Old MacDonald Had a Farm

"Old MacDonald Had a Farm", sometimes shortened to Old MacDonald, is a traditional children's song and nursery rhyme about a farmer and the various animals he keeps. Each verse of the song changes the name of the animal and its respective noise. In many versions, the song is cumulative, with the animal sounds from all the earlier verses added to each subsequent verse.[1] For example, the verse uses a cow as an animal and "moo" as the animal's sound.

"Old MacDonald Had a Farm"
Nursery rhyme
Written1706 or earlier
Published1706
Recorded1925
Songwriter(s)Thomas D'Urfey
Lyricist(s)Frederick Thomas Nettlingham

The song was probably written by Thomas D'Urfey for an opera in 1706, before existing as a folk song in the British Isles and North America for hundreds of years in various forms then finally being standardised in the twentieth century. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 745.

The lyrics to the standard version begin as follows, with the animal sound changing with each verse:

Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O!
And on his farm he had a cow, E-I-E-I-O!
With a moo-moo here and a moo-moo there,
Here a moo, there a moo,
Everywhere a moo-moo,
Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O!


HistoryEdit

 
Thomas D'Urfey (1653-1723)

Thomas D'UrfeyEdit

The earliest variant of the song is "In the Fields in Frost and Snow" from a 1706 opera called The Kingdom of the Birds or Wonders of the Sun written by the English writer and composer Thomas D'Urfey. This version begins:

In the Fields in Frost and Snows,

Watching late and early;

There I keep my Father's Cows,

There I Milk 'em Yearly:

Booing here, Booing there,

Here a Boo, there a Boo, every where a Boo,

We defy all Care and Strife,

In a Charming Country-Life.

It is unknown whether this was the origin of the song, or if his version of the song was based on a traditional song already in existence. Like modern versions, the animals change from verse to verse and the rhythm is very similar, but it uses a different minor key melody.

D'Urfey's opera was largely unsuccessful, but the song was recycled, being expanded and printed in D'Urfey's own Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge Melancholy, vol. 2 (1719) and appearing in several operas throughout the eighteenth century such as John Gay and Johann Christoph Pepusch's Polly (1729). It also appeared on song sheets for decades, so it was presumably popular among ordinary English people in the eighteenth century whether it originated from the opera or not.[2]

Traditional English versionsEdit

Several versions were collected in England in around the turn of the twentieth century by folklorists, such as one called "The Farmyard Song" taken from a John Lloyd of Manchester in the 1880s by Anne Gilchrist, and another called "Father's Wood I O" collected in 1906 in Scotter, Lincolnshire by Percy Grainger; both of the original transcriptions of these versions are available via the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library website.[3][4]

 
St. Marylebone Workhouse, 1867

The famous folk song collector Cecil Sharp collected a version called "The Farmyard" in 1908 from a 74-year-old named Mrs. Goodey at Marylebone Workhouse, London;[5] and the lyrics began with the following verse:

Up was I on my father's farm

On a May day morning early;

Feeding of my father's cows

On a May day morning early,

With a moo moo here and a moo moo there,

Here a moo, there a moo, Here a pretty moo.

Six pretty maids come and gang a-long o' me

To the merry green fields of the farm-yard.

Frederick Thomas Nettleingham's 1917 book Tommy's Tunes, a collection of World War I era songs,[6] includes a variant of the song called "Ohio" which lists nine species: horses (neigh-neigh), dogs (bow-wow), hens (cluck cluck), ducks (quack quack), cows (moo moo), pigs (oink oink), cats (meow meow), a goat (baa baa) and a donkey (hee-haw).[7] The farmer is called "Old Macdougal", unlike in most other traditional versions where the farmer is unnamed.

Old Macdougal had a farm. E-I-E-I-O,

And on that farm he had some dogs. E-I-E-I-O,

With a bow-wow here, and a bow-wow there,

Here a bow, there a wow, everywhere a bow-wow.

Traditional Ozark versionsEdit

The song seems to have been particularly popular in the Ozark region of the United States before being standardised. A version was published in Vance Randolph's Ozark Folksongs (1980) called "Old Missouri", sung by a Mr. H. F. Walker of Missouri in 1922. This version names different parts of the mule rather than different animals:

Old Missouri had a mule, he-hi-he-hi-ho,

And on this mule there were two ears, he-hi-he-hi-ho.

With a flip-flop here and a flip-flop there,

And here a flop and there a flop and everywhere a flip-flop

Old Missouri had a mule, he-hi-he-hi-ho.

