Inverted breve

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Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip; the inverted breve is rounded: compare Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve) versus  â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex).

̑
Inverted breve
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above, dấu hỏi ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nuqta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ȃ ȃ
Ȇ ȇ
Ȋ ȋ
Ȏ ȏ
Ȓ ȓ
Ȗ ȗ

Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet,[citation needed] but only as a phonetic indicator though it is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.

UsesEdit

Serbo-CroatianEdit

The inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus, which can be one of five vowels (ȃ ȇ ȋ ȏ ȗ) or syllabic ȓ.

This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex, which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced[clarification needed] early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum.

International Phonetic AlphabetEdit

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, an inverted breve below is used to mark a vowel as non-syllabic, i.e. assuming the role of a semivowel. The diacritic thus expands upon the four primary symbols [j, w, ɥ, ɰ] the IPA reserves for semivowels, which correspond to the full vowels [i, u, y, ɯ], respectively. Any vowel is eligible for marking as non-syllabic; a frequent use of the diacritic is in conjunction with the centralised equivalents of the vowels just mentioned: [ɪ̯, ʊ̯, ʏ̯].

The same diacritic is placed under iota (ι̯) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *y as it relates to Greek grammar; upsilon with an inverted breve (υ̯) is used alongside digamma (ϝ) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *w.[1]

EncodingEdit

Inverted breve characters are supported in Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference).

Name Letter Unicode HTML
Combining Inverted Breve ◌̑ U+0311 ̑
Combining Inverted Breve Below ◌̯ U+032F ̯
Combining Double Inverted Breve ◌͡◌ U+0361 ͡
Combining Double Inverted Breve Below ◌᷼◌ U+1DFC ᷼
Modifier Breve With Inverted Breve U+AB5B ꭛
Latin Capital Letter A With Inverted Breve Ȃ U+0202 Ȃ
Latin Small Letter A With Inverted Breve ȃ U+0203 ȃ
Latin Capital Letter E With Inverted Breve Ȇ U+0206 Ȇ
Latin Small Letter E With Inverted Breve ȇ U+0207 ȇ
Latin Capital Letter I With Inverted Breve Ȋ U+020A Ȋ
Latin Small Letter I With Inverted Breve ȋ U+020B ȋ
Latin Capital Letter O With Inverted Breve Ȏ U+020E Ȏ
Latin Small Letter O With Inverted Breve ȏ U+020F ȏ
Latin Capital Letter R With Inverted Breve Ȓ U+0212 Ȓ
Latin Small Letter R With Inverted Breve ȓ U+0213 ȓ
Latin Capital Letter U With Inverted Breve Ȗ U+0216 Ȗ
Latin Small Letter U With Inverted Breve ȗ U+0217 ȗ

In LaTeX the control \textroundcap{o} puts an inverted breve over the letter o.[2]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Herbert Weir Smyth. Greek Grammar. par. 20 a: semivowels.
  2. ^ "LaTeX for Classical Philologists and Indo-Europeanists". Retrieved 2010-09-23.[dead link]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit