Haplogroup NO (M214/Page39; F176/M2314; CTS5858/M2325/F346; CTS11572), also known as NO-M214 and NO1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. NO is the sole confirmed subclade of Haplogroup K2a1 (K-M2313), which is the sole subclade of Haplogroup K2a (K-M2308).
|Possible time of origin||Formed circa 45,400–45,840 years BP|
(NO/NO1, based on YFull 2017, and previous estimates of: 41,500 [95% CI 37,400 <-> 45,600] years BP, 48,871 [95% CI 37,095 <-> 58,831] years BP, and 50,800 or 43,500 years BP)
|Coalescence age||Circa 41,500 – 40,067 years BP (NO/NO1, based on YFull 2017, and previous estimates of: 36,800 [95% CI 34,300 <-> 39,300] years BP, 41,900 [31,294 <-> 51,202] years BP, and 44,700 or 38,300 years BP depending on mutation rate)|
|Possible place of origin||Southeast Asia or East Asia (Northern China)|
|Descendants||N (M231) and O (M175).|
|Defining mutations||M214/Page39; F176/M2314; CTS5858/M2325/F346; CTS11572|
Before 2016, NO was generally regarded as synonymous with K2a. Researchers such as Poznik et al. 2016 documented Y-DNA, in both ancient remains and living individuals, which: (firstly) had some, but not all, of the mutations regarded previously as defining NO, and (secondly) lacked the SNPs identifying haplogroups Haplogroup N (M231) and Haplogroup O (M175). Poznik et al. therefore considered that K2a and NO constituted "grandparent" and "grandchild" clades, and proposed that the name K2a1 be assigned to the Y-DNA of individuals who belonged to K2a, but did not belong to NO.
There may be at least one other primary branch of NO: the ISOGG official Y-DNA haplogroup tree lists a haplogroup known as "NO1~" [sic] (CTS707/M2306) alongside NO-M214 (which ISOGG refers to as "NO1"). The tilde (~) indicates that its exact position of NO1~ in the phylogeny is unknown. It may be a primary branch or sibling of NO, it may be a primary branch or sibling of K2a1, or it may instead be a primary branch of K2a.
While there is some evidence of NO* being found in living individuals, these examples are not well-researched. Further research may instead identify them as belonging to N* (M231), N1, or the provisional subclade N2 (F3373/M2283/Page56/S323). These cases include:
- 5.7% (2/35) of Bouyei males, in China or Vietnam;
- a pool of four samples of Japanese males at 2.9% (6/210), particularly in Tokushima Prefecture at a rate of 5.7% (4/70), and;
- small proportions of samples from Yizu, Malays, Sô, Mongolians, Daurs, Manchurian Evenks, Hezhes, Huis, Yaos, South Koreans, Fiji (1/107 = 0.9%), Futuna 5%, Niue 3.5%, Tuvalu 3.6%, and Samoa 3%.
Two sets of ancient remains previously considered as possibly belonging to NO have since been reclassified upstream to K2a.
- Ust'-Ishim man dates from approximately 45,000 BP and was found in Omsk Oblast, Russia. (Until 2016 these remains were erroneously classified as K2*.)
- Oase 1: the remains found in Romania of a male who lived 37,000-42,000 years BP.
Likewise, cases previously regarded as possible examples of NO* or NO1*, and since ruled out, include:
- two Han Chinese males previously found to be negative for M175 (i.e. Haplogroup O) and LLY22g (an obsolete, possibly inaccurate marker for N1), have subsequently have been found to belong to N* (N-M231), and;
- a clade first identified in South India, defined by the SNP M147 and labelled "pre-NO" and "Haplogroup X", among other names, was found to be a sibling of NO (K2a) within Haplogroup K2 (K-M526); the new clade was renamed K2e.
- K2a1 K-M2313 (M2313/Z4858)  Named by Poznik 2016; previously not distinguished from K2a.
The position of NO1~ (CTS707/M2306), a subclade of K2a1 or NO, in this phylogeny is unclear.
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- Genealogical DNA test
- Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|
- YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335" (9 December 2017); PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree" (9 December 2017); GeneticHomeland.com, 2016, DNA Marker Index Chromosome Y V4208 (9 December 2017).
- YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.06 at 25 September 2017
- Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Vicente, Mário; et al. (2015). "", "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–466. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114. PMC 4381518. PMID 25770088.
- G. David Poznik, Yali Xue, Fernando L. Mendez, et al., 2016, "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences." Nature Genetics vol. 48, no. 6 (June): pp. 593–599. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.
- Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; et al. (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–211. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388.
- G. David Poznik et al., 2016, "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences" Nature Genetics, no. 48, pp. 593–599.
- 『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史 日本人集団・日本語の成立史』
- ISOGG, Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2018 (17 January 2018).
- Hammer et al. (2005) "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes," The Japan Society of Human Genetics, 2005
- Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; et al. (2006). "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–2439. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223.
- Poznik, GD; Xue, Y; Mendez, FL; Willems, TF; Massaia, A; Wilson Sayres, MA; Ayub, Q; McCarthy, SA; Narechania, A; Kashin, S; Chen, Y; Banerjee, R; Rodriguez-Flores, JL; Cerezo, M; Shao, H; Gymrek, M; Malhotra, A; Louzada, S; Desalle, R; Ritchie, GR; Cerveira, E; Fitzgerald, TW; Garrison, E; Marcketta, A; Mittelman, D; Romanovitch, M; Zhang, C; Zheng-Bradley, X; Abecasis, GR; McCarroll, SA; Flicek, P; Underhill, PA; Coin, L; Zerbino, DR; Yang, F; Lee, C; Clarke, L; Auton, A; Erlich, Y; Handsaker, RE; Bustamante, CD; Tyler-Smith, C (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nat Genet. 48 (6): 593–9. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-002A-F024-C. PMC 4884158. PMID 27111036.
- Tatiana M. Karafet, Brian Hallmark, Murray P. Cox et al., "Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification Across Indonesia," MBE Advance Access published March 5, 2010.
- Karafet; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F.; et al. (2008). "Abstract New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup NO of Y-DNA.|