Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; Chinese: 中国科学院) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the "Two Academies (两院)" along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing,[3] with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences.svg

Logo of the Academy
Other name中国科学院 (The Native Name)
Parent institutionState Council of China
Founder(s)Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government (emerged to the State Council in 1954)
Established1 November 1949; 72 years ago (1949-11-01)
FocusNatural sciences
PresidentHou Jianguo
Staff60,000 (2018)[1]
Budget$15.2 billion (2020)[2]
Subsidiaries11 branches
100+ scientific research institutes
3 universities
Address52 Sanlihe Rd, Xicheng District, Beijing (Headquarters)
Location
Nationwide
,
Websiteenglish.cas.cn
cas.cn

It is the world's largest research organization, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes,[4][5] and has been consistently ranked among the top research organizations around the world.[6][7][4] It also holds the University of Science and Technology of China and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.[8]

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list's inception in 2016 by Nature Portfolio.[9] It is the most productive institution publishing articles of sustainable development indexed in Web of Science from 1981 to 2018 among all universities and research institutions in the world.[10]

OrganizationEdit

 
Chinese Academy of Sciences headquarters

The Chinese Academy originated in the Academia Sinica founded, in 1928, by the Republic of China. After the Communist Party took control of mainland China in 1949, the residual of Academia Sinica was renamed Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), while others relocated to Taiwan.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has six academic divisions:

The CAS has thirteen regional branches, in Beijing, Shenyang, Changchun, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Hefei and Xinjiang. It has over one hundred institutes and four universities (the University of Science and Technology of China at Hefei, Anhui, the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, ShanghaiTech University, and Shenzhen Institute of Adavanced Technology). Backed by the institutes of CAS, UCAS is headquartered in Beijing, with graduate education bases in Shanghai, Chengdu, Wuhan, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, four Science Libraries of Chinese Academy of Sciences, three technology support centers and two news and publishing units. These CAS branches and offices are located in 20 provinces and municipalities throughout China. CAS has invested in or created over 430 science- and technology-based enterprises in eleven industries, including eight companies listed on stock exchanges.

Being granted a Fellowship of the Academy represents the highest level of national honor for Chinese scientists. The CAS membership system includes Academicians (院士), Emeritus Academicians (荣誉院士) and Foreign Academicians (外籍院士).

Research reputation and rankingsEdit

The Chinese Academy of Sciences was ranked #1 in the 2016,[11][4] 2017,[12] 2018,[13] 2019,[14] and 2020 Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.[15][16]

List of presidentsEdit

  1. 1949–1978: Guo Moruo
  2. 1979–1981: Fang Yi
  3. 1981–1987: Lu Jiaxi
  4. 1987–1997: Zhou Guangzhao
  5. 1997–2011: Lu Yongxiang
  6. 2011–2020: Bai Chunli
  7. 2020–present: Hou Jianguo

Academy membersEdit

Membership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known by the title Academician (CAS), Chinese: 中国科学院院士) is a lifelong honor given to Chinese scientists who have made significant achievements in various fields. According to Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences adopted in 1992 and recently amended in 2014, it is the highest academic title in China. A formal CAS member must hold Chinese citizenship, although foreigners can be elected as foreign CAS members. Members older than 80 are designated as "senior members" and may no longer hold leading positions in the organization.[17] Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carry an obligation to advance science and technology, to advocate and uphold scientific spirit, to develop a scientific and technological workforce, to attend member meetings and receive consultation and evaluation tasks, and to promote international exchanges and cooperation. Academicians can give suggestions and influence Chinese state policy related to science and technology.[18]

As of 2021, the youngest male academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences are chemist Che Chi-ming, materials scientist Lu Ke and geneticist Zhang Yaping (张亚平) whom were respectively elected to the CAS in 1995 and 2003 (Zhang and Lu) all at the age of 38. Chemist Vivian Yam Wing-wah is the youngest female academician elected to the CAS in 2001 also at 38 years of age.

