Unicode character property

The Unicode Standard assigns character properties to each code point.[1] These properties can be used to handle "characters" (code points) in processes, like in line-breaking, script direction right-to-left or applying controls. Slightly inconsequently, some "character properties" are also defined for code points that have no character assigned, and code points that are labeled like "<not a character>". The character properties are described in Standard Annex #44.[2]

Properties have levels of forcefulness: normative, informative, contributory, or provisional. For simplicity of specification, a character property can be assigned by specifying a continuous range of code points that have the same property.


A Unicode character is assigned a unique Name (na).[1] The name is composed of uppercase letters A–Z, digits 0–9, - (hyphen-minus) and <space>. Some sequences are excluded: names beginning with a space or hyphen, names ending with a space or hyphen, repeated spaces or hyphens, and space after hyphen are not allowed. The name is guaranteed to be unique within Unicode, and can be used to identify a code point and its character. Ideographic characters, of which there are tens of thousands, are named in the pattern "cjk unified ideograph-hhhh". For example, U+4E00 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00. Formatting characters are named too: U+00A0   NO-BREAK SPACE.

The following classes of code point do not have a Name (na=""): Controls (General Category: Cc), Private use (Co), Surrogate (Cs), Non-characters (Cn) and Reserved (Cn). They may be referenced, informally, by a generic or specific meta-name, called "Code Point Labels": <control>, <control-0088>, <reserved>, <noncharacter-hhhh>, <private-use-hhhh>, <surrogate>. Since these labels contain <>-brackets, they can never appear as a Name, which prevents confusion.

Version 1.0 namesEdit

In version 2.0 of Unicode, many names were changed. From then on the rule "a name will never change" came into effect, including the strict (normative) use of alias names. Disused version 1.0-names were moved to the property Alias, to provide some backward compatibility.

Character name aliasEdit

Starting from Unicode version 2.0, the published name for a code point will never change. Therefore, in the event of a character name being misspelled or if the character name is completely wrong or seriously misleading, a formal Character Name Alias may be assigned to the character, and this alias may be used by applications instead of the actual defective character name.[1] For example, U+FE18 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRAKCET has the character name alias "PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET" in order to mitigate the misspelling of "bracket" as "brakcet" in the actual character name; U+A015 YI SYLLABLE WU has the character name alias "YI SYLLABLE ITERATION MARK" because contrary to the character name it does not have a fixed syllabic value.

In addition to character name aliases which are corrections to defective character names, some characters are assigned aliases which are alternative names or abbreviations. Five types of character name aliases are defined in the Unicode Standard:

  • Correction: corrections for misspelled or seriously incorrect character names;
  • Control: ISO 6429 names for C0 and C1 control functions (which are not assigned character names in the Unicode Standard);
  • Alternate: alternative names for some format characters (only U+FEFF "ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE" which has the alias "BYTE ORDER MARK");
  • Figment: Documented labels for some C1 control code functions which are not actual names in any standard;
  • Abbreviation: Abbreviations or acronyms for control codes, format characters, spaces, and variation selectors.

All formal character name aliases follow the rules for permissible character names, and are guaranteed to be unique within both the character name alias and the character name namespaces (for this reason, the ISO 6429 name "BELL" is not defined as an alias for U+0007 because U+1F514 is named "BELL").[1]

As of Unicode version 12.1, twenty-eight formal character name aliases are defined as corrections for defective character names.[3]

Character Name Alias

Apart from these normative names, informal names may be shown in the Unicode code charts. These are other commonly used names for a character, and need not be restricted to letters A–Z, digits 0–9, - (hyphen-minus) and <space>. These informal names are not guaranteed to be unique, and may be changed or removed in later versions of the standard.

General CategoryEdit

Each code point is assigned a value for General Category. This is one of the character properties that are also defined for unassigned code points, and code points that are defined "not a character".

General Category (Unicode Character Property)[a]
Value Category Major, minor Basic type[b] Character assigned[b] Count
(as of 13.0)
Letter (L)
Lu Letter, uppercase Graphic Character 1,791
Ll Letter, lowercase Graphic Character 2,155
Lt Letter, titlecase Graphic Character 31 Ligatures containing uppercase followed by lowercase letters (e.g., Dž, Lj, Nj, and Dz)
Lm Letter, modifier Graphic Character 260 A modifier letter
Lo Letter, other Graphic Character 127,004 An ideograph or a letter in a unicase alphabet
Mark (M)
Mn Mark, nonspacing Graphic Character 1,839
Mc Mark, spacing combining Graphic Character 443
Me Mark, enclosing Graphic Character 13
Number (N)
Nd Number, decimal digit Graphic Character 650 All these, and only these, have Numeric Type = De[c]
Nl Number, letter Graphic Character 236 Numerals composed of letters or letterlike symbols (e.g., Roman numerals)
No Number, other Graphic Character 895 E.g., vulgar fractions, superscript and subscript digits
Punctuation (P)
Pc Punctuation, connector Graphic Character 10 Includes "_" underscore
Pd Punctuation, dash Graphic Character 25 Includes several hyphen characters
Ps Punctuation, open Graphic Character 75 Opening bracket characters
Pe Punctuation, close Graphic Character 73 Closing bracket characters
Pi Punctuation, initial quote Graphic Character 12 Opening quotation mark. Does not include the ASCII "neutral" quotation mark. May behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage
Pf Punctuation, final quote Graphic Character 10 Closing quotation mark. May behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage
Po Punctuation, other Graphic Character 593
Symbol (S)
Sm Symbol, math Graphic Character 948 Mathematical symbols (e.g., +, , =, ×, ÷, , , ). Does not include parentheses and brackets, which are in categories Ps and Pe. Also does not include !, *, -, or /, which despite frequent use as mathematical operators, are primarily considered to be "punctuation".
Sc Symbol, currency Graphic Character 62 Currency symbols
Sk Symbol, modifier Graphic Character 123
So Symbol, other Graphic Character 6,431
Separator (Z)
Zs Separator, space Graphic Character 17 Includes the space, but not TAB, CR, or LF, which are Cc
Zl Separator, line Format Character 1 Only U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR (LSEP)
Zp Separator, paragraph Format Character 1 Only U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR (PSEP)
Other (C)
Cc Other, control Control Character 65 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <control>
Cf Other, format Format Character 161 Includes the soft hyphen, joining control characters (zwnj and zwj), control characters to support bi-directional text, and language tag characters
Cs Other, surrogate Surrogate Not (but abstract) 2,048 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <surrogate>
Co Other, private use Private-use Not (but abstract) 137,468 total (will never change)[c] (6,400 in BMP, 131,068 in Planes 15–16) No name,[d] <private-use>
Cn Other, not assigned Noncharacter Not 66 (will never change)[c] No name,[d] <noncharacter>
Reserved Not 830,606 No name,[d] <reserved>
  1. ^ "Table 4-4: General Category" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Table 2-3: Types of code points" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies: Property Value Stability Stability policy: Some gc groups will never change. gc=Nd corresponds with Numeric Type=De (decimal).
  4. ^ a b c d e "Table 4-9: Construction of Code Point Labels" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2020. A Code Point Label may be used to identify a nameless code point. E.g. <control-hhhh>, <control-0088>. The Name remains blank, which can prevent inadvertently replacing, in documentation, a Control Name with a true Control code. Unicode also uses <not a character> for <noncharacter>.


Characters have separate properties to denote they are a punctuation character. The properties all have a Yes/No values: Dash, Quotation_Mark, Sentence_Terminal, Terminal_Punctuation.


Whitespace is a commonly used concept for a typographic effect. Basically it covers invisible characters that have a spacing effect in rendered text. It includes spaces, tabs, and new line formatting controls. In Unicode, such a character has the property set "WSpace=yes". In version 13.0, there are 25 whitespace characters.

