Yakut scripts

There have been three major Yakut writing systems in use since the early 20th century. The first systematic alphabet was developed by Semyon Novgorodov, and was based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Novgorodov's alphabet was developed in 1917, and continued in use until 1929. In addition to the characters shown below, Novogorodov also introduced four letters to represent the diphthongs found in Yakut: /ɯ͡a/ – ꭠ, /i͡e/ – ꭡ, /u͡o/ – ꭣ, and /y͡ø/ – w.[1] Vowel and consonant length was indicated with the colon (e.g. a:, t:). While this alphabet was in use, various changes were implemented, including the addition of capital letters. After 1929, Novgorodov's alphabet was replaced by a form of Latin script based on the Yanalif.[2] This was in turn replaced in 1939 by an alphabet using the Cyrillic script. Prior to the Novgorodov alphabet, various ad hoc phonetic Latin and Cyrillic-based systems had been developed.

A fragment of suruk bicik

Currently only the Cyrillic Yakut alphabet is in use. This script consists of the usual Russian characters but with 5 additional letters: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү.

Table of alphabets used to write Yakut with approximate dates of use[3]
IPA 1819–1858 1851–1917
(Böhtlingk Alphabet)
(Khitrov Alphabet)
(Novgorodov Alphabet)
1929–1939[4] (Yañalif) 1939–Present Notes
a Аа Аа Аа a Aa Аа
b Бб Бб Бб b Бб
v Вв Вв found only in Russian loanwords
ɡ Гг Гг Гг g Gg Гг
ɣ, ʁ Ҕҕ ʃ Ƣƣ Ҕҕ
d Дд Дд Дд d Dd Дд
ɟ Џџ Ԫԫ з Çç Дьдь
e, je Ее Ее Ее found only in Russian loanwords
jo Ёё found only in Russian loanwords
ʒ Жж Жж found only in Russian loanwords
z Зз Зз found only in Russian loanwords
i Ии,Іі Іі Ии i Ii Ии
j Јј Йй j Jj Йй
ȷ̃ ɟ
k Кк Кк Кк k Kk Кк
l Лл Лл Лл l Ll Лл
ʎ Ll ʎ Lj lj
m Мм Мм Мм m Mm Мм
n Нн Нн Нн n Nn Нн
ŋ Ңң Ҥҥ ŋ Ꞑꞑ Ҥҥ
ɲ Н̕н̕ ɲ Njnj Ньнь
o Оо Оо Оо ɔ Oo Оо
ø Ӧӧ Ёё Ɵɵ Өө
p Пп Пп Пп p Pp Пп
r Рр Рр Рр r Rr Рр
s Сс Сс Сс s Ss Сс
h һ h Hh Һһ
t Тт Тт Тт t Tt Тт
u Уу Уу Уу u Uu Уу
y Ӱӱ y Yy Үү
f Фф, Ѳѳ Фф found only in Russian loanwords
x Хх Хх Хх q Qq Хх
ts Цц Цц found only in Russian loanwords
Чч Чч Чч c Cc Чч
ʃ Шш Шш found only in Russian loanwords
ɕː Щщ Щщ found only in Russian loanwords
◌. Ъъ Ъъ Ъъ found only in Russian loanwords
ɯ Ыы Ыы Ыы ɯ Ьь Ыы
◌ʲ Ьь Ьь Ьь found only in digraphs (дь, нь) and Russian loanwords
e Ее Ää Ээ e Ee Ээ
ju Юю Юю Юю found only in Russian loanwords
ja Яя Яя Яя found only in Russian loanwords


  1. ^ Yevlampiev, Ilya; Jumagueldinov, Nurlan; Pentzlin, Karl (2012-04-26). "Second revised proposal to encode four historic Latin letters for Sakha (Yakut)" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Yakut language". Minority languages of Russia on the net. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
  3. ^ Петров, Н.Е. (1972). "Алфавит Якутского Языка". In Баскаков, Н.А. (ed.). Вопросы Совершенствования Алфавитов Тюркских Языков СССР (in Russian). Moscow: Академия наук СССР.
  4. ^ Saqa tьla: Maꞑnajgь oskuolaƣa yөrener kinige: Grammaatьka uonna Orpograapьja. Bastakь caaha (Саха тыла: Маҥнайгы оскуолаҕа үөрэнэр кинигэ: Граммаатыка уонна Орпограапыйа. Бастакы чааһа)/Учебник якутского языка: Для 1 и 2 класса начальной школы. Грамматика и орфография. Часть 1. Çokuuskaj: Sudaarьstьba Saqa Sirineeƣi Beceettiir Suuta (SSSBS). Siipsep M.K. 1935.

Further readingEdit