Research institutesEdit

 
Main entrance to Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, CAS, in Ningbo, Zhejiang
 
Institute of Computing Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing

Scientific integrityEdit

On 26 February 2007, CAS published a Declaration of Scientific Ideology and set up a commission for scientific integrity to promote transparency, autonomy and accountability of scientific research in the country. The Ministry of Science and Technology had at the same time also initiated measures to address misconduct in state-funded programs.[21]

PublicationsEdit

Science China
LanguageEnglish
Standard abbreviations
ISO 4Sci. China

Together with the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the academy publishes the peer-reviewed academic journal, Science China (also known as Science in China). Science China comprises seven series:[22]

  • A: Mathematics
  • B: Chemistry
  • C: Life Sciences
  • D: Earth Sciences
  • E: Technological Sciences
  • F: Information Sciences
  • G: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy

CAS also promotes the China Open Access Journals (COAJ) platform,[23] a national variant of the international Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

AwardsEdit

Since 1999 the CAS has issued the annual State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, presented by the President of China to the recipient.[24]

International cooperationEdit

The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth is a branch of CAS. The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth was a customer of Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which provides data transmission services from satellites for a wide range of societal functions.[25] It was reported by Reuters on 21 September 2020 that SSC decided not to renew the contracts with China to help operate Chinese satellites from SSC's ground stations, or seek new business with China.[26]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "The top 10 government institutions in 2018". Nature Index. 20 August 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  2. ^ Chen, Stephen (28 November 2020). "China's big task for a scientist of 'small things'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  3. ^ "Contact." Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on 31 May 2018. "Add 52 Sanlihe Rd., Xicheng District, Beijing, China Postcode: 100864" - Address in Chinese: "地址:北京市三里河路52号 邮政编码:100864"
  4. ^ a b c O'Meara, Sarah (20 April 2016). "Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015". Nature Index. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  5. ^ Cao, Cong (2015). UNESCO Science Report (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 621–641. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.
  6. ^ "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2013–2014". Nature. 522 (7556): S34–S44. 2015. doi:10.1038/522S34a. ISSN 0028-0836.
  7. ^ "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2016 tables".
  8. ^ "中国科学院教育简介 — 中国科学院". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 22 May 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  9. ^ "Institution outputs". Nature Index. 1 December 2019 – 30 November 2020. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  10. ^ Li, R.Y.M.; Li, Y.L.; Crabbe, M.J.C.; Manta, O.; Shoaib, M. The Impact of Sustainability Awareness and Moral Values on Environmental Laws. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5882. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115882
  11. ^ "2016 tables: Institutions Nature Index". Nature Index. 2015–2016. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  12. ^ Conroy, Gemma (12 June 2018). "10 institutions that dominated science in 2017". Nature Index. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  13. ^ "The top 10 global institutions for 2018". Nature. 19 June 2019. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-01922-z. S2CID 241578680.
  14. ^ "Nature Index's top research institutions rankings of 2019". Nature Index. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  15. ^ Crew, Bec; Jia, Hepeng (29 April 2020). "Leading research institutions 2020". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-01230-x. PMID 32350427. S2CID 217548507.
  16. ^ "Institution outputs | Nature Index". Nature Index. 1 August 2019 – 31 July 2020. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  17. ^ "中国科学院院士章程 [Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences]". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  18. ^ "Obligations and Rights of a CAS Member". Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  19. ^ Cyranoski, David (24 January 2018). "First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep". Nature. 553 (7689): 387–388. Bibcode:2018Natur.553..387C. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 29368720. "This paper really marks the beginning of a new era for biomedical research", says Xiong Zhi-Qi, a neuroscientist who studies brain disease at the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience (ION) in Shanghai.
  20. ^ "Director's Introduction". Institute of Neuroscience. Retrieved 25 January 2018. As part of a major drive for excellence in basic research in the new millennium, the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the Institute of Neuroscience (ION) on 27 November 1999.
  21. ^ The Lancet (17 March 2007). "Reforming research in China". The Lancet. 369 (9565): 880. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60419-X. PMID 17368128. S2CID 205948464.
  22. ^ "Science in China Press". Science in China Press. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  23. ^ "中国科技期刊开放获取平台". China Open Access Journals. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  24. ^ "China in Brief – Science and Technology – Awards". China Internet Information Center (State Council Information Office and the China International Publishing Group). Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  25. ^ SSC. "Appendix of SSC's Chinese customers" (PDF). SSC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  26. ^ Ahlander, Johan; Barrett, Jonathan (21 September 2020). "Swedish space agency halts new business helping China operate satellites". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.

SourcesEdit

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