Name Code point Width box May break? In
Script Block General
character tabulation U+0009 9 Yes No Common Basic Latin Other,
HT, Horizontal Tab. HTML/XML named entity: &Tab;, LaTeX: '\tab'
line feed U+000A 10 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
LF, Line feed. HTML/XML named entity: &NewLine;
line tabulation U+000B 11 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
VT, Vertical Tab
form feed U+000C 12 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
FF, Form feed
carriage return U+000D 13 Is a line-break Common Basic Latin Other,
CR, Carriage return
space U+0020 32 Yes No Common Basic Latin Separator,
Most common (normal ASCII space)
next line U+0085 133 Is a line-break Common Latin-1
NEL, Next line
no-break space U+00A0 160   No No Common Latin-1
Non-breaking space: identical to U+0020, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: &nbsp;, LaTeX: '\ '
ogham space mark U+1680 5760 Yes No Ogham Ogham Separator,
Used for interword separation in Ogham text. Normally a vertical line in vertical text or a horizontal line in horizontal text, but may also be a blank space in "stemless" fonts. Requires an Ogham font.
en quad U+2000 8192   Yes No Common General
Width of one en. U+2002 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred.
em quad U+2001 8193 Yes No Common General
Also known as "mutton quad". Width of one em. U+2003 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred.
en space U+2002 8194 Yes No Common General
Also known as "nut". Width of one en. U+2000 En Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity: &ensp;, LaTeX: '\enspace'
em space U+2003 8195 Yes No Common General
Also known as "mutton". Width of one em. U+2001 Em Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp;, LaTeX: '\quad'
three-per-em space U+2004 8196 Yes No Common General
Also known as "thick space". One third of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp13;
four-per-em space U+2005 8197 Yes No Common General
Also known as "mid space". One fourth of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity: &emsp14;
six-per-em space U+2006 8198 Yes No Common General
One sixth of an em wide. In computer typography, sometimes equated to U+2009.
figure space U+2007 8199 No No Common General
Figure space. In fonts with monospaced digits, equal to the width of one digit. HTML/XML named entity: &numsp;
punctuation space U+2008 8200 Yes No Common General
As wide as the narrow punctuation in a font, i.e. the advance width of the period or comma.[4] HTML/XML named entity: &puncsp;
thin space U+2009 8201 Yes No Common General
Thin space; one-fifth (sometimes one-sixth) of an em wide. Recommended for use as a thousands separator for measures made with SI units. Unlike U+2002 to U+2008, its width may get adjusted in typesetting.[5] HTML/XML named entity: &thinsp;; LaTeX: '\,'
hair space U+200A 8202 Yes No Common General
Thinner than a thin space. HTML/XML named entity: &hairsp; (does not work in all browsers)
line separator U+2028 8232 Is a line-break Common General
paragraph separator U+2029 8233 Is a line-break Common General
narrow no-break space U+202F 8239 No No Common General
Narrow no-break space. Similar in function to U+00A0 No-Break Space. When used with Mongolian, its width is usually one third of the normal space; in other context, its width sometimes resembles that of the Thin Space (U+2009).
medium mathematical space U+205F 8287 Yes No Common General
MMSP. Used in mathematical formulae. Four-eighteenths of an em.[6] In mathematical typography, the widths of spaces are usually given in integral multiples of an eighteenth of an em, and 4/18 em may be used in several situations, for example between the a and the + and between the + and the b in the expression a + b.[7] HTML/XML named entity: &MediumSpace;
ideographic space U+3000 12288   Yes No Common CJK Symbols
As wide as a CJK character cell (fullwidth). Used, for example, in tai tou.
 Name  Code point Width box May break? In
Script Block General
mongolian vowel separator U+180E 6158 Yes No Mongolian Mongolian Other,
MVS. A narrow space character, used in Mongolian to cause the final two characters of a word to take on different shapes.[8] It is no longer classified as space character (i.e. in Zs category) in Unicode 6.3.0, even though it was in previous versions of the standard.
zero width space U+200B 8203 Yes No ? General
ZWSP, zero-width space. Used to indicate word boundaries to text processing systems when using scripts that do not use explicit spacing. It is similar to the soft hyphen, with the difference that the latter is used to indicate syllable boundaries, and should display a visible hyphen when the line breaks at it. HTML/XML named entity: &ZeroWidthSpace;[9][c]
zero width non-joiner U+200C 8204 Yes Context-dependent[14] ? General
ZWNJ, zero-width non-joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise be connected, a ZWNJ causes them to be printed in their final and initial forms, respectively. HTML/XML named entity: &zwnj;
zero width joiner U+200D 8205 Yes Context-dependent[15] ? General
ZWJ, zero-width joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise not be connected, a ZWJ causes them to be printed in their connected forms. Can also be used to display joining forms in isolation. Depending on whether a ligature or conjunct is expected by default, can either induce (as in emoji and in Sinhala) or suppress (as in Devanagari) substitution with a single glyph, whilst still permitting use of individual joining forms (unlike ZWNJ). HTML/XML named entity: &zwj;
word joiner U+2060 8288 No No ? General
WJ, word joiner. Similar to U+200B, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: &NoBreak;
zero width non-breaking space U+FEFF 65279  No No ? Arabic
Zero-width non-breaking space. Used primarily as a Byte Order Mark. Use as an indication of non-breaking is deprecated as of Unicode 3.2; see U+2060 instead.
  1. ^ White_Space is a binary Unicode property.[16]
  2. ^ "Unicode 13.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2019-11-27. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  3. ^ Although &ZeroWidthSpace; is one HTML5 named entity for U+200B, the additional names NegativeMediumSpace, NegativeThickSpace, NegativeThinSpace and NegativeVeryThinSpace (which are names used in the Wolfram Language for negative-advance spaces, which it maps to the Private Use Area)[10][11][12][13] are also defined by HTML5 as aliases for U+200B (e.g. &NegativeMediumSpace;).[9]

Other general characteristicsEdit

Ideographic, alphabetic, noncharacter.

Display-related propertiesEdit

Shaping, width.

Bidirectional writingEdit

Six character properties pertain to bi-directional writing: Bidi_Class, Bidi_Control, Bidi_Mirrored, Bidi_Mirroring_Glyph, Bidi_Paired_Bracket and Bidi_Paired_Bracket_Type.

One of Unicode's major features is support of bi-directional (Bidi) text display right-to-left (R-to-L) and left-to-right (L-to-R). The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm UAX9[17] describes the process of presenting text with altering script directions. For example, it enables a Hebrew quote in an English text. The Bidi_Character_Type marks a character's behaviour in directional writing. To override a direction, Unicode has defined special formatting control characters (Bidi-Controls). These characters can enforce a direction, and by definition only affect bi-directional writing.

Each code point has a property called Bidi_Class. It defines its behaviour in a bidirectional text as interpreted by the algorithm:

Bidirectional character type (Unicode character property Bidi_Class)[1]
Type[2] Description Strength Directionality General scope Bidi_Control character[3]
L Left-to-Right Strong L-to-R Most alphabetic and syllabic characters, Chinese characters, non-European or non-Arabic digits, LRM character, ... U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK (LRM)
R Right-to-Left Strong R-to-L Adlam, Hebrew, Mandaic, Mende Kikakui, N'Ko, Samaritan, ancient scripts like Kharoshthi and Nabataean, RLM character, ... U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK (RLM)
AL Arabic Letter Strong R-to-L Arabic, Hanifi Rohingya, Sogdian, Syriac, and Thaana alphabets, and most punctuation specific to those scripts, ALM character, ... U+061C ARABIC LETTER MARK (ALM)
EN European Number Weak European digits, Eastern Arabic-Indic digits, Coptic epact numbers, ...
ES European Separator Weak plus sign, minus sign, ...
ET European Number Terminator Weak degree sign, currency symbols, ...
AN Arabic Number Weak Arabic-Indic digits, Arabic decimal and thousands separators, Rumi digits, Hanifi Rohingya digits, ...
CS Common Number Separator Weak colon, comma, full stop, no-break space, ...
NSM Nonspacing Mark Weak Characters in General Categories Mark, nonspacing, and Mark, enclosing (Mn, Me)
BN Boundary Neutral Weak Default ignorables, non-characters, control characters other than those explicitly given other types
B Paragraph Separator Neutral paragraph separator, appropriate Newline Functions, higher-level protocol paragraph determination
S Segment Separator Neutral Tabs
WS Whitespace Neutral space, figure space, line separator, form feed, General Punctuation block spaces (smaller set than the Unicode whitespace list)
ON Other Neutrals Neutral All other characters, including object replacement character
LRE Left-to-Right Embedding Explicit L-to-R LRE character only U+202A LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING (LRE)
LRO Left-to-Right Override Explicit L-to-R LRO character only U+202D LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE (LRO)
RLE Right-to-Left Embedding Explicit R-to-L RLE character only U+202B RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING (RLE)
RLO Right-to-Left Override Explicit R-to-L RLO character only U+202E RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE (RLO)
PDF Pop Directional Format Explicit PDF character only U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING (PDF)
LRI Left-to-Right Isolate Explicit L-to-R LRI character only U+2066 LEFT-TO-RIGHT ISOLATE (LRI)
RLI Right-to-Left Isolate Explicit R-to-L RLI character only U+2067 RIGHT-TO-LEFT ISOLATE (RLI)
FSI First Strong Isolate Explicit FSI character only U+2068 FIRST STRONG ISOLATE (FSI)
PDI Pop Directional Isolate Explicit PDI character only U+2069 POP DIRECTIONAL ISOLATE (PDI)
1.^ Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm (UAX#9), As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Possible Bidirectional character types for character property: Bidi_Class or 'type'
3.^ Bidi_Control characters: Twelve Bidi_Control formatting characters are defined. They are invisible, and have no effect apart from directionality. Nine of them have a unique, overruling BiDi-type that is used by the algorithm. Their type is also their acronym (e.g. character 'LRE' has BiDi type 'LRE').

In normal situations, the algorithm can determine the direction of a text by this character property. To control more complex Bidi situations, e.g. when an English text has a Hebrew quote, extra options are added to Unicode. Twelve characters have the property Bidi_Control=Yes: ALM, FSI, LRE, LRI, LRM, LRO, PDF, PDI, RLE, RLI, RLM and RLO as named in the table. These are invisible formatting control characters, only used by the algorithm and with no effect outside of bidirectional formatting.[17] Despite the name, they are formatting characters, not control characters, and have General category "Other, format (Cf)" in the Unicode definition.