Several traditional Ozark versions which differ significantly from the standard version were recorded in the 1950s and 60s by different collectors; these recordings are available on the University of Arkansas online digital collection.[8][9][10][11]

 
The Skillet Lickers, c.1926

Early recordings and origin of the famous versionEdit

The oldest version listed in The Traditional Ballad Index, is the Sam Patterson Trio's "Old MacDonald Had a Farm," released on the Edison label in 1925,[12] followed by a version recorded by Gid Tanner and His Skillet Lickers in 1927. These recordings may be the first known versions to use the now standard tune, and the first to name the farmer "Old MacDonald". It is unknown what the traditional source of these iconic elements was, but the American versions seem most similar, with their E-I-E-I-O refrains and "old" farmers mentioned in the first line.


Popular recordings and appearances in mediaEdit

In 1941, Walt Disney produced a film called Old MacDonald Duck where Donald Duck worked on a farm and sang "Old MacDonald Had a Farm".[13]

In 1947, Nat King Cole recorded a version on his album King Cole for Kids.

The song was played (with some cast participation) in the 1951 movie The Lavender Hill Mob.[14]

A variant was used in a 1952 campaign ad for Adlai Stevenson II's unsuccessful campaign for President with slightly altered lyrics promoting the Stevenson campaign's appeal to farmers.[15]

Bing Crosby included the song in a medley on his album Join Bing and Sing Along (1959), then Frank Sinatra (Capitol, 1960), Elvis Presley (in his movie Double Trouble, 1967), and Ella Fitzgerald (on her 1967 Verve album Whisper Not) recorded versions.[16][17][18]

During a performance at the 2014 Ultra Music Festival in Miami, electronic musician deadmau5 played a remix of the Martin Garrix song "Animals" that had its drop changed to follow the tune of the song.[19]

TranslationsEdit

The lyrics have been translated from English into other languages and modified slightly to fit rhythmic and cultural requirements. In most languages below, it is still sung as a children's song to the same tune.

  • In Afrikaans the song is called Ou Oom Klasie het ‘n plaas (meaning “Old Uncle Claus has a farm”).[20]
  • An Egyptian Arabic version of the song exists, with Geddo Ali (in Egyptian Arabic: جدو على, meaning "Grandpa Ali") as the farmer character.
  • In Armenian, there is a translation under copyright by Karenn Presti published in 2017's My First Armenian Songbook.
  • In Chinese, there are several versions of the song with same tune. The most popular is Wáng lǎo xiānshēng yǒu kuài dì (in Chinese: 王老先生有块地, meaning "Old Mr. Wang had some land").
  • In Czech, it is Strýček Donald farmu měl (meaning "Uncle Donald had a farm").
  • In Danish, it is Jens Hansen havde en bondegård (meaning "Jens Hansen had a farm").[21]
  • In Finnish, it is Piippolan vaarilla oli talo (meaning "Grandpa Piippola had a house").[22]
  • In French, it is Dans la ferme de Mathurin (meaning "In Mathurin's farm").[23]
  • In German, it is Onkel Jörg hat einen Bauernhof (meaning "Uncle Jörg has a farm").[24] An alternative version is Old MacDonald hat 'ne Farm (short for eine Farm), keeping the English name of the farmer, and translating the rest quite literally (meaning "Old MacDonald has a farm").
  • In Hebrew, it is LaDod Moshe hayta chava (in Hebrew: לדוד משה הייתה חווה, meaning "Uncle Moses had a farm"). This version was translated by Avraham Broshi.[25]
  • In Italian, it is Nella vecchia fattoria (meaning "In the old farm"). The farmer is Zio Tobia (meaning "Uncle Tobias").[26]
  • In one Japanese version, it is Yukai-na Makiba (in Japanese: ゆかいな牧場, meaning "Happy farm"). Ichiro, Jiro, and Saburo are the farmers who have animals.
    • In another Japanese version, it is Makku no Ojisan (in Japanese: マックのおじさん, meaning "Old man Mac"), sounds playfully like the Western version.
    • In Kansai Japanese, there is a parody song called Osaka Umaimon no Uta (in Japanese: 大阪うまいもんの歌, meaning "Yummy foods in Osaka") made by an Osakan puppet play troupe in 1993.
  • In Korean, it is Geulae geulaeseo (in Korean: '그래 그래서', meaning "Yes, so"). In this version, the farmer "Old Mr. Park" has a farm and animals.
  • In Malay, it is Pak Atan Ada Ladang (meaning "Uncle Atan had a farm").
  • In Persian, it is پیرمرد مهربون (meaning "Kind old man").
  • In Polish, it is Stary Donald farmę miał (meaning "Old Donald had a farm") or Pan McDonald farmę miał (meaning "Mr. McDonald had a farm").
  • In Portuguese, the most common version is Na quinta do tio Manel (meaning "On the farm of Uncle Manel"), with alternate versions being Seu Lobato tinha um sítio (meaning "Mr. Lobato had a site") or even O velho McDonald tinha uma fazenda (meaning "Old MacDonald had a farm").
  • In Russian, unofficial variation:"Дед МакДональд напевал И-ай,и-ай,О!" Translated by Leonid Zuborev cyril.: Леонид Зуборев[27]
  • In Serbian, it is, "Na salašu dede mog" (meaning "On my grandpa's farm").
    • In another Serbian version, it is Стари Мек Доналд има фарму (meaning "Old Mac has a farm").
  • In Slovene, it is Na kmetiji je lepo (meaning "On a farm it is beautiful"). It can be a children's song, but in some versions of the song, the lyrics have been made from childish into vulgar, like a drinking song.
  • Some Spanish versions include En la granja de Pepito (meaning "On Pepito's farm"), El Viejo MacDonald tenía una granja (meaning "Old MacDonald had a farm"), El granjero tenía un campo (meaning "The farmer had a field"), or En la vieja factoría (meaning "In the old factory").[28]
  • In Swedish, it is Per Olsson hade en bonnagård (meaning "Per Olsson had a farm").
  • In Turkish, it is Ali Baba'nın Bir Çiftliği Var (meaning "Ali Baba has a farm").
  • In Ukrainian, it is Дід Іван корівку має (meaning "Uncle Ivan has a cow").
  • In Urdu, it is عبد اللہ کا تھا ایک گاؤں (meaning "Abdullah had a village").

