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The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota, focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.[4] It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists, along with another 58,400 administrative and allied health staff.[5][6] The practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary care and destination medicine. It is home to the top ten ranked Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in addition to many of the largest, best regarded residency education programs in the United States.[7][8][9] It spends over $660 million a year on research and has more than 3,000 full-time research personnel.[10][11]

Mayo Clinic
Nonprofit 501(c)(3), Public Charitable Organization 509(a)(2)
IndustryHealth care
FoundedJanuary 27, 1864; 155 years ago (1864-01-27)
Rochester, Minnesota, USA
FoundersWilliam Worrall Mayo
William James Mayo
Charles Horace Mayo
Augustus Stinchfield
Christopher Graham
Henry Stanley Plummer
Melvin Millet
E. Star Judd
Donald Balfour
Headquarters,
Area served
Key people
RevenueUS$10.99 billion (2016)[3]:13
Total assetsUS$14.9 billion (2016)[3]:14
Number of employees
63,000[3]:3
Divisions
Websitewww.mayoclinic.org

Coordinates: 44°1′20″N 92°28′0″W / 44.02222°N 92.46667°W / 44.02222; -92.46667

William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a sole proprietorship medical practice that evolved under his sons, Will and Charlie Mayo, along with practice partners Drs. Stinchfield, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet, Judd, and Balfour into Mayo Clinic. Today, in addition to its flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Arizona[12] and Florida.[13] The Mayo Clinic Health System also operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa.[14]

Mayo Clinic is ranked number 1 in the United States[15] on the 2018–2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Hospitals Honor Roll, maintaining a position at or near the top for more than 27 years.[16] It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years, and has continued to achieve this ranking through 2017.[17][18]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
William Worrall Mayo, founder of Mayo Clinic

Early yearsEdit

In 1863, William Worrall Mayo (1819–1911) came to Rochester, Minnesota, from Salford in Lancashire, England, as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War.[19][20] The city was to his liking, and his wife and children joined him in early 1864; the family served in several leadership roles in the community. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night".[21]

Both of W.W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo (1861–1939) and Charles Horace Mayo (1865–1939) grew up in Rochester and, when old enough, both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in 1888.[22][23]

On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.[24] One-third of the town was destroyed, but the Mayo family escaped serious harm. The relief efforts began immediately with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, and the doctors Mayo (W.W. and Will) as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes (1828–1899) and the Sisters of Saint Francis (a teaching order) were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience.[25][26]

 
St. Mary's Hospital in 1910

After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W.W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital and soon other local doctors agreed as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Mary's Hospital was opened by the Sisters. W.W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital. His two sons began seeing patients and performing surgeries at the hospital.[27]

Early founding and development of the Mayo ClinicEdit

In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice.[28] After Stinchfield agreed, W.W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow. The founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Stinchfield, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet, Judd, and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W.W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, and their private practice became a not-for-profit entity. The founders gave the Clinic properties and furnishings to this newly formed association.[29] The integrated practice model developed primarily by Plummer created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic.[30]

Growth and expansionEdit

As the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned, designed and built a new clinic building.[31] Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building.[32]

Until 1919 the Mayo Clinic was operated as a for-profit medical practice.[33][34] In 1919, the Mayo brothers donated the clinic property and significant amounts of their wealth to develop the Mayo Properties Association. The Association later became the Mayo Clinic Foundation.[35] The result of this was that the Mayo Clinic became a non-profit medical practice in 1920. The historic 1914 "Red" Mayo Clinic building, a National Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for the Hammel, Green and Abrahamson-designed Siebens building.[31]

Since 1986, the Mayo Clinic campus has formally included the Rochester Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital, as all operations were integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the needs of Mayo patients.[27] In 2011, the foundation went before the Supreme Court to argue that medical residents should remain exempt from Social Security deductions. In Mayo Foundation v. United States the court sided with the Social Security Administration and required FICA to be deducted going forward.[36] The same year, Tarek Obaid made a major donation in the name of his family to establish the Essam and Dalal Obaid Center for Reconstructive Transplant Surgery.[37][38] In 2010, when plans to establish a proton beam therapy program and to build new facilities in Rochester and Phoenix were underway, philanthropist and longtime Mayo Clinic patient Richard O. Jacobson donated $100 million to the nonprofit. At that time, the donation was the largest in the Mayo Clinic's history.[39][40][41]

Corporate affairsEdit

Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit hospital system with campuses in Rochester, Minnesota; Scottsdale and Phoenix, Arizona; and Jacksonville, Florida.[42][43] Mayo Clinic employs 63,000 people, including more than 4,500 physicians and scientists and 58,400 administrative and allied health staff, as of 2018.[44][45] Of those, approximately 34,000 are based in Rochester.[46] In addition, Mayo Clinic partially owns and operates the Mayo Clinic Health System, which consists of more than 70 hospitals and clinics across Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin.[47] Mayo Clinic also operates the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, a nonprofit college dedicated to training medical and allied health professionals at Mayo Hospitals in Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida.[48]