Basically, the algorithm determines a sequence of characters with the same strong direction type (R-to-L or L-to-R), taking in account an overruling by the special Bidi-controls. Number strings (Weak types) are assigned a direction according to their strong environment, as are Neutral characters. Finally, the characters are displayed per a string's direction.

Two character properties are relevant to determining a mirror image of a glyph in bidirectional text: Bidi_Mirrored=Yes indicates that the glyph should be mirrored when written R-to-L. The property Bidi_Mirroring_Glyph=U+hhhh can then point to the mirrored character. For example, brackets "()" are mirrored this way. Shaping cursive scripts such as Arabic, and mirroring glyphs that have a direction, is not part of the algorithm.


The Case value is Normative in Unicode. It pertains to those scripts with uppercase (aka capital, majuscule) and the lowercase (aka small, minuscule) letters. Case-difference occurs in Adlam, Armenian, Cherokee, Coptic, Cyrillic, Deseret, Glagolitic, Greek, Khutsuri and Mkhedruli Georgian, Latin, Medefaidrin, Old Hungarian, Osage and Warang Citi scripts.

(upper, lower, title, folding—both simple and full)

Numeric values and typesEdit


Characters are classified with a Numeric type.[1] Characters such as fractions, subscripts, superscripts, Roman numerals, currency numerators, encircled numbers, and script-specific digits are type Numeric. They have a numeric value that can be decimal, including zero and negatives, or a vulgar fraction. If there is not such a value, as with most of the characters, the numeric type is "None".

The characters that do have a numeric value are separated in three groups: Decimal (De), Digit (Di) and Numeric (Nu, i.e. all other). "Decimal" means the character is a straight decimal digit. Only characters that are part of a contiguous encoded range 0..9 have numeric type Decimal. Other digits, like superscripts, have numeric type Digit. All numeric characters like fractions and Roman numerals end up with the type "Numeric". The intended effect is that a simple parser can use these decimal numeric values, without being distracted by say a numeric superscript or a fraction. Seventy-three CJK Ideographs that represent a number, including those used for accounting, are typed Numeric.

On the other hand, characters that could have a numeric value as a second meaning are still marked Numeric type "None", and have no numeric value (""). E.g. Latin letters can be used in paragraph numbering like "II.A.1.b", but the letters "I", "A" and "b" are not numeric (type "None") and have no numeric value.

Numeric Type[a][b] (Unicode character property)
Numeric type Code Has numeric value Example Remarks
Not numeric None No
  • A
  • X (Latin)
  • !
  • Д
  • μ
Numeric Value="NaN"
Decimal De Yes
  • 0
  • 1
  • 9
  •  (Devanagari 6)
  •  (Kannada 6)
  • 𝟨 (Mathematical, styled sans serif)
Straight digit (decimal-radix). Corresponds both ways with General Category=Nd[a]
Digit Di Yes
  • ¹ (superscript)
  •  (digit with full stop)
Decimal, but in typographic context
Numeric Nu Yes
  • ¾
  •  (Tamil number ten)
  •  (Roman numeral)
  •  (Han number 6)
Numeric value, but not decimal-radix
a. ^ "Section 4.6: Numeric Value" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium. March 2020.
b. ^ "Unicode 13.0 Derived Numeric Types". Unicode Character Database. Unicode Consortium. 2019-09-08.

Hexadecimal digitsEdit

Hexadecimal characters are those in the series with hexadecimal values 0...9ABCDEF (sixteen characters, decimal value 0–15). The character property Hex_Digit is set to Yes when a character is in such a series:

Characters in Unicode marked Hex_Digit=Yes[a]
0123456789ABCDEF Basic Latin, capitals Also ASCII_Hex_Digit=Yes
0123456789abcdef Basic Latin, small letters Also ASCII_Hex_Digit=Yes
0123456789ABCDEF Fullwidth forms, capitals
0123456789abcdef Fullwidth forms, small letters
a. ^ "Unicode 13.0 UCD: PropList.txt". 2019-11-27. Retrieved 2020-03-12.

Forty-four characters are marked as Hex_Digit. The ones in the Basic Latin block are also marked as ASCII_Hex_Digit.

Unicode has no separate characters for hexadecimal values. A consequence is, that when using regular characters it is not possible to determine whether hexadecimal value is intended, or even whether a value is intended at all. That should be determined at a higher level, e.g. by prepending "0x" to a hexadecimal number or by context. The only feature is that Unicode can note that a sequence can or can not be a hexadecimal value.


A block is a uniquely named, contiguous range of code points. It is identified by its first and last code point. Blocks do not overlap. A block may contain code points that are reserved, not-assigned etc. Each character that is assigned, has a single "block name" value from the 308 names assigned as of Unicode version 13.0 Unassigned code points outside of an existing block, have the default value "No_block".

