American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a nonprofit organization in the United States that funds cardiovascular medical research, educates consumers on healthy living and fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke. They are known for publishing guidelines on cardiovascular disease and prevention, standards on basic life support, advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), pediatric advanced life support (PALS), and in 2014 issued the first guidelines for preventing strokes in women.[1] The American Heart Association is also known for operating a number of highly visible public service campaigns starting in the 1970s, and also operates several fundraising events.

American Heart Association
  • 1915; 108 years ago (1915) in New York City, New York (as the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease)
  • June 10, 1924; 99 years ago (1924-06-10) in Chicago, Illinois (as the American Heart Association)
FounderPaul Dudley White (Co-Founder)
Purpose"Building healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke"
Headquarters7272 Greenville Avenue
Dallas, Texas 75231-4596 United States
Key people
Joseph Ching-Ming Wu (President)

Originally formed in New York City in 1924,[2][3] the American Heart Association is currently headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The American Heart Association is a national voluntary health agency.[4] The mission of the organization, updated in 2018, is "To be a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives."[5] The organization’s work can be divided into five key areas: research; heart and brain health; health equity; advocacy; and professional education and development.

History edit

1924–1980s edit

A Health Promotion coordinator at Fleet Activities Sasebo, from Augusta, Ga., checks a sailor's blood pressure

In 1924, six cardiologists Paul Dudley White, Hugh D. McCulloch, Joseph Sailer, Robert H. Halse, Robert B. Preble, Lewis A. Conner,[6] formed the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease as a professional society for doctors. In 1948, the organization transitioned into a nationwide voluntary health organization.[7] Since 1949, it has funded over $5 billion in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and brain health research.[8] The organization, now known as the American Heart Association, consists of over 33 million volunteers who are dedicated to improving heart health and reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases.[7]

In the 1950s and 1960s, the American Heart Association published several reports and guidelines focused on recommended lifestyles to improve cardiovascular health. This included a 1957 report that said: (1) Diet may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, (2) The fat content and total calories in the diet are probably important factors, (3) The ratio between saturated and unsaturated fat may be the basic determinant, and (4) A wide variety of other factors besides fat, both dietary and non-dietary, may be important.[9]

By 1961, these findings had been strengthened, leading to the new 1961 American Heart Association recommendations: (1) Maintain a correct body weight, (2) Engage in moderate exercise, e.g., walking to aid in weight reduction, (3) Reduce intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Increase intake of polyunsaturated fat, (4) Men with a strong family history of atherosclerosis should pay particular attention to diet modification, and (5) Dietary changes should be carried out under medical supervision. These recommendations continued to become more precise from 1957 to 1980, but there maintained "a general coherence among them".[9]

1990s–2000s edit

In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility. The study showed that the American Heart Association was ranked as the fifth "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 95 percent of Americans over the age of 12 choosing the Love and Like A lot description categories.[10]

In 1998, the AHA created the American Stroke Association to help prevent strokes, improve treatments, and maximize recoveries. In 2003, the two organizations created the Get With the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke program.[11] It is a voluntary registry that hospitals can use to receive the latest scientific treatment guidelines.[12] The program also collects data on patient characteristics, hospital adherence to guidelines, and patient outcomes.[11]

In 2004 the American Heart Association launched the "Go Red for Women" campaign[13] specifically targeting women, with information about risks and action they can take to protect their health. All revenues from the local and national campaigns go to support awareness, research, education and community programs to benefit women.[14]

In 2008, the AHA recommended “hands only” CPR as an option for bystanders who want to help keep a cardiac arrest victim alive.[15][16] This method removes the practice of performing rescue breaths and depends solely on chest compressions.[15]

On November 30, 2009, The American Heart Association announced a new cardiac arrest awareness campaign called Be the Beat.[17] The campaign's aim is to teach 12- to 15-year-olds fun ways to learn the basics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and how to use an automated external defibrillator.

2012–present: Recent events and activities edit

Representatives from the American Heart Association meeting with US Representative Martha Roby

In 2012, the AHA renewed its focus on hands-only CPR by carrying out a national campaign to educate more people on how to perform this method. Jennifer Coolidge was a spokesperson for the campaign.[18][19]

It also carried out a campaign in 2012 to educate more people on how to carry out hands-only CPR.[18][19][20] The 2012 campaign, which began in New York City, had Jennifer Coolidge as the spokesperson.[21]

In 2013, the American Heart Association issued a joint guideline recognizing obesity as a disease and recommending its treatment by weight loss.[22]

In 2014, the American Heart Association issued its first guidelines for preventing strokes in women.[1] Just as heart attack systems differ between men and women, men and women also face different stroke risks. For women, the guidelines for preventing strokes focus on factors such as birth control, pregnancy, and depression.[1]

In 2015, the American Heart Association officially endorsed the Tobacco 21 campaign, urging local, state and national governments to raise the tobacco and nicotine sales age from 18 to 21.[23]