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Old MacDonald Had a Farm". www.csufresno.edu.
  2. ^ "In the Fields in Frost and Snow". Traditional Tune Archive. 2019-05-06. Retrieved 2021-03-04.
  3. ^ "The Farmyard Song (Harry Albino Manuscript Collection HHA/21/1)". The Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  4. ^ "Father's Wood I O (Percy Grainger Manuscript Collection PG/5/155)". The Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  5. ^ "The Farmyard (Cecil Sharp Manuscript Collection (at Clare College, Cambridge) CJS2/10/1984)". The Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  6. ^ "Catalog Record: Tommy's tunes; a comprehensive collection of..." Catalog.hathitrust.org. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  7. ^ "Ohio," Tommy's Tunes, collected and arranged by F. T. Nettleingham (London, W.C. 1: Erskine Macdonald, Ltd., October 1917), pp. 84–85.
  8. ^ "CONTENTdm". digitalcollections.uark.edu. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  9. ^ "CONTENTdm". digitalcollections.uark.edu. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  10. ^ "CONTENTdm". digitalcollections.uark.edu. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  11. ^ "CONTENTdm". digitalcollections.uark.edu. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  12. ^ "Old macdonald had a farm".
  13. ^ King, Jack (1941-09-12), Old MacDonald Duck (Family, Comedy, Animation, Short), Clementine, Clarence Nash, Walt Disney Productions, retrieved 2021-03-09
  14. ^ "IMDb Lavender Hill Mob soundtracks". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  15. ^ "Commercials - 1952 - Let's Not Forget the Farmer". The Living Room Candidate. 29 March 1952. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  16. ^ alan moores (10 July 2009). "Old MacDonald Had A Farm - Spike Jones" – via YouTube.
  17. ^ "Wonderful World! | The Kelly Family Album | Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  18. ^ "Old MacDonald | Ella...of Thee I Swing".
  19. ^ "Deadmau5 trolls Martin Garrix live at Ultra". DJMag. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
  20. ^ Ou Oom Klasie on YouTube
  21. ^ "Jens Hansen havde en bondegård". Danske børnesange. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Finnish Children Songs - Piippolan vaarilla oli talo (English translation)". Lyrics Translate. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  23. ^ Adams, Pam; Lazure, Jacques, 1928- (1990), Sur la ferme à Mathurin, Child's Play (International), ISBN 978-0-85953-461-1CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ "Onkel Jörg hat einen Bauernhof". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  25. ^ "Hebrew Children Songs - Ledod Moshe Hayta Chava (לדוד משה היתה חווה) (English translation)". Lyrics Translate. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  26. ^ "Songs & Rhymes From Italy". Mama Lisa's World of Children and International Culture. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  27. ^ http://www.stihi.ru/2017/12/05/2021
  28. ^ "Canción infantil de animales: En la granja de pepito". Conmishijos. Retrieved 2 April 2018.