Plane Block range Block name Code points[a] Assigned characters Scripts[b][c][d][e][f]
0 BMP U+0000..U+007F Basic Latin[g] 128 128 Latin (52 characters), Common (76 characters)
U+0080..U+00FF Latin-1 Supplement[h] 128 128 Latin (64 characters), Common (64 characters)
U+0100..U+017F Latin Extended-A 128 128 Latin
U+0180..U+024F Latin Extended-B 208 208 Latin
U+0250..U+02AF IPA Extensions 96 96 Latin
U+02B0..U+02FF Spacing Modifier Letters 80 80 Bopomofo (2 characters), Latin (14 characters), Common (64 characters)
U+0300..U+036F Combining Diacritical Marks 112 112 Inherited
U+0370..U+03FF Greek and Coptic 144 135 Coptic (14 characters), Greek (117 characters), Common (4 characters)
U+0400..U+04FF Cyrillic 256 256 Cyrillic (254 characters), Inherited (2 characters)
U+0500..U+052F Cyrillic Supplement 48 48 Cyrillic
0 BMP U+0530..U+058F Armenian 96 91 Armenian
U+0590..U+05FF Hebrew 112 88 Hebrew
U+0600..U+06FF Arabic 256 255 Arabic (237 characters), Common (6 characters), Inherited (12 characters)
U+0700..U+074F Syriac 80 77 Syriac
U+0750..U+077F Arabic Supplement 48 48 Arabic
U+0780..U+07BF Thaana 64 50 Thaana
U+07C0..U+07FF NKo 64 62 Nko
U+0800..U+083F Samaritan 64 61 Samaritan
U+0840..U+085F Mandaic 32 29 Mandaic
U+0860..U+086F Syriac Supplement 16 11 Syriac
0 BMP U+08A0..U+08FF Arabic Extended-A 96 84 Arabic (83 characters), Common (1 character)
U+0900..U+097F Devanagari 128 128 Devanagari (122 characters), Common (2 characters), Inherited (4 characters)
U+0980..U+09FF Bengali 128 96 Bengali
U+0A00..U+0A7F Gurmukhi 128 80 Gurmukhi
U+0A80..U+0AFF Gujarati 128 91 Gujarati
U+0B00..U+0B7F Oriya 128 91 Oriya
U+0B80..U+0BFF Tamil 128 72 Tamil
U+0C00..U+0C7F Telugu 128 98 Telugu
U+0C80..U+0CFF Kannada 128 89 Kannada
U+0D00..U+0D7F Malayalam 128 118 Malayalam
0 BMP U+0D80..U+0DFF Sinhala 128 91 Sinhala
U+0E00..U+0E7F Thai 128 87 Thai (86 characters), Common (1 character)
U+0E80..U+0EFF Lao 128 82 Lao
U+0F00..U+0FFF Tibetan 256 211 Tibetan (207 characters), Common (4 characters)
U+1000..U+109F Myanmar 160 160 Myanmar
U+10A0..U+10FF Georgian 96 88 Georgian (87 characters), Common (1 character)
U+1100..U+11FF Hangul Jamo 256 256 Hangul
U+1200..U+137F Ethiopic 384 358 Ethiopic
U+1380..U+139F Ethiopic Supplement 32 26 Ethiopic
U+13A0..U+13FF Cherokee 96 92 Cherokee
0 BMP U+1400..U+167F Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics 640 640 Canadian Aboriginal
U+1680..U+169F Ogham 32 29 Ogham
U+16A0..U+16FF Runic 96 89 Runic (86 characters), Common (3 characters)
U+1700..U+171F Tagalog 32 20 Tagalog
U+1720..U+173F Hanunoo 32 23 Hanunoo (21 characters), Common (2 characters)
U+1740..U+175F Buhid 32 20 Buhid
U+1760..U+177F Tagbanwa 32 18 Tagbanwa
U+1780..U+17FF Khmer 128 114 Khmer
U+1800..U+18AF Mongolian 176 157 Mongolian (154 characters), Common (3 characters)
U+18B0..U+18FF Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics Extended 80 70 Canadian Aboriginal
0 BMP U+1900..U+194F Limbu 80 68 Limbu
U+1950..U+197F Tai Le 48 35 Tai Le
U+1980..U+19DF New Tai Lue 96 83 New Tai Lue
U+19E0..U+19FF Khmer Symbols 32 32 Khmer
U+1A00..U+1A1F Buginese 32 30 Buginese
U+1A20..U+1AAF Tai Tham 144 127 Tai Tham
U+1AB0..U+1AFF Combining Diacritical Marks Extended 80 17 Inherited
U+1B00..U+1B7F Balinese 128 121 Balinese
U+1B80..U+1BBF Sundanese 64 64 Sundanese
U+1BC0..U+1BFF Batak 64 56 Batak
0 BMP U+1C00..U+1C4F Lepcha 80 74 Lepcha
U+1C50..U+1C7F Ol Chiki 48 48 Ol Chiki
U+1C80..U+1C8F Cyrillic Extended-C 16 9 Cyrillic
U+1C90..U+1CBF Georgian Extended 48 46 Georgian
U+1CC0..U+1CCF Sundanese Supplement 16 8 Sundanese
U+1CD0..U+1CFF Vedic Extensions 48 43 Common (16 characters), Inherited (27 characters)
U+1D00..U+1D7F Phonetic Extensions 128 128 Cyrillic (2 characters), Greek (15 characters), Latin (111 characters)
U+1D80..U+1DBF Phonetic Extensions Supplement 64 64 Greek (1 character), Latin (63 characters)
U+1DC0..U+1DFF Combining Diacritical Marks Supplement 64 63 Inherited
U+1E00..U+1EFF Latin Extended Additional 256 256 Latin
0 BMP U+1F00..U+1FFF Greek Extended 256 233 Greek
U+2000..U+206F General Punctuation 112 111 Common (109 characters), Inherited (2 characters)
U+2070..U+209F Superscripts and Subscripts 48 42 Latin (15 characters), Common (27 characters)
U+20A0..U+20CF Currency Symbols 48 32 Common
U+20D0..U+20FF Combining Diacritical Marks for Symbols 48 33 Inherited
U+2100..U+214F Letterlike Symbols 80 80 Greek (1 character), Latin (4 characters), Common (75 characters)
U+2150..U+218F Number Forms 64 60 Latin (41 characters), Common (19 characters)
U+2190..U+21FF Arrows 112 112 Common
U+2200..U+22FF Mathematical Operators 256 256 Common
U+2300..U+23FF Miscellaneous Technical 256 256 Common
0 BMP U+2400..U+243F Control Pictures 64 39 Common
U+2440..U+245F Optical Character Recognition 32 11 Common
U+2460..U+24FF Enclosed Alphanumerics 160 160 Common
U+2500..U+257F Box Drawing 128 128 Common
U+2580..U+259F Block Elements 32 32 Common
U+25A0..U+25FF Geometric Shapes 96 96 Common
U+2600..U+26FF Miscellaneous Symbols 256 256 Common
U+2700..U+27BF Dingbats 192 192 Common
U+27C0..U+27EF Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A 48 48 Common
U+27F0..U+27FF Supplemental Arrows-A 16 16 Common
0 BMP U+2800..U+28FF Braille Patterns 256 256 Braille
U+2900..U+297F Supplemental Arrows-B 128 128 Common
U+2980..U+29FF Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B 128 128 Common
U+2A00..U+2AFF Supplemental Mathematical Operators 256 256 Common
U+2B00..U+2BFF Miscellaneous Symbols and Arrows 256 253 Common
U+2C00..U+2C5F Glagolitic 96 94 Glagolitic
U+2C60..U+2C7F Latin Extended-C 32 32 Latin
U+2C80..U+2CFF Coptic 128 123 Coptic
U+2D00..U+2D2F Georgian Supplement 48 40 Georgian
U+2D30..U+2D7F Tifinagh 80 59 Tifinagh
0 BMP U+2D80..U+2DDF Ethiopic Extended 96 79 Ethiopic
U+2DE0..U+2DFF Cyrillic Extended-A 32 32 Cyrillic
U+2E00..U+2E7F Supplemental Punctuation 128 83 Common
U+2E80..U+2EFF CJK Radicals Supplement 128 115 Han
U+2F00..U+2FDF Kangxi Radicals 224 214 Han
U+2FF0..U+2FFF Ideographic Description Characters 16 12 Common
U+3000..U+303F CJK Symbols and Punctuation 64 64 Han (15 characters), Hangul (2 characters), Common (43 characters), Inherited (4 characters)
U+3040..U+309F Hiragana 96 93 Hiragana (89 characters), Common (2 characters), Inherited (2 characters)
U+30A0..U+30FF Katakana 96 96 Katakana (93 characters), Common (3 characters)
U+3100..U+312F Bopomofo 48 43 Bopomofo
0 BMP U+3130..U+318F Hangul Compatibility Jamo 96 94 Hangul
U+3190..U+319F Kanbun 16 16 Common
U+31A0..U+31BF Bopomofo Extended 32 32 Bopomofo
U+31C0..U+31EF CJK Strokes 48 36 Common
U+31F0..U+31FF Katakana Phonetic Extensions 16 16 Katakana
U+3200..U+32FF Enclosed CJK Letters and Months 256 255 Hangul (62 characters), Katakana (47 characters), Common (146 characters)
U+3300..U+33FF CJK Compatibility 256 256 Katakana (88 characters), Common (168 characters)
U+3400..U+4DBF CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A 6,592 6,592 Han
U+4DC0..U+4DFF Yijing Hexagram Symbols 64 64 Common
U+4E00..U+9FFF CJK Unified Ideographs 20,992 20,989 Han
0 BMP U+A000..U+A48F Yi Syllables 1,168 1,165 Yi
U+A490..U+A4CF Yi Radicals 64 55 Yi
U+A4D0..U+A4FF Lisu 48 48 Lisu
U+A500..U+A63F Vai 320 300 Vai
U+A640..U+A69F Cyrillic Extended-B 96 96 Cyrillic
U+A6A0..U+A6FF Bamum 96 88 Bamum
U+A700..U+A71F Modifier Tone Letters 32 32 Common
U+A720..U+A7FF Latin Extended-D 224 180 Latin (175 characters), Common (5 characters)
U+A800..U+A82F Syloti Nagri 48 45 Syloti Nagri
U+A830..U+A83F Common Indic Number Forms 16 10 Common
0 BMP U+A840..U+A87F Phags-pa 64 56 Phags Pa
U+A880..U+A8DF Saurashtra 96 82 Saurashtra
U+A8E0..U+A8FF Devanagari Extended 32 32 Devanagari
U+A900..U+A92F Kayah Li 48 48 Kayah Li (47 characters), Common (1 character)
U+A930..U+A95F Rejang 48 37 Rejang
U+A960..U+A97F Hangul Jamo Extended-A 32 29 Hangul
U+A980..U+A9DF Javanese 96 91 Javanese (90 characters), Common (1 character)
U+A9E0..U+A9FF Myanmar Extended-B 32 31 Myanmar
U+AA00..U+AA5F Cham 96 83 Cham
U+AA60..U+AA7F Myanmar Extended-A 32 32 Myanmar
0 BMP U+AA80..U+AADF Tai Viet 96 72 Tai Viet
U+AAE0..U+AAFF Meetei Mayek Extensions 32 23 Meetei Mayek
U+AB00..U+AB2F Ethiopic Extended-A 48 32 Ethiopic
U+AB30..U+AB6F Latin Extended-E 64 60 Latin (56 characters), Greek (1 character), Common (3 characters)
U+AB70..U+ABBF Cherokee Supplement 80 80 Cherokee
U+ABC0..U+ABFF Meetei Mayek 64 56 Meetei Mayek
U+AC00..U+D7AF Hangul Syllables 11,184 11,172 Hangul
U+D7B0..U+D7FF Hangul Jamo Extended-B 80 72 Hangul
U+D800..U+DB7F High Surrogates 896 0 Unknown
U+DB80..U+DBFF High Private Use Surrogates 128 0 Unknown
0 BMP U+DC00..U+DFFF Low Surrogates 1,024 0 Unknown
U+E000..U+F8FF Private Use Area 6,400 6,400 Unknown
U+F900..U+FAFF CJK Compatibility Ideographs 512 472 Han
U+FB00..U+FB4F Alphabetic Presentation Forms 80 58 Armenian (5 characters), Hebrew (46 characters), Latin (7 characters)
U+FB50..U+FDFF Arabic Presentation Forms-A 688 611 Arabic (609 characters), Common (2 characters)
U+FE00..U+FE0F Variation Selectors 16 16 Inherited
U+FE10..U+FE1F Vertical Forms 16 10 Common
U+FE20..U+FE2F Combining Half Marks 16 16 Cyrillic (2 characters), Inherited (14 characters)
