O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

Cyrillic letter O
Phonetic usage:[o], [ɔ], [ɐ], [ɒ], [ʌ]
Numeric value:70
Derived from:Greek letter Omicron (Ο ο)
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Г̡Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
ҦР̌ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́
Т̈Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃Ӳ
У̊Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮
Х̑Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈Ԧ
Ц̌Ц̈ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋЧ̡
ҸЧ̇Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄
Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧Н̃
ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀П́П̧
П̑ҀԚ̆Р́Р̀Р̃Ԗ
С̀С̈ԌҪ̓Т̓Т̀Ԏ
Т̑Т̧Ꚍ̆
ОУУ̇У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓
Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇Х̧Х̓һ̱
ѠѼѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓
Ꚏ̆Ч́Ч̀
Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓Ԭ
Ꚇ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆
Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂Я̈
Я̂Я̨ԘѤѦѪ
ѨѬѮѰѲѴѶ
"O", from Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva's 1911 alphabet book

The letter most commonly represents the sound /ɔ/, like the o in "off". In Russian and Serbo-Croatian, it represents the sound /o/.

History edit

 
Some old Russian typewriters like this one were manufactured without the digit 0 as the letter O could be used instead.

The Cyrillic letter О was derived from the Greek letter Omicron (Ο ο).

Form edit

Modern fonts edit

In modern-style typefaces, the Cyrillic letter O looks exactly like the Latin letter O ⟨O o⟩ and the Greek letter Omicron ⟨Ο ο⟩.

Church Slavonic printed fonts and Slavonic manuscripts edit

Historical typefaces (like poluustav (semi-uncial), a standard font style for the Church Slavonic typography) and old manuscripts represent several additional glyph variants of Cyrillic O, both for decorative and orthographic (sometimes also "hieroglyphic"[1]) purposes, namely:

  • broad variant (Ѻ/ѻ), used mostly as a word initial letter (see Broad On for more details);
  • narrow variant, being used now in Synodal Church Slavonic editions as the first element of digraph Oy/oy (see Uk (Cyrillic) for more details), and in the editions of Old Believers for unstressed "o" as well;
  • variant with a cross inside (Crossed O), Ꚛ, used in certain manuscripts as the initial letter of words окрестъ 'around, nearby' (the root of this Slavonic word, крест, means 'cross') and округъ 'district, neighbourhood' with their derivatives;
  • "eyed" variant (Monocular O) with a dot inside (Ꙩ/ꙩ), used in certain manuscripts in spelling of word око 'eye' and its derivatives. In many other texts, including the birchbark letters, the monocular O was not used as a hieroglyph but largely as a synonym of Broad On signalling the word-initial position;
  • "two-eyed" variants (Binocular O) with two dots inside (Ꙫ/ꙫ or Ꙭ/ꙭ), also double "O" without dots inside were used in certain manuscripts in spelling of dual/plural forms of the words with the same root 'eye';
  • "many-eyed" variant (Multiocular O), ꙮ, used in certain manuscripts in spelling of the same root when embedded into word многоочитый 'many-eyed' (an attribute of seraphim).

Usage edit

In Russian, O is used word-initially, after another vowel, and after non-palatalized consonants. Because of a vowel reduction processes, the Russian /o/ phoneme may have a number of pronunciations in unstressed syllables, including [ɐ] and [ə].

In Macedonian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian and Belarusian, the letter represents the sound /ɔ/.

In Tuvan the Cyrillic letter can be written as a double vowel.[2][3]

Related letters and other similar characters edit

Computing codes edit

Character information
Preview О о
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER O CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1054 U+041E 1086 U+043E
UTF-8 208 158 D0 9E 208 190 D0 BE
Numeric character reference О О о о
Named character reference О о
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 239 EF 207 CF
Code page 855 215 D7 214 D6
Windows-1251 206 CE 238 EE
ISO-8859-5 190 BE 222 DE
Macintosh Cyrillic 142 8E 238 EE

Exotic glyph variants of Cyrillic O are available only in Unicode:[4][5][6][7][8]

  • broad Ѻ/ѻ:
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ROUND OMEGA: U+047A
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ROUND OMEGA: U+047B
  • narrow ᲂ does not just represent itself, but also used in digraph Oy/oy:
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER NARROW O: U+1C82
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER UK: U+0478 (deprecated in favor of combination of Cyrillic letters О and у, U+041E U+0443)
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER UK: U+0479 (deprecated in favor of combination of Cyrillic letters о and у, U+043E U+0443 or U+1C82 U+0443)
  • with a cross inside (Ꚛ/ꚛ):
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER CROSSED O: U+A69A
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CROSSED O: U+A69B
  • doubled Ꚙ/ꚙ:
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DOUBLE O: U+A698
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DOUBLE O: U+A699
  • eyed Ꙩ/ꙩ:
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER MONOCULAR O: U+A668
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER MONOCULAR O: U+A669
  • two-eyed (Ꙫ/ꙫ, Ꙭ/ꙭ):
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BINOCULAR O: U+A66A
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BINOCULAR O: U+A66B
    • CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DOUBLE MONOCULAR O: U+A66C
    • CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DOUBLE MONOCULAR O: U+A66D
  • many-eyed ꙮ:
    • CYRILLIC LETTER MULTIOCULAR O: U+A66E
  • combining O for Church Slavonic abbreviations (as трⷪца = троица '(Holy) Trinity'):
    • COMBINING CYRILLIC LETTER O: 2DEA

References edit

  1. ^ Карский, Ефим (1979). Славянская кирилловская палеография. Moscow.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. ^ "Tuvan language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  3. ^ Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (24 July 2013). Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781136258459. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0. 2016. p. 4. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
  5. ^ "Cyrillic Extended-A: Range: 2DE0–2DFF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0. 2016. p. 3. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
  6. ^ "Cyrillic Extended-B: Range: A640–A69F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0. 2016. p. 3. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
  7. ^ "Cyrillic Extended-C: Range: 1C80–1C8F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0. 2016. p. 3. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
  8. ^ "Church Slavonic Typography in Unicode" (PDF). Aleksandr Andreev, Yuri Shardt, Nikita Simmons. 2015. p. 13. Retrieved 2016-07-15.

External links edit

  •   The dictionary definition of О at Wiktionary
  •   The dictionary definition of о at Wiktionary