connor, K. (2013). The English Breakfast: The Biography of a National Meal, with Recipes. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-85785-491-9.
  15. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, citing Henry Mayhew.
  16. ^ Panayi, 2010. Pages 16–17
  17. ^ Jurafsky, D. (2014). The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu. W. W. Norton. p. pt5. ISBN 978-0-393-24587-5.
  18. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 284
  19. ^ Nuttall, P. Austin (1840). A classical and archæological dictionary of the manners, customs, laws, institutions, arts, etc. of the celebrated nations of antiquity, and of the middle ages. Whittaker and Co, and others. p. 555.
  20. ^ "History of Melton Mowbray Pork Pie". Melton Mowbray Pork Pie Association. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  21. ^ Wilson, C. Anne (June 2003). Food and Drink in Britain: From the Stone Age to the 19th Century. Academy Chicago Publishers. p. 273.
  22. ^ Cloake, Felicity (20 July 2011). "How to cook perfect potted shrimps". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  23. ^ "FAQs: pie & pastry". Food Timeline. Retrieved 2 February 2016. citing Oxford English Dictionary
  24. ^ Cloake, Felicity (1 March 2012). "How to cook the perfect steak and kidney pudding". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  25. ^ Lehmann, Gilly (2003). The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books. pp. 83, 198–199.
  26. ^ Kettilby, Mary (1714). A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery; For the Use of all Good Wives, Tender Mothers, and Careful Nurses. Richard WIlkin.
  27. ^ "Why do the French call the British 'the roast beefs'?". BBC. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  28. ^ a b Glasse, Hannah (1998) [1747]. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1-55709-462-9.
  29. ^ Glasse, Hannah (1747) The Art of Cookery has "pigeons in a hole".
  30. ^ Richard Briggs (1788) The English Art of Cookery has "Toad in a Hole", page 175
  31. ^ (Artusi, Pellegrino (1891) La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene has "toad in the hole".
  32. ^ lobscouse in Merriam-Webster
  33. ^ The Forme of Cury, XXIII. "For to Make Tartys in Applis". England, c. 1390
  34. ^ "The History of the Bakewell Pudding". Bakewellonline.co.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  35. ^ Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 0199677336.
  36. ^ "The history behind (and recipe for) Eccles Cakes". Salford City Council. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  37. ^ Arthur Henry Beavan (1896). "Marlborough House and Its Occupants: Present and Past": 162.
  38. ^ a b "Knickerbocker Glory". The Foods of England Project. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  39. ^ Ayto, John (2012). The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-19-964024-9.

SourcesEdit

  • Ayrton, Elisabeth (1974) The Cookery of England: being a collection of recipes for traditional dishes of all kinds from the fifteenth century to the present day, with notes on their social and culinary background. London: Andre Deutsch.
  • Ayrton, Elisabeth (1980) English Provincial Cooking. London: Mitchell Beazley.
  • Grigson, Jane (1974) English Food. London: Macmillan. Enlarged edition 1979 (ISBN 0-333-26866-0); later editions Ebury Press with foreword by Sophie Grigson.
  • Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  • Hartley, Dorothy (1954) Food in England. London: Macdonald (reissued: London: Little, Brown, 1996, ISBN 0-316-85205-8)
  • Lehmann, Gilly (2003) The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books.
  • Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-658-2.