U+FE30..U+FE4F CJK Compatibility Forms 32 32 Common
U+FE50..U+FE6F Small Form Variants 32 26 Common
U+FE70..U+FEFF Arabic Presentation Forms-B 144 141 Arabic (140 characters), Common (1 character)
U+FF00..U+FFEF Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms 240 225 Hangul (52 characters), Katakana (55 characters), Latin (52 characters), Common (66 characters)
U+FFF0..U+FFFF Specials 16 5 Common
1 SMP U+10000..U+1007F Linear B Syllabary 128 88 Linear B
U+10080..U+100FF Linear B Ideograms 128 123 Linear B
U+10100..U+1013F Aegean Numbers 64 57 Common
U+10140..U+1018F Ancient Greek Numbers 80 79 Greek
U+10190..U+101CF Ancient Symbols 64 14 Greek (1 character), Common (13 characters)
U+101D0..U+101FF Phaistos Disc 48 46 Common (45 characters), Inherited (1 character)
U+10280..U+1029F Lycian 32 29 Lycian
U+102A0..U+102DF Carian 64 49 Carian
U+102E0..U+102FF Coptic Epact Numbers 32 28 Common (27 characters), Inherited (1 character)
U+10300..U+1032F Old Italic 48 39 Old Italic
1 SMP U+10330..U+1034F Gothic 32 27 Gothic
U+10350..U+1037F Old Permic 48 43 Old Permic
U+10380..U+1039F Ugaritic 32 31 Ugaritic
U+103A0..U+103DF Old Persian 64 50 Old Persian
U+10400..U+1044F Deseret 80 80 Deseret
U+10450..U+1047F Shavian 48 48 Shavian
U+10480..U+104AF Osmanya 48 40 Osmanya
U+104B0..U+104FF Osage 80 72 Osage
U+10500..U+1052F Elbasan 48 40 Elbasan
U+10530..U+1056F Caucasian Albanian 64 53 Caucasian Albanian
1 SMP U+10600..U+1077F Linear A 384 341 Linear A
U+10800..U+1083F Cypriot Syllabary 64 55 Cypriot
U+10840..U+1085F Imperial Aramaic 32 31 Imperial Aramaic
U+10860..U+1087F Palmyrene 32 32 Palmyrene
U+10880..U+108AF Nabataean 48 40 Nabataean
U+108E0..U+108FF Hatran 32 26 Hatran
U+10900..U+1091F Phoenician 32 29 Phoenician
U+10920..U+1093F Lydian 32 27 Lydian
U+10980..U+1099F Meroitic Hieroglyphs 32 32 Meroitic Hieroglyphs
U+109A0..U+109FF Meroitic Cursive 96 90 Meroitic Cursive
1 SMP U+10A00..U+10A5F Kharoshthi 96 68 Kharoshthi
U+10A60..U+10A7F Old South Arabian 32 32 Old South Arabian
U+10A80..U+10A9F Old North Arabian 32 32 Old North Arabian
U+10AC0..U+10AFF Manichaean 64 51 Manichaean
U+10B00..U+10B3F Avestan 64 61 Avestan
U+10B40..U+10B5F Inscriptional Parthian 32 30 Inscriptional Parthian
U+10B60..U+10B7F Inscriptional Pahlavi 32 27 Inscriptional Pahlavi
U+10B80..U+10BAF Psalter Pahlavi 48 29 Psalter Pahlavi
U+10C00..U+10C4F Old Turkic 80 73 Old Turkic
U+10C80..U+10CFF Old Hungarian 128 108 Old Hungarian
1 SMP U+10D00..U+10D3F Hanifi Rohingya 64 50 Hanifi Rohingya
U+10E60..U+10E7F Rumi Numeral Symbols 32 31 Arabic
U+10E80..U+10EBF Yezidi 64 47 Yezidi
U+10F00..U+10F2F Old Sogdian 48 40 Old Sogdian
U+10F30..U+10F6F Sogdian 64 42 Sogdian
U+10FB0..U+10FDF Chorasmian 48 28 Chorasmian
U+10FE0..U+10FFF Elymaic 32 23 Elymaic
U+11000..U+1107F Brahmi 128 109 Brahmi
U+11080..U+110CF Kaithi 80 67 Kaithi
U+110D0..U+110FF Sora Sompeng 48 35 Sora Sompeng
1 SMP U+11100..U+1114F Chakma 80 71 Chakma
U+11150..U+1117F Mahajani 48 39 Mahajani
U+11180..U+111DF Sharada 96 96 Sharada
U+111E0..U+111FF Sinhala Archaic Numbers 32 20 Sinhala
U+11200..U+1124F Khojki 80 62 Khojki
U+11280..U+112AF Multani 48 38 Multani
U+112B0..U+112FF Khudawadi 80 69 Khudawadi
U+11300..U+1137F Grantha 128 86 Grantha (85 characters), Inherited (1 character)
U+11400..U+1147F Newa 128 97 Newa
U+11480..U+114DF Tirhuta 96 82 Tirhuta
1 SMP U+11580..U+115FF Siddham 128 92 Siddham
U+11600..U+1165F Modi 96 79 Modi
U+11660..U+1167F Mongolian Supplement 32 13 Mongolian
U+11680..U+116CF Takri 80 67 Takri
U+11700..U+1173F Ahom 64 58 Ahom
U+11800..U+1184F Dogra 80 60 Dogra
U+118A0..U+118FF Warang Citi 96 84 Warang Citi
U+11900..U+1195F Dives Akuru 96 72 Dives Akuru
U+119A0..U+119FF Nandinagari 96 65 Nandinagari
U+11A00..U+11A4F Zanabazar Square 80 72 Zanabazar Square
1 SMP U+11A50..U+11AAF Soyombo 96 83 Soyombo
U+11AC0..U+11AFF Pau Cin Hau 64 57 Pau Cin Hau
U+11C00..U+11C6F Bhaiksuki 112 97 Bhaiksuki
U+11C70..U+11CBF Marchen 80 68 Marchen
U+11D00..U+11D5F Masaram Gondi 96 75 Masaram Gondi
U+11D60..U+11DAF Gunjala Gondi 80 63 Gunjala Gondi
U+11EE0..U+11EFF Makasar 32 25 Makasar
U+11FB0..U+11FBF Lisu Supplement 16 1 Lisu
U+11FC0..U+11FFF Tamil Supplement 64 51 Tamil
U+12000..U+123FF Cuneiform 1,024 922 Cuneiform
1 SMP U+12400..U+1247F Cuneiform Numbers and Punctuation 128 116 Cuneiform
U+12480..U+1254F Early Dynastic Cuneiform 208 196 Cuneiform
U+13000..U+1342F Egyptian Hieroglyphs 1,072 1,071 Egyptian Hieroglyphs
U+13430..U+1343F Egyptian Hieroglyph Format Controls 16 9 Egyptian Hieroglyphs
U+14400..U+1467F Anatolian Hieroglyphs 640 583 Anatolian Hieroglyphs
U+16800..U+16A3F Bamum Supplement 576 569 Bamum
U+16A40..U+16A6F Mro 48 43 Mro
U+16AD0..U+16AFF Bassa Vah 48 36 Bassa Vah
U+16B00..U+16B8F Pahawh Hmong 144 127 Pahawh Hmong
U+16E40..U+16E9F Medefaidrin 96 91 Medefaidrin
1 SMP U+16F00..U+16F9F Miao 160 149 Miao
U+16FE0..U+16FFF Ideographic Symbols and Punctuation 32 7 Han (2 characters), Khitan Small Script (1 character), Nushu (1 character), Tangut (1 character), Common (2 characters)
U+17000..U+187FF Tangut 6,144 6,136 Tangut
U+18800..U+18AFF Tangut Components 768 768 Tangut
U+18B00..U+18CFF Khitan Small Script 512 470 Khitan small script
U+18D00..U+18D8F Tangut Supplement 144 9 Tangut
U+1B000..U+1B0FF Kana Supplement 256 256 Hiragana (255 characters), Katakana (1 character)
U+1B100..U+1B12F Kana Extended-A 48 31 Hiragana
U+1B130..U+1B16F Small Kana Extension 64 7 Hiragana (3 characters), Katakana (4 characters)
U+1B170..U+1B2FF Nushu 400 396 Nüshu
1 SMP U+1BC00..U+1BC9F Duployan 160 143 Duployan
U+1BCA0..U+1BCAF Shorthand Format Controls 16 4 Common
U+1D000..U+1D0FF Byzantine Musical Symbols 256 246 Common
U+1D100..U+1D1FF Musical Symbols 256 231 Common (209 characters), Inherited (22 characters)
U+1D200..U+1D24F Ancient Greek Musical Notation 80 70 Greek
U+1D2E0..U+1D2FF Mayan Numerals 32 20 Common
U+1D300..U+1D35F Tai Xuan Jing Symbols 96 87 Common
U+1D360..U+1D37F Counting Rod Numerals 32 25 Common
U+1D400..U+1D7FF Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols 1,024 996 Common
U+1D800..U+1DAAF Sutton SignWriting 688 672 SignWriting
1 SMP U+1E000..U+1E02F Glagolitic Supplement 48 38 Glagolitic
U+1E100..U+1E14F Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong 80 71 Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong
U+1E2C0..U+1E2FF Wancho 64 59 Wancho
U+1E800..U+1E8DF Mende Kikakui 224 213 Mende Kikakui
U+1E900..U+1E95F Adlam 96 88 Adlam
U+1EC70..U+1ECBF Indic Siyaq Numbers 80 68 Common
U+1ED00..U+1ED4F Ottoman Siyaq Numbers 80 61 Common
U+1EE00..U+1EEFF Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols 256 143 Arabic
U+1F000..U+1F02F Mahjong Tiles 48 44 Common
U+1F030..U+1F09F Domino Tiles 112 100 Common
1 SMP U+1F0A0..U+1F0FF Playing Cards 96 82 Common
U+1F100..U+1F1FF Enclosed Alphanumeric Supplement 256 200 Common
U+1F200..U+1F2FF Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 256 64 Hiragana (1 character), Common (63 characters)
U+1F300..U+1F5FF Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs 768 768 Common
U+1F600..U+1F64F Emoticons 80 80 Common
U+1F650..U+1F67F Ornamental Dingbats 48 48 Common
U+1F680..U+1F6FF Transport and Map Symbols 128 114 Common
1 SMP U+1F700..U+1F77F Alchemical Symbols 128 116 Common
U+1F780..U+1F7FF Geometric Shapes Extended 128 101 Common
U+1F800..U+1F8FF Supplemental Arrows-C 256 150 Common
U+1F900..U+1F9FF Supplemental Symbols and Pictographs 256 254 Common
U+1FA00..U+1FA6F Chess Symbols 112 98 Common
U+1FA70..U+1FAFF Symbols and Pictographs Extended-A 144 57 Common
U+1FB00..U+1FBFF Symbols for Legacy Computing 256 212 Common
2 SIP U+20000..U+2A6DF CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B 42,720 42,718 Han
U+2A700..U+2B73F CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C 4,160 4,149 Han
U+2B740..U+2B81F CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D 224 222 Han
U+2B820..U+2CEAF CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E 5,776 5,762 Han
U+2CEB0..U+2EBEF CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F 7,488 7,473 Han
U+2F800..U+2FA1F CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 544 542 Han
3 TIP U+30000..U+3134F CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G 4,944 4,939 Han
14 SSP U+E0000..U+E007F Tags 128 97 Common
U+E0100..U+E01EF Variation Selectors Supplement 240 240 Inherited
15 PUA-A U+F0000..U+FFFFF Supplementary Private Use Area-A 65,536 65,534 Unknown
16 PUA-B U+100000..U+10FFFF Supplementary Private Use Area-B 65,536 65,534 Unknown
  1. ^ Code point count includes unassigned code points: non-character, reserved
  2. ^ The script has one or multiple characters in the block, as defined by the Script Property. This is independent of the block name
  3. ^ "Common" and "Unknown" (Zyyy) and "Inherited" (Zinh or Qaai) refer to Scripts in ISO 15924
  4. ^ Unicode Blocks data file. As of Unicode version 13.0
  5. ^ UAX 24: Unicode Script Property (4 alpha code)
  6. ^ UAX 24: Script data file
  7. ^ Called "C0 Controls and Basic Latin" in ISO/IEC 10646
  8. ^ Called "C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement" in ISO/IEC 10646