In 2016, the American Heart Association, Verily Life Sciences, and AstraZeneca invested $75 million in the One Brave Idea program. The money was awarded to institutions researching new biomarkers, such as genetic and molecular factors, that put individuals at risk for atherosclerosis.[24][25] It was hoped that the research would help the AHA reach its goals of increasing cardiovascular health by 20% and reducing cardiovascular mortality by 20% by 2020.[25]

In 2017, the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and nine other groups redefined high blood pressure for the first time in fourteen years.[26] Under the new guidelines, the high blood pressure reading is 130 over 80, a change from the old 140 over 80. The change was made in recognition of the risk of heart disease, disability, and death faced by those with blood pressures at 130 over 80.[26] The organization said that they hoped by identifying cardiovascular risks earlier, more people would be able to address the health risks by lifestyle changes instead of medication.[26]

In 2018, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology issued new guidelines for clinicians on the management of cholesterol as a way to reduce risk for heart attack and stroke. Newly included in the guidelines is a recommendation to use coronary artery calcium score if healthcare providers are having difficulty deciding if a patient could benefit from statin medications or should focus solely on lifestyle modifications. The cholesterol guidelines were last updated in 2013.[27]

In 2020 and 2021, the annual flagship meeting of the organization was held virtually owing to the COVID-19 pandemic and resumed as an in-person conference in 2022.[28]

Focus Areas edit

Some of the American Heart Association’s research, campaigns, and other work is included here.

Research edit

Since 1949, the AHA has funded over $5 billion in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and brain health research.[29]

Strategically Focused Research Network (SFRN) edit

In 2014, the AHA announced the Strategically Focused Research Network initiative to address “key strategic issues as determined by the AHA Board of Directors.”[30]

Heart and Brain Health edit

Go Red for Women edit

The Go Red for Women campaign started in 2004 to raise awareness that women, and not only men, are vulnerable to heart disease.[31] Between 2016 and 2021, the AHA invested $20 million in the Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network. The SFRN also received $52 million from the National Institutes of Health.[31]

Be the Beat edit

The “Be the Beat” challenge encourages people to learn CPR.[31]

Fellowship edit

American Heart Association, Fellowship of the American Heart Association's Stroke Council

Fellowship is open to wide-ranged medical professionals (physicians, scientists, etc.) who demonstrate a major and productive interest in cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The association has 16 different councils. Members (at the Premium Professional or Premium Professional Plus level) of one of these councils can apply for Fellowship. All applicants from all councils will be evaluated against the same criteria. Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal designation FAmerican Heart Association (Fellow of the American Heart Association), which reflects not only the professional stature of the Fellow but also their record of valuable service to the association and the council. In addition, American Heart Association fellowship offers several benefits; e.g., reduced subscription rates for all American Heart Association print journals and reduced registration fees for American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. [32]

Key people edit

Nancy Brown has been the chief executive officer since 2009. Her salary in 2018 alone was $3,474,435. Ivor Benjamin, M.D.,[33] is the volunteer president of the American Heart Association for its 2018–19 fiscal year.[34] James Postl serves as the volunteer chairperson of the board with his two-year term ending on June 30, 2019.[35]

In February 2020, Kroger chairman and CEO Rodney McMullen was appointed to the American Heart Association CEO Roundtable.[36]

Publications edit

Journals edit

The following journals are published by the American Heart Association:[37]