The clinic created an independent business subsidiary in London in partnership with Oxford University Clinic, a collaboration between the University of Oxford and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust to operate a clinic starting in 2019.[49] The clinic, in the Harley Street Medical Area, will focus on preventative healthcare, with magnetic resonance imaging and CT scan technology and open in the summer of 2019.[50]

Mayo Clinic is led by president and CEO Gianrico Farrugia, M.D.[51] John H. Noseworthy, M.D. retired as president and CEO in December 2018; his predecessor, Denis A. Cortese, M.D. retired in November 2009.[52] Samuel A. DiPiazza, Jr., retired CEO of PricewaterhouseCoopers, is chairman of Mayo Clinic's governing board of trustees.[53]

Core operationsEdit

Patient careEdit

Each year, more than 1.3 million different patients from all 50 states and from more than 150 countries are seen at one of the Mayo Clinic facilities.[6][54] Mayo Clinic offers highly specialized medical care, and a large portion of the patient population are referrals from smaller clinics and hospitals across the upper Midwest and the United States. Mayo Clinic physicians are paid a fixed salary, which is not linked to patient volume (relative value units) or income from fee-for-service payments.[55][56][57] This practice is thought to decrease the monetary motivation to see patients in excessive numbers and increase the incentive to spend more time with individuals.[55]

ResearchEdit

Mayo Clinic researchers contribute to the understanding of disease processes, best clinical practices, and translation of findings from the laboratory to the clinical practice. Nearly 600 doctoral level physicians and research scientists are employed, with an additional 3,400 other health personnel and students with appointments in research. In 2015, more than 2,700 research protocols were reviewed by the Mayo Clinic Institutional review board and 11,000 ongoing human research studies. These research initiatives led to more than 7,300 research publications and review articles in peer-review journals.[6]

EducationEdit

The Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science (MCCMS), established in 1915, offers educational programs embedded in Mayo Clinic's clinical practice and biomedical research activities.[58] MCCMS consists of five accredited schools, including the M.D. degree-granting Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine as well as the master's and Ph.D. degree-granting Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. The Mayo Clinic School of Health Sciences offers training for about 50 health sciences career fields. The Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education runs over 270 residences and fellowships in all medical and surgical specialties. The Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development delivers continuing education courses aimed at practicing medical professionals.

InnovationEdit

Mayo Clinic has adopted more than 15,000 mobile devices from Apple for patient care; including the iPad, iPad Mini and iPhone. Mayo Clinic then created an app for these devices called Synthesis Mobile, which integrated hundreds of their health systems. For Mayo Clinic Care Network members, more apps were created to help patients see their medical records or ask clinicians for assistance.[59] In 2014, Mayo Clinic was developing an app for Apple's HealthKit to help users maintain healthy lifestyles and warn of certain health signs that need attention.[60]

Mayo Clinic, in collaboration with real estate firm Delos Living, launched the Well Living Lab in September 2015. This research facility is designed to simulate real-world, non-hospital environments to allow Mayo Clinic researchers to study the interaction between indoor spaces and human health.[61]

The Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation, established in 2008, was one of the pioneers of innovation in healthcare. It has since worked on over 270 projects and is often looked to as a role model for using design in healthcare.[62]

In March 2018, Mayo Clinic and Mytonomy, a healthcare education system company, partnered to provide video content for cancer patients. The video content is used to address important questions and answers and designed to aid in the decision-making process between patient and doctor.[63]

Contributions to medicineEdit

Mayo Clinic has developed many medical and surgical specialities, including cancer research, heart and lung surgery, laboratory techniques and many others.[64] Two Mayo Clinic staff members, Edward Kendall, Ph.D., and Philip Hench, M.D., were awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1950 for their discovery of cortisone.[65] Mayo Clinic considers its own most significant contribution to medicine to be the development and implementation of the concept of integrated, multi-specialty physician led group medical practice.[66]

RankingsEdit

In 2016-17, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked as the #1 overall hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report. A total of almost 5,000 hospitals were considered and ranked in 16 specialties from cancer and heart disease to respiratory disorders and urology; 153 (just over 3 percent of the total) were ranked in at least one of the 16 specialties. Of the 153 hospitals that are ranked in one or more specialties, 20 qualified for the Honor Roll by earning high scores in at least six specialties. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked in the top 10 in all but one of 16 specialties, in the top 4 in 13 specialties, and was the #1 ranked hospital in 8 of the 12 data-driven specialties. This year U.S. News expanded their common procedures and conditions list to 9 individual measures, and Mayo was one of fewer than 70 hospitals to score High Performing in every category.[67] Additionally, Mayo was the only hospital on the 2016-2017 honor roll to also receive 5 stars from CMS.[68] Every Mayo Clinic hospital received an "A" safety rating from Leapfrog in its April 2017 report.[69]

Additional imagesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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