Each assigned character can have a single value for its "Script" property, signifying to which script it belongs.[18] The value is a four-letter code in the range Aaaa-Zzzz, as available in ISO 15924, which is mapped to a writing system. Apart from when describing the background and usage of a script, Unicode does not use a connection between a script and languages that use that script. So "Hebrew" refers to the Hebrew script, not to the Hebrew language.

The special code Zyyy for "Common" allows a single value for a character that is used in multiple scripts. The code Zinh "Inherited script", used for combining characters and certain other special-purpose code points, indicates that a character "inherits" its script identity from the character with which it is combined. (Unicode formerly used the private code Qaai for this purpose.) The code Zzzz "Unknown" is used for all characters that do not belong to a script (i.e. the default value), such as symbols and formatting characters. Overall, characters of a single script can be scattered over multiple blocks, like Latin characters. And the other way around too: multiple scripts can be present is a single block, e.g. block Letterlike Symbols contains characters from the Latin, Greek and Common scripts.

When the Script is "" (blank), according to Unicode the character does not belong to a script. This pertains to symbols, because the existing ISO script codes "Zmth" (Mathematical notation), "Zsym" (Symbol), and "Zsye" (Symbol, emoji variant) are not used in Unicode. The "Script" property is also blank for code points that are not a typographic character like controls, substitutes, and private use code points.

If there is a specific script alias name in ISO 15924, it is used in the character name: U+0041 A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A, and U+05D0 א HEBREW LETTER ALEF.