Standards edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c "First guidelines issued to prevent stroke in women". CBS News.
  2. ^ "American Heart Association | AHA Stock Price, Company Overview & News". Forbes. Retrieved 2023-10-15.
  3. ^ "American Heart Association Records". Retrieved 2023-10-15.
  4. ^ Shepard, W. P. (1950-11-01). "The American Heart Association as a National Voluntary Public Health Agency". Circulation. 2 (5): 736–741. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.2.5.736. PMID 14783826.
  5. ^ "About Us". Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  6. ^ Fisher, Jeffrey (2000-08-29). "Lewis A. Conner". Circulation. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). 102 (9): 1062–1067. doi:10.1161/01.cir.102.9.1062. ISSN 0009-7322.
  7. ^ a b "American Heart Association Records". Retrieved 2023-10-27.
  8. ^ "American Heart Association invests in the future of heart and brain health research". 2023-07-21. Retrieved 2023-10-27.
  9. ^ a b Kritchevsky, David (9 April 1997). History of Recommendations to the Public about Dietary Fat. Experimental Biology 97, Evolution of Ideas about the Nutritional Value of Dietary Fat. New Orleans, LA: American Society for Nutritional Science.
  10. ^ "The Charities Americans Like Most And Least," The Chronicle of Philanthropy, December 13, 1996 and USA Today, December 20, 1994, "Charity begins with health", FINAL 01D
  11. ^ a b Ormseth, Cora H; Sheth, Kevin (2 June 2017). "The American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke development and impact on stroke care". Stroke and Vascular Neurology. 2 (2): 94–105. doi:10.1136/svn-2017-000092. PMC 5600018. PMID 28959497.
  12. ^ Semancik, Alex (2023-10-02). "Memorial Health System recognized by American Heart Association". Retrieved 2023-10-30.
  13. ^ "History of the American Heart Association" (PDF). American Heart Association. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  14. ^ "About Go Red". Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Hands-only CPR as effective as traditional, studies show -". Retrieved 2023-10-30.
  16. ^ Cabrini, L; Biondi-Zoccai, G (2010). "Bystander-initiated chest compression-only CPR is better than standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest". HSR Proceedings in Intensive Care & Cardiovascular Anesthesia. 2 (4): 279–285. PMC 3484593. PMID 23439400.
  17. ^ "Association's Campaign Inspires Teens to Use CPR, AEDs to Save Lives".
  18. ^ a b Centofanti, Deena (June 6, 2012). "'Stifler's mom' helping promote hands only CPR". Fox 2 Detroit. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  19. ^ a b Masters, Maria (June 6, 2012). "The New Rules of CPR". Family Circle. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  20. ^ Pedro F. Frisneda/EDLP (June 6, 2012). "Neoyorquinos aprenden a salvar vidas". ImpreMedia. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  21. ^ "Media Center". American Heart Association. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  22. ^ Jensen, MD; Ryan, DH; Apovian, CM; Ard, JD; Comuzzie, AG; Donato, KA; Hu, FB; Hubbard, VS; Jakicic, JM; Kushner, RF; Loria, CM; Millen, BE; Nonas, CA; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Stevens, J; Stevens, VJ; Wadden, TA; Wolfe, BM; Yanovski, SZ; Jordan, HS; Kendall, KA; Lux, LJ; Mentor-Marcel, R; Morgan, LC; Trisolini, MG; Wnek, J; Anderson, JL; Halperin, JL; Albert, NM; Bozkurt, B; Brindis, RG; Curtis, LH; DeMets, D; Hochman, JS; Kovacs, RJ; Ohman, EM; Pressler, SJ; Sellke, FW; Shen, WK; Smith SC, Jr; Tomaselli, GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice, Guidelines.; Obesity, Society. (24 June 2014). "2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society". Circulation. 129 (25 Suppl 2): S102-38. doi:10.1161/ PMC 5819889. PMID 24222017.
  23. ^ "States Should Heed Strong Support for Raising Tobacco Age of Sale, Says American Heart Association | American Heart Association".
  24. ^ "MIT shares $75 million grant to fight heart disease". MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2023-11-13.
  25. ^ a b Pattani, Aneri (2016-12-22). "Rise in heart disease deaths sends experts down new paths". CNBC. Retrieved 2023-11-13.
  26. ^ a b c Bernstein, Lenny; Eunjung Cha, Arianna (13 November 2017). "Blood pressure of 130 is the new 'high,' according to first update of guidelines in 14 years". Washington Post.
  27. ^ "2018 Cholesterol Guidelines for Heart Health Announced". Johns Hopkins Medicine Newsroom. 10 November 2018.
  28. ^ Abbasi, Jennifer (23 November 2022). "Highlights From the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2022". JAMA. 328 (22): 2195–2197. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.17757. PMID 36416851. S2CID 253799648. Archived from the original on 24 November 2022.
  29. ^ "American Heart Association invests in the future of heart and brain health research". 2023-07-21. Retrieved 2023-11-22.
  30. ^ Muntner, Paul; Becker, Richard C; Calhoun, David; Chen, Daian; Cowley, Allen W.; Flynn, Joseph T; Grobe, Justin L.; Kidambi, Srividya; Kotchen, Theodore A.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Leslie, Kimberly K.; Li, Yingchuan; Liang, Mingyu; Lloyd, Augusta; Mattson, David L. "Introduction to the American Heart Association's Hypertension Strategically Focused Research Network". Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979). 67 (4): 674–680. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06433. ISSN 0194-911X. PMC 5135412. PMID 26902490.
  31. ^ a b c "Go Red for Women: Nearly 20 Years of Much Progress, Some Setbacks". 2023-02-03. Retrieved 2023-12-01.
  32. ^ "Fellow of the American Heart Association (FAHA)". The American Heart Association. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  33. ^ "Growing up in Guyana, his parents encouraged him to dream big. Now he's the AHA president". Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  34. ^ "Ivor J. Benjamin, M.D., FAHA". Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  35. ^ "James J. Postl". Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  36. ^ "Kroger Chairman and CEO Rodney McMullen Appointed to American Heart Association CEO Roundtable". Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  37. ^ "AHA/ASA Journal Submission Sites". AHA/ASA Journals. American Heart Association. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  38. ^ "Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | AHA/ASA Journals". Retrieved 2019-01-08.

External links edit