Early Cyrillic alphabet

The Early Cyrillic alphabet, also called classical Cyrillic or paleo-Cyrillic, is an alphabetic writing system that was developed in Medieval Bulgaria in the Preslav Literary School during the late 9th century. It is used to write the Church Slavonic language, and was historically used for its ancestor, Old Church Slavonic. It was also used for other languages, but between the 18th and 20th centuries was mostly replaced by the modern Cyrillic script, which is used for some Slavic languages (such as Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Russian, Rusyn, Ukrainian), and for East European and Asian languages that have experienced a great amount of Russian cultural influence.

Early Cyrillic alphabet
Словѣньска азъбоукꙑ
Script type
Time period
From c. 893 in Bulgaria[1]
DirectionVaries
LanguagesOld Church Slavonic, Church Slavonic, old versions of many Slavic languages
Related scripts
Parent systems
Egyptian hieroglyphs[2]
Child systems
Cyrillic script
Sister systems
Latin alphabet
Coptic alphabet
Armenian alphabet
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Cyrs (221), ​Cyrillic (Old Church Slavonic variant)
Unicode
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Г̡Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
ҦР̌ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́
Т̈Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃Ӳ
У̊Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮
Х̑Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈Ԧ
Ц̌Ц̈ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋЧ̡
ҸЧ̇Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄
Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧Н̃
ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀П́П̧
П̑ҀԚ̆Р́Р̀Р̃Ԗ
С̀С̈ԌҪ̓Т̓Т̀Ԏ
Т̑Т̧Ꚍ̆
ОУУ̇У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓
Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇Х̧Х̓һ̱
ѠѼѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓
Ꚏ̆Ч́Ч̀
Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓Ԭ
Ꚇ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆
Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂Я̈
Я̂Я̨ԘѤѦѪ
ѨѬѮѰѲѴѶ

History edit

The earliest form of manuscript Cyrillic, known as ustav, was based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and by letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.[3]

The Glagolitic alphabet was created by the monk Saint Cyril, possibly with the aid of his brother Saint Methodius, around 863.[3] Most scholars agree that Cyrillic, on the other hand, was created by Cyril's students at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s as a more suitable script for church books, based on uncial Greek but retaining some Glagolitic letters for sounds not present in Greek.[4][5][6][7] At the time, the Preslav Literary School was the most important early literary and cultural center of the First Bulgarian Empire and of all Slavs:[6]

Unlike the Churchmen in Ohrid, Preslav scholars were much more dependent upon Greek models and quickly abandoned the Glagolitic scripts in favor of an adaptation of the Greek uncial to the needs of Slavic, which is now known as the Cyrillic alphabet.

The earliest Cyrillic texts are found in northeastern Bulgaria, in the vicinity of Preslav—the Krepcha inscription, dating back to 921,[8] and a ceramic vase from Preslav, dating back to 931.[6] Moreover, unlike the other literary centre in the First Bulgarian Empire, the Ohrid Literary School, which continued to use Glagolitic well into the 12th century, the School at Preslav was using Cyrillic in the early 900s.[9] The systematization of Cyrillic may have been undertaken at the Council of Preslav in 893, when the Old Church Slavonic liturgy was adopted by the First Bulgarian Empire.[1]

American scholar Horace Lunt has alternatively suggested that Cyrillics emerged in the border regions of Greek proselytization to the Slavs before it was codified and adapted by some systematizer among the Slavs. The oldest Cyrillic manuscripts look very similar to 9th and 10th century Greek uncial manuscripts,[3] and the majority of uncial Cyrillic letters were identical to their Greek uncial counterparts.[1]

The Cyrillic alphabet was very well suited for the writing of Old Church Slavic, generally following a principle of "one letter for one significant sound", with some arbitrary or phonotactically-based exceptions.[3] Particularly, this principle is violated by certain vowel letters, which represent [j] plus the vowel if they are not preceded by a consonant.[3] It is also violated by a significant failure to distinguish between /ji/ and /jĭ/ orthographically.[3] There was no distinction of capital and lowercase letters, though manuscript letters were rendered larger for emphasis, or in various decorative initial and nameplate forms.[4] Letters served as numerals as well as phonetic signs; the values of the numerals were directly borrowed from their Greek-letter analogues.[3] Letters without Greek equivalents mostly had no numeral values, whereas one letter, koppa, had only a numeric value with no phonetic value.[3]

Since its creation, the Cyrillic script has adapted to changes in spoken language and developed regional variations to suit the features of national languages. It has been the subject of academic reforms and political decrees. Variations of the Cyrillic script are used to write languages throughout Eastern Europe and Asia.