ISO 15924 Script in Unicode[e]
Code Numeric Formal name
(+ link to article)
Alias[f] Direc­tion Version
Char­acters Remarks
Adlm 166 Adlam Adlam R-to-L 9.0 88
Afak 439 Afaka Varies Not in Unicode, proposal under review by the Unicode Technical Committee[19][20]
Aghb 239 Caucasian Albanian Caucasian Albanian L-to-R 7.0 53 Ancient/historic
Ahom 338 Ahom, Tai Ahom Ahom L-to-R 8.0 58 Ancient/historic
Arab 160 Arabic Arabic R-to-L 1.0 1,291
Aran 161 Arabic (Nastaliq variant) Mixed Typographic variant of Arabic
Armi 124 Imperial Aramaic Imperial Aramaic R-to-L 5.2 31 Ancient/historic
Armn 230 Armenian Armenian L-to-R 1.0 96
Avst 134 Avestan Avestan R-to-L 5.2 61 Ancient/historic
Bali 360 Balinese Balinese L-to-R 5.0 121
Bamu 435 Bamum Bamum L-to-R 5.2 657
Bass 259 Bassa Vah Bassa Vah L-to-R 7.0 36 Ancient/historic
Batk 365 Batak Batak L-to-R 6.0 56
Beng 325 Bengali (Bangla) Bengali L-to-R 1.0 96
Bhks 334 Bhaiksuki Bhaiksuki L-to-R 9.0 97 Ancient/historic
Blis 550 Blissymbols Varies Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Bopo 285 Bopomofo Bopomofo L-to-R 1.0 77
Brah 300 Brahmi Brahmi L-to-R 6.0 109 Ancient/historic
Brai 570 Braille Braille L-to-R 3.0 256
Bugi 367 Buginese Buginese L-to-R 4.1 30
Buhd 372 Buhid Buhid L-to-R 3.2 20
Cakm 349 Chakma Chakma L-to-R 6.1 71
Cans 440 Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics Canadian Aboriginal L-to-R 3.0 710
Cari 201 Carian Carian L-to-R 5.1 49 Ancient/historic
Cham 358 Cham Cham L-to-R 5.1 83
Cher 445 Cherokee Cherokee L-to-R 3.0 172
Chrs 109 Chorasmian Chorasmian Mixed 13.0 28 Ancient/historic
Cirt 291 Cirth Varies Not in Unicode
Copt 204 Coptic Coptic L-to-R 1.0 137 Ancient/historic, Disunified from Greek in 4.1
Cpmn 402 Cypro-Minoan L-to-R Not in Unicode
Cprt 403 Cypriot syllabary Cypriot R-to-L 4.0 55 Ancient/historic
Cyrl 220 Cyrillic Cyrillic L-to-R 1.0 443
Cyrs 221 Cyrillic (Old Church Slavonic variant) Varies Ancient/historic, typographic variant of Cyrillic
Deva 315 Devanagari (Nagari) Devanagari L-to-R 1.0 154
Diak 342 Dives Akuru Dives Akuru L-to-R 13.0 72 Ancient/historic
Dogr 328 Dogra Dogra L-to-R 11.0 60 Ancient/historic
Dsrt 250 Deseret (Mormon) Deseret L-to-R 3.1 80
Dupl 755 Duployan shorthand, Duployan stenography Duployan L-to-R 7.0 143
Egyd 070 Egyptian demotic Mixed Not in Unicode
Egyh 060 Egyptian hieratic Mixed Not in Unicode
Egyp 050 Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian Hieroglyphs L-to-R 5.2 1,080 Ancient/historic
Elba 226 Elbasan Elbasan L-to-R 7.0 40 Ancient/historic
Elym 128 Elymaic Elymaic R-to-L 12.0 23 Ancient/historic
Ethi 430 Ethiopic (Geʻez) Ethiopic L-to-R 3.0 495
Geok 241 Khutsuri (Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri) Georgian Varies Unicode groups Geok and Geor together as "Georgian"
Geor 240 Georgian (Mkhedruli and Mtavruli) Georgian L-to-R 1.0 173 For Unicode, see also Geok
Glag 225 Glagolitic Glagolitic L-to-R 4.1 132 Ancient/historic
Gong 312 Gunjala Gondi Gunjala Gondi L-to-R 11.0 63
Gonm 313 Masaram Gondi Masaram Gondi L-to-R 10.0 75
Goth 206 Gothic Gothic L-to-R 3.1 27 Ancient/historic
Gran 343 Grantha Grantha L-to-R 7.0 85 Ancient/historic
Grek 200 Greek Greek L-to-R 1.0 518 Sometimes expressed as boustrophedon (mirroring of alternate lines rather than purely left-to-right)
Gujr 320 Gujarati Gujarati L-to-R 1.0 91
Guru 310 Gurmukhi Gurmukhi L-to-R 1.0 80
Hanb 503 Han with Bopomofo (alias for Han + Bopomofo) Varies See Hani, Bopo
Hang 286 Hangul (Hangŭl, Hangeul) Hangul L-to-R 1.0 11,739 Hangul syllables relocated in 2.0
Hani 500 Han (Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja) Han L-to-R 1.0 94,204
Hano 371 Hanunoo (Hanunóo) Hanunoo L-to-R 3.2 21
Hans 501 Han (Simplified variant) Varies Subset Hani
Hant 502 Han (Traditional variant) Varies Subset Hani
Hatr 127 Hatran Hatran R-to-L 8.0 26 Ancient/historic
Hebr 125 Hebrew Hebrew R-to-L 1.0 134
Hira 410 Hiragana Hiragana L-to-R 1.0 379
Hluw 080 Anatolian Hieroglyphs (Luwian Hieroglyphs, Hittite Hieroglyphs) Anatolian Hieroglyphs L-to-R 8.0 583 Ancient/historic
Hmng 450 Pahawh Hmong Pahawh Hmong L-to-R 7.0 127
Hmnp 451 Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong L-to-R 12.0 71
Hrkt 412 Japanese syllabaries (alias for Hiragana + Katakana) Katakana or Hiragana Varies See Hira, Kana
Hung 176 Old Hungarian (Hungarian Runic) Old Hungarian R-to-L 8.0 108 Ancient/historic
Inds 610 Indus (Harappan) Mixed Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Ital 210 Old Italic (Etruscan, Oscan, etc.) Old Italic L-to-R 3.1 39 Ancient/historic
Jamo 284 Jamo (alias for Jamo subset of Hangul) Varies Subset Hang
Java 361 Javanese Javanese L-to-R 5.2 90
Jpan 413 Japanese (alias for Han + Hiragana + Katakana) Varies See Hani, Hira and Kana
Jurc 510 Jurchen L-to-R Not in Unicode
Kali 357 Kayah Li Kayah Li L-to-R 5.1 47
Kana 411 Katakana Katakana L-to-R 1.0 304
Khar 305 Kharoshthi Kharoshthi R-to-L 4.1 68 Ancient/historic
Khmr 355 Khmer Khmer L-to-R 3.0 146
Khoj 322 Khojki Khojki L-to-R 7.0 62 Ancient/historic
Kitl 505 Khitan large script L-to-R Not in Unicode
Kits 288 Khitan small script Khitan Small Script T-to-B 13.0 471 Ancient/historic
Knda 345 Kannada Kannada L-to-R 1.0 89
Kore 287 Korean (alias for Hangul + Han) L-to-R See Hani and Hang
Kpel 436 Kpelle L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Kthi 317 Kaithi Kaithi L-to-R 5.2 67 Ancient/historic
Lana 351 Tai Tham (Lanna) Tai Tham L-to-R 5.2 127
Laoo 356 Lao Lao L-to-R 1.0 82
Latf 217 Latin (Fraktur variant) Varies Typographic variant of Latin
Latg 216 Latin (Gaelic variant) L-to-R Typographic variant of Latin
Latn 215 Latin Latin L-to-R 1.0 1,374 See also: Latin script in Unicode
Leke 364 Leke L-to-R Not in Unicode
Lepc 335 Lepcha (Róng) Lepcha L-to-R 5.1 74
Limb 336 Limbu Limbu L-to-R 4.0 68
Lina 400 Linear A Linear A L-to-R 7.0 341 Ancient/historic
Linb 401 Linear B Linear B L-to-R 4.0 211 Ancient/historic
Lisu 399 Lisu (Fraser) Lisu L-to-R 5.2 49
Loma 437 Loma L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Lyci 202 Lycian Lycian L-to-R 5.1 29 Ancient/historic
Lydi 116 Lydian Lydian R-to-L 5.1 27 Ancient/historic
Mahj 314 Mahajani Mahajani L-to-R 7.0 39 Ancient/historic
Maka 366 Makasar Makasar L-to-R 11.0 25 Ancient/historic
Mand 140 Mandaic, Mandaean Mandaic R-to-L 6.0 29
Mani 139 Manichaean Manichaean R-to-L 7.0 51 Ancient/historic
Marc 332 Marchen Marchen L-to-R 9.0 68 Ancient/historic
Maya 090 Mayan hieroglyphs Mixed Not in Unicode
Medf 265 Medefaidrin (Oberi Okaime, Oberi Ɔkaimɛ) Medefaidrin L-to-R 11.0 91
Mend 438 Mende Kikakui Mende Kikakui R-to-L 7.0 213
Merc 101 Meroitic Cursive Meroitic Cursive R-to-L 6.1 90 Ancient/historic
Mero 100 Meroitic Hieroglyphs Meroitic Hieroglyphs R-to-L 6.1 32 Ancient/historic
Mlym 347 Malayalam Malayalam L-to-R 1.0 118
Modi 324 Modi, Moḍī Modi L-to-R 7.0 79 Ancient/historic
Mong 145 Mongolian Mongolian T-to-B 3.0 167 Includes Clear, Manchu scripts
Moon 218 Moon (Moon code, Moon script, Moon type) Mixed Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Mroo 264 Mro, Mru Mro L-to-R 7.0 43
Mtei 337 Meitei Mayek (Meithei, Meetei) Meetei Mayek L-to-R 5.2 79
Mult 323 Multani Multani L-to-R 8.0 38 Ancient/historic
Mymr 350 Myanmar (Burmese) Myanmar L-to-R 3.0 223
Nand 311 Nandinagari Nandinagari L-to-R 12.0 65 Ancient/historic
Narb 106 Old North Arabian (Ancient North Arabian) Old North Arabian R-to-L 7.0 32 Ancient/historic
Nbat 159 Nabataean Nabataean R-to-L 7.0 40 Ancient/historic
Newa 333 Newa, Newar, Newari, Nepāla lipi Newa L-to-R 9.0 97
Nkdb 085 Naxi Dongba (na²¹ɕi³³ to³³ba²¹, Nakhi Tomba) L-to-R Not in Unicode
Nkgb 420 Nakhi Geba (na²¹ɕi³³ gʌ²¹ba²¹, 'Na-'Khi ²Ggŏ-¹baw, Nakhi Geba) L-to-R Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Nkoo 165 N’Ko NKo R-to-L 5.0 62
Nshu 499 Nüshu Nushu L-to-R 10.0 397
Ogam 212 Ogham Ogham Mixed 3.0 29 Ancient/historic
Olck 261 Ol Chiki (Ol Cemet’, Ol, Santali) Ol Chiki L-to-R 5.1 48
Orkh 175 Old Turkic, Orkhon Runic Old Turkic R-to-L 5.2 73 Ancient/historic
Orya 327 Oriya (Odia) Oriya L-to-R 1.0 91
Osge 219 Osage Osage L-to-R 9.0 72
Osma 260 Osmanya Osmanya L-to-R 4.0 40
Palm 126 Palmyrene Palmyrene R-to-L 7.0 32 Ancient/historic
Pauc 263 Pau Cin Hau Pau Cin Hau L-to-R 7.0 57
Perm 227 Old Permic Old Permic L-to-R 7.0 43 Ancient/historic
Phag 331 Phags-pa Phags-pa T-to-B 5.0 56 Ancient/historic
Phli 131 Inscriptional Pahlavi Inscriptional Pahlavi R-to-L 5.2 27 Ancient/historic
Phlp 132 Psalter Pahlavi Psalter Pahlavi R-to-L 7.0 29 Ancient/historic
Phlv 133 Book Pahlavi Mixed Not in Unicode
Phnx 115 Phoenician Phoenician R-to-L 5.0 29 Ancient/historic
Piqd 293 Klingon (KLI pIqaD) L-to-R Rejected for inclusion in the Unicode Standard[21][22]
Plrd 282 Miao (Pollard) Miao L-to-R 6.1 149
Prti 130 Inscriptional Parthian Inscriptional Parthian R-to-L 5.2 30 Ancient/historic
Qaaa 900 Reserved for private use (start) Not in Unicode
Qaai 908 (Private use) Not in Unicode (Before version 5.2, this code was used instead of Zinh)
Qabx 949 Reserved for private use (end) Not in Unicode
Rjng 363 Rejang (Redjang, Kaganga) Rejang L-to-R 5.1 37
Rohg 167 Hanifi Rohingya Hanifi Rohingya R-to-L 11.0 50
Roro 620 Rongorongo Mixed Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Runr 211 Runic Runic L-to-R 3.0 86 Ancient/historic
Samr 123 Samaritan Samaritan R-to-L 5.2 61
Sara 292 Sarati Mixed Not in Unicode
Sarb 105 Old South Arabian Old South Arabian R-to-L 5.2 32 Ancient/historic
Saur 344 Saurashtra Saurashtra L-to-R 5.1 82
Sgnw 095 SignWriting SignWriting T-to-B 8.0 672
Shaw 281 Shavian (Shaw) Shavian L-to-R 4.0 48
Shrd 319 Sharada, Śāradā Sharada L-to-R 6.1 96
Shui 530 Shuishu L-to-R Not in Unicode
Sidd 302 Siddham, Siddhaṃ, Siddhamātṛkā Siddham L-to-R 7.0 92 Ancient/historic
Sind 318 Khudawadi, Sindhi Khudawadi L-to-R 7.0 69
Sinh 348 Sinhala Sinhala L-to-R 3.0 111
Sogd 141 Sogdian Sogdian R-to-L 11.0 42 Ancient/historic
Sogo 142 Old Sogdian Old Sogdian R-to-L 11.0 40 Ancient/historic
Sora 398 Sora Sompeng Sora Sompeng L-to-R 6.1 35
Soyo 329 Soyombo Soyombo L-to-R 10.0 83 Ancient/historic
Sund 362 Sundanese Sundanese L-to-R 5.1 72
Sylo 316 Syloti Nagri Syloti Nagri L-to-R 4.1 45 Ancient/historic
Syrc 135 Syriac Syriac R-to-L 3.0 88
Syre 138 Syriac (Estrangelo variant) Mixed Typographic variant of Syriac
Syrj 137 Syriac (Western variant) Mixed Typographic variant of Syriac
Syrn 136 Syriac (Eastern variant) Mixed Typographic variant of Syriac
Tagb 373 Tagbanwa Tagbanwa L-to-R 3.2 18
Takr 321 Takri, Ṭākrī, Ṭāṅkrī Takri L-to-R 6.1 67
Tale 353 Tai Le Tai Le L-to-R 4.0 35
Talu 354 New Tai Lue New Tai Lue L-to-R 4.1 83
Taml 346 Tamil Tamil L-to-R 1.0 123
Tang 520 Tangut Tangut L-to-R 9.0 6,914 Ancient/historic
Tavt 359 Tai Viet Tai Viet L-to-R 5.2 72
Telu 340 Telugu Telugu L-to-R 1.0 98
Teng 290 Tengwar L-to-R Not in Unicode
Tfng 120 Tifinagh (Berber) Tifinagh L-to-R 4.1 59
Tglg 370 Tagalog (Baybayin, Alibata) Tagalog L-to-R 3.2 20
Thaa 170 Thaana Thaana R-to-L 3.0 50
Thai 352 Thai Thai L-to-R 1.0 86
Tibt 330 Tibetan Tibetan L-to-R 2.0 207 Added in 1.0, removed in 1.1 and reintroduced in 2.0
Tirh 326 Tirhuta Tirhuta L-to-R 7.0 82
Toto 294 Toto L-to-R Not in Unicode
Ugar 040 Ugaritic Ugaritic L-to-R 4.0 31 Ancient/historic
Vaii 470 Vai Vai L-to-R 5.1 300
Visp 280 Visible Speech L-to-R Not in Unicode
Wara 262 Warang Citi (Varang Kshiti) Warang Citi L-to-R 7.0 84
Wcho 283 Wancho Wancho L-to-R 12.0 59
Wole 480 Woleai Mixed Not in Unicode, proposal in initial/exploratory stage[19]
Xpeo 030 Old Persian Old Persian L-to-R 4.1 50 Ancient/historic
Xsux 020 Cuneiform, Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform L-to-R 5.0 1,234 Ancient/historic
Yezi 192 Yezidi Yezidi R-to-L 13.0 47 Ancient/historic
Yiii 460 Yi Yi L-to-R 3.0 1,220
Zanb 339 Zanabazar Square (Zanabazarin Dörböljin Useg, Xewtee Dörböljin Bicig, Horizontal Square Script) Zanabazar Square L-to-R 10.0 72 Ancient/historic
Zinh 994 Code for inherited script Inherited Inherited 573
Zmth 995 Mathematical notation L-to-R Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zsym 996 Symbols Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zsye 993 Symbols (emoji variant) Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zxxx 997 Code for unwritten documents Not a 'script' in Unicode
Zyyy 998 Code for undetermined script Common Mixed 8,087
Zzzz 999 Code for uncoded script Unknown 970,188 All other code points
  1. ^
    ISO 15924 publications As of 16 April 2020
  2. ^
  3. ^
    ISO 15924 Changes (including Aliases for Unicode; as of 16 April 2020)
  4. ^
    Unicode version 13.0
  5. ^
  6. ^
    Unicode uses the "Property Value Alias" (Alias) as the script-name. These Alias names are part of Unicode and are published informatively next to ISO 15924. An alias script name may be used in a character name: Palm, Palmyrene → U+10860 𐡠 PALMYRENE LETTER ALEPH.

