Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison and Mustela, and part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, otters and ferrets. There are two extant species referred to as "mink": the American mink and the European mink. The extinct sea mink is related to the American mink but was much larger. The American mink is larger and more adaptable than the European mink but, due to variations in size, an individual mink usually cannot be determined as European or American with certainty without looking at the skeleton. However, all European mink have a large white patch on their upper lip, whereas only some American mink have this marking. Therefore, any mink without the patch is certainly of the American species. Taxonomically, both American and European mink were placed in the same genus Mustela but the American mink has since been reclassified as belonging to its own genus, Neovison.[1]

Mink
American Mink.jpg
American mink
(Neovison vison)
Scientific classification
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Phylum:
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Species

Neovison vison
Neovison macrodon
Mustela lutreola

European mink
(Mustela lutreola)

The American mink's fur has been highly prized for use in clothing, with hunting giving way to farming. Their treatment on fur farms has been a focus of animal rights and animal welfare[2] activism. American mink have established populations in Europe (including Great Britain) and South America, after being released from mink farms by animal rights activists, or otherwise escaping from captivity.[3] In the UK, under the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981, it is illegal to release mink into the wild.[4] In some countries, any live mink caught in traps must be humanely killed.[5]

American mink are believed by some to have contributed to the decline of the less hardy European mink through competition (though not through hybridization—native European mink are in fact more closely related to polecats than to North American mink).[6] Trapping is used to control or eliminate introduced American mink populations.[7]

Mink oil is used in some medical products and cosmetics, as well as to treat, preserve and waterproof leather.

SpeciesEdit

SizeEdit

The male weighs about 1 kg (2 lb 3 oz) and is about 62 cm (24 12 in) in length. Farm-bred males can reach 3.2 kg (7 lb 1 oz). The female weighs about 600 g (1 lb 5 oz) and reaches a length of about 51 cm (20 in). The sizes above do not include the tail, which can be from 12.8 to 22.8 cm (5 116 to 9 in).

ColorEdit

A mink's rich glossy coat in its wild state is brown and looks silky. Farm-bred mink can vary from white to almost black, which is reflected in the British wild mink. Their pelage is deep, rich brown, with or without white spots on the underparts, and consists of a slick, dense underfur overlaid with dark, glossy, almost stiff guard hairs.

Breeding and gestationEdit

Mink show the curious phenomenon of delayed implantation. Although the true gestation period is 39 days, the embryo may stop developing for a variable period, so that as long as 76 days may elapse before the litter arrives. Between 45 and 52 days is normal. There is only one litter per year. They typically have between six and 10 kits per litter. Litters as large as 16 have been recorded at fur farms.

StereotypyEdit

On farms, minks are placed in battery cages, a type of soft, metal wire cage that restricts their ability to move. This often results in a condition referred to as stereotypies, an abnormal behavior. These abnormal, repetitive behaviours are a result of keeping them imprisoned, and is similar to the deterioration of mental health in humans.[8] Stereotypies have also been noted to increase during human presence.[8]

To attempt to eliminate stereotypies in captive mink, the Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council has implemented regulations on incorporating environmental enrichments into mink cages. Enrichments are pen-related alterations or the addition of novel objects to improve the mink's physical and psychological health.[9] Enrichments may help reduce the onset of stereotypies, but rarely decrease or eliminate them entirely.[10] Leaving minks alone plays a large role in the prevention of stereotypies, and the animals' well-being.[11]

LifespanEdit

The maximum lifespan of a mink is usually around ten years, but rarely exceeds three years in the wild.[12]

DietEdit

 
Mink eating a crayfish

Mink prey on fish and other aquatic life, small mammals, birds, and eggs; adults may eat young mink.[13] Mink raised on farms primarily eat expired cheese, eggs, fish, meat and poultry slaughterhouse byproducts, dog food, and turkey livers, as well as prepared commercial foods.[14] A farm with 3,000 mink may use as much as two tons of food per day.[15][16]

PredatorsEdit

Great horned owls, bobcats, foxes, coyotes, wolves, and humans are all natural predators of mink. Mink are often hunted to protect the fish population in lakes and rivers, but are becoming endangered because of this.[citation needed] They are trapped for their fur (though the majority of mink fur on the market comes from fur farms).[citation needed]

Waterside habitsEdit

Mink like to live near water and are seldom found far from riverbanks, lakes and marshes. Even when roaming, they tend to follow streams and ditches. Sometimes they leave the water altogether for a few hundred meters, especially when looking for rabbits, one of their favorite foods. In some places, particularly in Scotland and in Iceland, they live along the seashore. Sometimes they live in towns, if suitable water is available. Mink may be present at all hours, even when people are nearby.[citation needed]

TerritoryEdit

Mink are very territorial animals. A male mink will not tolerate another male within his territory, but appears to be less aggressive towards females. Generally, the territories of both male and female animals are separate, but a female's territory may sometimes overlap with that of a male. Very occasionally, it may be totally within a male's.

The territories, which tend to be long and narrow, stretch along river banks, or around the edges of lakes or marshes. Territory sizes vary, but they can be several miles long. Female territories are smaller than those of males.

Each territory has one or two central areas (core areas) where the mink spends most of its time. The core area is usually associated with a good food supply, such as a pool rich in fish, or a good rabbit warren. The mink may stay in its core area, which can be quite small, for several days at a time, but it also makes excursions to the ends of its territory. These excursions seem to be associated with the defense of the territory against intruders. The mink likely checks for any signs of a strange mink and leaves droppings (scat) redolent of its personal scent to reinforce its territorial rights.

Human usesEdit

FarmingEdit

The American mink's fur has been highly prized for use in clothing, with hunting giving way to farming. Their treatment on fur farms has been a focus of animal rights and animal welfare[17] activism. American mink have established populations in Europe (including Great Britain) and South America, after being released from mink farms by animal rights activists, or otherwise escaping from captivity.[18] In the UK, under the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981, it is illegal to release mink into the wild.[19] In some countries, any live mink caught in traps must be humanely killed.[20]

IrelandEdit

There are three mink farms in Ireland, in Donegal, Kerry, and Laois. Mink farming was introduced into the country by two veterinarians. Three thousand mink were released by campaigners into the wild from a farm in the 1960s. It is estimated that there are 33,500 wild mink in Ireland.[21]

The Department of Agriculture issued a statement in November 2020 saying that the Department of Health had advised, following the detection of coronavirus among animals on a Danish mink farm, that the roughly 120,000 farmed Irish mink should be culled. Mink farming was already due to be discontinued under the 2020 Programme for Government but the coronavirus risk had expedited the closure of the industry.[22]

DenmarkEdit

Health concernsEdit

Minks are among the animals that can be infected with coronaviruses.[23] Transmission of the virus from minks to humans was first documented in the Netherlands by way of genetic tracing, which prompted the government to bring forward to the end of 2020 a ban on mink farming scheduled to go into effect in 2024.[24] The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) confirmed that cases of minks infected with COVID-19 had been documented in Utah in August 2020.[25]

In November 2020, Denmark, the world's largest producer of mink fur, announced it is to cull its mink population of 15 to 17 million to stop the spread of Cluster 5, a mutated strain of the virus, which has been linked to the animals[26] and resulting in a mutated COVID-19 to 12 humans.[27][28] The decision was later halted due to the legality of the proposed legislation.[29]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ITIS Standard Report - Error". 27 September 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006.
  2. ^ "Dutch minister reverses battery and mink ban. (Netherlands).(Defeat f…". 29 January 2009. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009.
  3. ^ "Animal rights group claims responsibility for mink release". BBC News. 9 August 1998.
  4. ^ "Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Dispatching a live-caught mink - Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust". Gwct.org.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  6. ^ Lodé, T.; Guiral, G.; Peltier, D. (2005). "European mink-polecat hybridisation events: hazards from natural process?". Journal of Heredity. 96 (2): 1–8. doi:10.1093/jhered/esi021. PMID 15653561.
  7. ^ Haworth, Jenny (3 February 2009) "National cull may exterminate UK mink". Edinburgh. The Scotsman.
  8. ^ a b Mason, G. (1991). "Stereotypies in caged mink". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 30 (1–2): 179–180. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(91)90103-5.
  9. ^ "Code of practice for the care and handling of farmed mink". National Farm Animal Care Council. Archived from the original on 5 April 2018.
  10. ^ Finely, G.; Mason, G.; Pajor, E.; Rouvinen, K.; Rankin K. (2012). "Code of practice for the care and safe handling of mink : review". NFACC.
  11. ^ Mononen; et al. (2012). "The development of on farm welfare assessment protocols for fox and mink: the WelFur project". Animal Welfare. 21 (3): 363–371. doi:10.7120/09627286.21.3.363.
  12. ^ Schlimme, Kurt. "ADW: Neovison vison: INFORMATION". Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  13. ^ Burns, John (2008). "Mink," Alaska Department of Fish & Game.
  14. ^ "Commodity, Mink" (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. January 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2011.
  15. ^ Helgeson, Baird. "Despite Controversy, Fur Farming Rather Mundane". Fur Commission USA. Archived from the original on 18 June 2002.
  16. ^ "Fur farming in the United States" (PDF). Fur Commission USA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2003.
  17. ^ "Dutch minister reverses battery and mink ban. (Netherlands).(Defeat f…". 29 January 2009. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009.
  18. ^ "Animal rights group claims responsibility for mink release". BBC News. 9 August 1998.
  19. ^ "Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  20. ^ "Dispatching a live-caught mink - Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust". Gwct.org.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  21. ^ Calls for Irish minks to be culled amid Covid-19 concerns Irish Independent, 2020-11-10.
  22. ^ Ireland’s mink population to be culled amid Covid-19 fears Irish Independent, 2020-11-19.
  23. ^ Huang, Pien. "Dutch Minks Contract COVID-19 – And Appear To Infect Humans". "All Things Considered" (25 June 2020). National Public Radio, Inc. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  24. ^ "Not fur sale: COVID-19 brings Dutch mink farming to an end". The Economist (5-11 September 2020). The Economist Newspaper Limited.
  25. ^ Cahan, Eli (18 August 2020). "COVID-19 hits U.S. mink farms after ripping through Europe". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  26. ^ "Denmark to cull up to 17m mink blamed for coronavirus mutation". Financial Times. 4 November 2020.
  27. ^ "Denmark to cull up to 17 million mink amid coronavirus fears". 5 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  28. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 mink-associated variant strain – Denmark". Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  29. ^ "Denmark's mass mink cull illegal, PM admits as opposition mounts". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 November 2020.

External linksEdit