The form of the Russian alphabet underwent a change when Tsar Peter the Great introduced the civil script (Russian: гражданский шрифт, romanizedgraždanskiy šrift, or гражданка, graždanka), in contrast to the prevailing church typeface, (Russian: церковнославя́нский шрифт, romanizedcerkovnoslavjanskiy šrift) in 1708. (The two forms are sometimes distinguished as paleo-Cyrillic and neo-Cyrillic.) Some letters and breathing marks which were used only for historical reasons were dropped. Medieval letterforms used in typesetting were harmonized with Latin typesetting practices, exchanging medieval forms for Baroque ones, and skipping the western European Renaissance developments. The reform subsequently influenced Cyrillic orthographies for most other languages. Today, the early orthography and typesetting standards remain in use only in Church Slavonic.

A comprehensive repertoire of early Cyrillic characters has been included in the Unicode standard since version 5.1, published April 4, 2008. These characters and their distinctive letterforms are represented in specialized computer fonts for Slavistics.

[11]

Alphabet edit

Image Unicode Name
(Cyrillic)
Name
(translit.)
Name
(IPA)
Translit. international system[3][12] Translit. ALA-LC[13] IPA Numeric value Origin Meaning of name Notes
  А а азъ azŭ [ɑz̪ə̆] a a [ɑː] 1 Greek alpha Α I Pronounced [æ] after a palatal consonant
  Б б боукꙑ buky [buːkɯː] b b [b] Greek beta in Thera form   letters
  В в вѣдѣ vědě [ʋæːdæː] v v [v] 2 Greek Beta Β know
  Г г глаголи glagoli [ɡɫ̪ɑːɡɔ̟l̪iː] g g [ɡ][3] 3 Greek Gamma Γ speak When marked with a palatalization mark, this letter is pronounced [ɟ]; this occurs only rarely, and only in borrowings.[3]
  Д д добро dobro [d̪ɔ̟bɾ̪ɔ̟] d d [d̪] 4 Greek Delta Δ good
  Є є єстъ estŭ [jɛ̠stə̆] e e [ɛ̠] 5 Greek Epsilon Ε is Pronounced [jɛ] (was used interchangeably with ѥ) when not preceded by a consonant.[3]
  Ж ж живѣтє živěte [ʒiːʋæːtɛ̠] ž zh [ʒ] Glagolitic Zhivete live
  Ѕ ѕ ѕѣло dzělo [d̪z̪æːɫ̪ɔ̟] dz/ʒ ż [d̪z̪] 6 Greek Stigma Ϛ very The form had the phonetic value [dz] and no numeral value, whereas the form ѕ was used only as a numeral and had no phonetic value.[3] Since the 12th century, ѕ came to be used instead of .[14][15] In many manuscripts з is used instead, suggesting lenition had taken place.[3]
  З з зємл҄ꙗ zemlja [z̪ɛ̠mʎ̟æː] z z [z̪] ~ [z] 7 Greek Zeta Ζ earth The first form developed into the second.
  И и ижє iže [jiʒɛ] i и=i, й=ĭ [iː] ~ [e] 8 Greek Eta Η which Pronounced [ji] or [jɪ] when not preceded by a consonant and not the particle ‹i› ("and"); the orthography does not distinguish between [ji] and [jɪ].[3] Speculatively, this letter might have originally been intended to represent [i] and [ji].[3]
  І і и i [i] i ī [i] ~ [j] 10 Greek Iota Ι and Pronounced [ji] or [jĭ] when not preceded by a consonant and not the particle ‹i› ("and"); the orthography does not distinguish between [ji] and [jĭ].[3] Speculatively, this letter might have originally been intended to represent [jĭ].[3]