Normalization propertiesEdit

Decompositions, decomposition type, canonical combining class, composition exclusions, and more.


Age is the version of the Standard in which the code point was first designated. The version number is shortened to the numbering major.minor, although there more detailed version numbers are used: versions 4.0.0 and 4.0.1 both are named 4.0 as Age. Given the releases, Age can be from the range: 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 12.1, and 13.0.[23] The long values for Age begin in a V and use an underscore instead of a dot: V1_1, for example.[2] Codepoints without a specifically assigned age value have the value "NA", with the long form "Unassigned".


Once a character has been defined, it will not be withdrawn or changed in defining properties (code point, name). But it can be declared deprecated: A coded character whose use is strongly discouraged.[24] As of Unicode version 10.0, fifteen characters are deprecated:

  • U+0149 LATIN SMALL LETTER N PRECEDED BY APOSTROPHE: use the sequence ʼ0020 006E (ʼ n) instead
  • U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW: use the sequence 0627 065F (اٟ) instead
  • U+0F77 TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR: use the sequence 0FB2 0F81 (ྲཱྀ) instead
  • U+0F79 TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL: use the sequence 0FB3 0F81 (ླཱྀ) instead
  • U+17A4 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAA: use the sequence 17A2 17B6 (អា) instead

The format characters U+206A through U+206F and U+E0001 should not be used at all, but for the other deprecated characters there are recommended alternatives, as shown above.


The Unicode Standard specifies the following boundary-related properties:

  • Grapheme cluster
  • Word
  • Line
  • Sentence


  1. ^ a b c d e "The Unicode Standard, Chapter 4: Character Properties" (PDF). Unicode, Inc. March 2020. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  2. ^ a b "Unicode Standard Annex #44: Unicode Character Database". The Unicode Standard. 2017-06-14.
  3. ^ "UCD: Name Aliases". Unicode Character Database. Unicode Consortium. 2019-03-08.
  4. ^ "Character design standards – space characters". Character design standards. Microsoft. 1998–1999. Archived from the original on August 23, 2000. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
  5. ^ The Unicode Standard 5.0, printed edition, p.205
  6. ^ "General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard 5.1. Unicode Inc. 1991–2008. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
  7. ^ Sargent, Murray III (2006-08-29). "Unicode Nearly Plain Text Encoding of Mathematics (Version 2)". Unicode Technical Note #28. Unicode Inc. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
  8. ^ Gillam, Richard (2002). Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-70052-2.
  9. ^ a b Hickson, Ian. "12.5 Named character references". HTML Standard. WHATWG.
  10. ^ Wolfram. "\[NegativeThickSpace]". Wolfram Language Documentation.
  11. ^ Wolfram. "\[NegativeMediumSpace]". Wolfram Language Documentation.
  12. ^ Wolfram. "\[NegativeThinSpace]". Wolfram Language Documentation.
  13. ^ Wolfram. "\[NegativeVeryThinSpace]". Wolfram Language Documentation.
  14. ^ Faltstrom, P., ed. (August 2010). "Zero Width Non-Joiner". The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA). IETF. sec. A.1. doi:10.17487/RFC5892. RFC 5892. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  15. ^ Faltstrom, P., ed. (August 2010). "Zero Width Joiner". The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA). IETF. sec. A.2. doi:10.17487/RFC5892. RFC 5892. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  16. ^ "Unicode Standard Annex #44, Unicode Character Database".
  17. ^ a b "Unicode Standard Annex #9: Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm". The Unicode Standard. 2017-05-14.
  18. ^ "Unicode Standard Annex #24: Unicode Script Property". The Unicode Standard. 2015-06-01.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Proposed New Scripts". Unicode Consortium. 2018-05-25. Retrieved 2019-09-12.
  20. ^ "Roadmap to the SMP". Unicode Consortium. 2018-08-08. Retrieved 2019-09-12.
  21. ^ Michael Everson (1997-09-18). "Proposal to encode Klingon in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2".
  22. ^ The Unicode Consortium (2001-08-14). "Approved Minutes of the UTC 87 / L2 184 Joint Meeting".
  23. ^ "UCD: Derived Age". Unicode Character Database. Unicode Consortium. 2019-09-08.
  24. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Chapter 3.4 Characters and Encoding, D13: Deprecated character" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. March 2020.