  К к како kako [kako] k k [k] 20 Greek Kappa Κ as When marked with a palatalization mark, this letter is pronounced [c]; this occurs only rarely, and only in borrowings.[3]
  Л л людиѥ ljudije [ʎudijɛ] l l [l]; sometimes [ʎ][3] 30 Greek Lambda Λ people When marked with a palatalization mark or followed by a palatalizing vowel (ю, ѭ, or , and sometimes ѣ), this letter is pronounced [ʎ]; some manuscripts do not mark palatalization, in which case it must be inferred from context.[3]
  М м мꙑслитє myslite [mɯslitɛ] m m [m] 40 Greek Mu Μ think
  Н н нашь našĭ [naʃĭ] n n [n]; sometimes [ɲ][3] 50 Greek Nu Ν ours When marked with a palatalization mark or followed by a palatalizing vowel (ю, ѭ, or , and sometimes ѣ), this letter is pronounced [ɲ]; some manuscripts do not mark palatalization, in which case it must be inferred from context.[3]
  О о онъ onŭ [onŭ] o o [o] 70 Greek Omicron Ο he/it
  П п покои pokoi [pokojĭ] p p [p] 80 Greek Pi Π peace/calm
  Р р рьци rĭci [rĭtsi] r r [r]; sometimes [rʲ][3] 100 Greek Rho Ρ say When marked with a palatalization mark or followed by a palatalizing vowel (ю or ѭ), this letter is pronounced [rʲ]; some manuscripts do not mark palatalization, in which case it must be inferred from context.[3] This palatalization was lost rather early in South Slavic speech.[3]
  С с слово slovo [slovo] s s [s] 200 Greek lunate Sigma Ϲ word/speech
  Т т тврьдо tvrĭdo [tvrĭdo] t t [t] 300 Greek Tau Τ hard/surely
  Оу оу оукъ ukŭ [ukŭ] u оу=u, ꙋ=ū [u] Greek Omicron-Upsilon ΟΥ / Ꙋ learning The first form developed into the second, a vertical ligature. A less common alternative form was a digraph with izhitsa: Оѵ оѵ.
  Ф ф фрьтъ frĭtŭ [frrĭtŭ] f f [f] or possibly [p][3] 500 Greek Phi Φ This letter was not needed for Slavic but used to transcribe Greek Φ and Latin ph and f.[3] It was probably, but not certainly, pronounced as [f] rather than [p]; however, in some cases it has been found as a transcription of Greek π.[3]
  Х х хѣръ xěrŭ [xærŭ] ch/x kh [x] 600 Greek Chi Χ When marked with a palatalization mark, this letter is pronounced [ç]; this occurs only rarely, and only in borrowings.[3]
  Ѡ ѡ ѡтъ otŭ [otŭ] o/v ѡ=ō, ѿ=ō͡t [o] 800 Greek Omega ω from This letter was rarely used, mostly appearing in the interjection "oh", in the preposition ‹otŭ›, in Greek transcription, and as a decorative capital.[3]
  Ц ц ци ci [tsi] c t͡s [ts] 900 Glagolitic Tsi See also: Ꙡ ꙡ.
  Ч ч чрьвь črĭvĭ [tʃrĭvĭ] č ch [tʃ] 90 Glagolitic Cherv worm This letter replaced koppa as the numeral for 90 after about 1300.[3]
  Ш ш ша ša [ʃa] š sh [ʃ] Glagolitic Sha
  Щ щ ща šta [ʃta] št sht [ʃt] Glagolitic Shta This letter varied in pronunciation from region to region; it may have originally represented the reflexes of [tʲ].[3] It was sometimes replaced by the digraph шт.[3] Pronounced [ʃtʃ] in Old East Slavic. Later analyzed as a Ш-Т ligature by folk etymology, but neither the Cyrillic nor the Glagolitic glyph originated as such a ligature.[3]
  Ъ ъ ѥръ jerŭ [jɛrŭ] ъ/ŭ ″, omit at end of a word [ŭ] or [ʊ][3] Glagolitic Yer[1] After č, š, ž, c, dz, št, and žd, this letter was pronounced identically to ь instead of its normal pronunciation.[3]
  Ꙑ ꙑ ѥрꙑ jery [jɛrɯ] y ы=ȳ, ꙑ=y, [ɯ] or [ɯji] or [ɯjĭ][3] Ъ + І ligature. Ꙑ was the more common form; rarely, a third form, ы, appears.[3]
  Ь ь ѥрь jerĭ [jɛrĭ] ь/ĭ [ĭ] or [ɪ][3] Glagolitic Yerj[1]
  Ѣ ѣ ѣть ětĭ [jætĭ] ě ě [æ][3] Glagolitic yat[1] In western South Slavic dialects of Old Church Slavonic, this letter had a more closed pronunciation, perhaps [ɛ] or [e].[3] This letter was written only after a consonant; in all other positions, was used instead.[3] An exceptional document is Pages of Undolski, where ѣ is used instead of .
  Ꙗ ꙗ ja [jæː] ja i͡a [jæː] І-А ligature This letter was probably not present in the original Cyrillic alphabet.[1]
  Ѥ ѥ ѥ je [jɛ] je i͡e [jɛ] І-Є ligature This letter was probably not present in the original Cyrillic alphabet.[1]
  Ю ю ю ju [ju] ju i͡u [ju] І-ОУ ligature, dropping У There was no [jo] sound in early Slavic, so І-ОУ did not need to be distinguished from І-О. After č, š, ž, c, dz, št, and žd, this letter was pronounced [u], without iotation.
  Ѫ ѫ ѫсъ ǫsŭ [ɔ̃sŭ] ǫ ǫ [ɔ̃] Glagolitic Ons Called юсъ большой (big yus) in Russian.
  Ѭ ѭ ѭсъ jǫsŭ [jɔ̃sŭ] i͡ǫ [jɔ̃] І-Ѫ ligature After č, š, ž, c, dz, št, and žd, this letter was pronounced [ɔ̃], without iotation. Called юсъ большой йотированный (iotated big yus) in Russian.
  Ѧ ѧ ѧсъ ęsŭ [jɛ̃sŭ] ę ę [ɛ̃] 900 Glagolitic Ens Pronounced [jɛ̃] when not preceded by a consonant.[3] Called юсъ малый (little yus) in Russian.
  Ѩ ѩ ѩсъ jęsŭ [jɛ̃sŭ] i͡ę [jɛ̃] І-Ѧ ligature This letter does not exist in the oldest (South Slavic) Cyrillic manuscripts, but only in East Slavic ones.[3] It was probably not present in the original Cyrillic alphabet.[1] Called юсъ малый йотированный (iotated little yus) in Russian.
  Ѯ ѯ ѯи ksi [ksi] ks k͡s [ks] 60 Greek Xi Ξ xi (letter name) These two letters were not needed for Slavic but were used to transcribe Greek and as numerals.
  Ѱ ѱ ѱи psi [psi] ps p͡s [ps] 700 Greek Psi Ψ psi (letter name)
  Ѳ ѳ ѳита fita [fita] t/f/th [t], or [f], or possibly [θ] 9 Greek Theta Θ theta (letter name) This letter was not needed for Slavic but was used to transcribe Greek and as a numeral. It seems to have been generally pronounced [t], as the oldest texts sometimes replace instances of it with т.[3] Normal Old Church Slavonic pronunciation probably did not have a phone [θ].[3]
  Ѵ ѵ ижица ižica [jiʒitsa] i,ü ѷ=ẏ, ѵ=v̇ [i], [y], [v] 400 Greek Upsilon Υ small yoke/Izhe This letter was used to transcribe Greek upsilon and as a numeral. It also formed part of the digraph оѵ.
  Ҁ ҁ копа kopa [kopa] q none 90 Greek Koppa Ϙ koppa (letter name) This letter had no phonetic value, and was used only as a numeral. After about 1300, it was replaced as a numeral by črĭvĭ.[3]

In addition to the basic letters, there were a number of scribal variations, combining ligatures, and regionalisms used, all of which varied over time.

Sometimes the Greek letters that were used in Cyrillic mainly for their numeric value are transcribed with the corresponding Greek letters for accuracy: ѳ = θ, ѯ = ξ, ѱ = ψ, ѵ = υ, and ѡ = ω.[12]

Numerals, diacritics and punctuation edit

Each letter had a numeric value also, inherited from the corresponding Greek letter. A titlo over a sequence of letters indicated their use as a number; usually this was accompanied by a dot on either side of the letter.[3] In numerals, the ones place was to the left of the tens place, the reverse of the order used in modern Arabic numerals.[3] Thousands are formed using a special symbol, ҂ (U+0482), which was attached to the lower left corner of the numeral.[3] Many fonts display this symbol incorrectly as being in line with the letters instead of subscripted below and to the left of them.

Titlos were also used to form abbreviations, especially of nomina sacra; this was done by writing the first and last letter of the abbreviated word along with the word's grammatical endings, then placing a titlo above it.[3] Later manuscripts made increasing use of a different style of abbreviation, in which some of the left-out letters were superscripted above the abbreviation and covered with a pokrytie diacritic.[3]

Several diacritics, adopted from Polytonic Greek orthography, were also used, but were seemingly redundant[3] (these may not appear correctly in all web browsers; they are supposed to be directly above the letter, not off to its upper right):

ӓ  trema, diaeresis (U+0308)
а̀  varia (grave accent), indicating stress on the last syllable (U+0300)
а́  oksia (acute accent), indicating a stressed syllable (Unicode U+0301)
а҃  titlo, indicating abbreviations, or letters used as numerals (U+0483)
а҄  kamora (circumflex accent), indicating palatalization[citation needed] (U+0484); in later Church Slavonic, it disambiguates plurals from homophonous singulars.
а҅  dasia or dasy pneuma, rough breathing mark (U+0485)
а҆  psili, zvatel'tse, or psilon pneuma, soft breathing mark (U+0486). Signals a word-initial vowel, at least in later Church Slavonic.
а҆̀  Combined zvatel'tse and varia is called apostrof.
а҆́  Combined zvatel'tse and oksia is called iso.
д꙽, д̾  Yerok [ru] or payerok (U+A67D, U+033E), indicating an omitted 'jerŭ' (ъ) after a letter.[16]

Punctuation systems in early Cyrillic manuscripts were primitive: there was no space between words and no upper and lower case, and punctuation marks were used inconsistently in all manuscripts.[3]

·  ano teleia (U+0387), a middle dot used to separate phrases, words, or parts of words[3]
.  Full stop, used in the same way[3]
։  Armenian full stop (U+0589), resembling a colon, used in the same way[3]
  Georgian paragraph separator (U+10FB), used to mark off larger divisions
  triangular colon (U+2056, added in Unicode 4.1), used to mark off larger divisions
  diamond colon (U+2058, added in Unicode 4.1), used to mark off larger divisions
  quintuple colon (U+2059, added in Unicode 4.1), used to mark off larger divisions
;  Greek question mark (U+037E), similar to a semicolon

Some of these marks are also used in Glagolitic script.

Used only in modern texts

,  comma (U+002C)
.  full stop (U+002E)
!  exclamation mark (U+0021)

Gallery edit

Old Bulgarian examples edit

Medieval Greek Uncial manuscripts from which early Cyrillic letter forms take their shapes edit

Early Cyrillic manuscripts edit

See also edit

  Media related to Early Cyrillic at Wikimedia Commons

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Auty, R. Handbook of Old Church Slavonic, Part II: Texts and Glossary. 1977.
  2. ^ Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (Jan./Feb. 2000): 21.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf Lunt, Horace Gray (2001). Old Church Slavonic Grammar. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016284-9.
  4. ^ a b Cubberley 1994
  5. ^ Dvornik, Francis (1956). The Slavs: Their Early History and Civilization. Boston: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. p. 179. The Psalter and the Book of Prophets were adapted or „modernized" with special regard to their use in Bulgarian churches, and it was in this school that glagolitic writing was replaced by the so-called Cyrillic writing, which was more akin to the Greek uncial, simplified matters considerably and is still used by the Orthodox Slavs.
  6. ^ a b c Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 221–222. ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0.
  7. ^ Hussey, J. M.; Louth, Andrew (2010). The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire. Oxford History of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-19-161488-0.
  8. ^ Провежда се международна конференция в гр. Опака за св. Антоний от Крепчанския манастир. Добротолюбие – Център за християнски, църковно-исторически и богословски изследвания, 15.10.2021.
  9. ^ Steven Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, Appendix IX – The Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, (G. Bell & Sons, London 1930)
  10. ^ Провежда се международна конференция в гр. Опака за св. Антоний от Крепчанския манастир. Добротолюбие – Център за християнски, църковно-исторически и богословски изследвания, 15.10.2021.
  11. ^ Карадаков, Ангел. "Провежда се международна конференция в гр. Опака за св. Антоний от Крепчанския манастир". Добротолюбие (in Bulgarian). Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  12. ^ a b Matthews, W. K. (1952). "The Latinisation of Cyrillic Characters". The Slavonic and East European Review. 30 (75): 531–548. ISSN 0037-6795. JSTOR 4204350.
  13. ^ "Church Slavic (ALA-LC Romanization Tables)" (PDF). The Library of Congress. 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  14. ^ Памятники Старославянскаго языка / Е. Ѳ. Карскій. — СПб. : Типографія Императорской Академіи наукъ, 1904. — Т. I, с. 14. — Репринт
  15. ^ "Simonov" (PDF) (in Russian). Retrieved August 11, 2023.
  16. ^ Berdnikov and Lapko 2003, p. 12

Sources edit

External links edit