Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle ( ̑ ), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip; the inverted breve is rounded: compare Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve) versus Â â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex).
Inverted breve can occur above or below the letter. It is not used in any natural language alphabet, but only as a phonetic indicator though it is identical in form to the Ancient Greek circumflex.
The inverted breve above is used in traditional Slavicist notation of Serbo-Croatian phonology to indicate long falling accent. It is placed above the syllable nucleus, which can be one of five vowels (ȃ ȇ ȋ ȏ ȗ) or syllabic ȓ.
This use of the inverted breve is derived from the Ancient Greek circumflex, which was preserved in the polytonic orthography of Modern Greek and influenced[clarification needed] early Serbian Cyrillic printing through religious literature. In the early 19th century, it began to be used in both Latin and Cyrillic as a diacritic to mark prosody in the systematic study of the Serbian-Croatian linguistic continuum.
International Phonetic AlphabetEdit
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, an inverted breve below is used to mark a vowel as non-syllabic, i.e. assuming the role of a semivowel. The diacritic thus expands upon the four primary symbols [j, w, ɥ, ɰ] the IPA reserves for semivowels, which correspond to the full vowels [i, u, y, ɯ], respectively. Any vowel is eligible for marking as non-syllabic; a frequent use of the diacritic is in conjunction with the centralised equivalents of the vowels just mentioned: [ɪ̯, ʊ̯, ʏ̯].
The same diacritic is placed under iota (ι̯) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *y as it relates to Greek grammar; upsilon with an inverted breve (υ̯) is used alongside digamma (ϝ) to represent the Proto-Indo-European semivowel *w.
|Combining Inverted Breve||◌̑||U+0311||̑|
|Combining Inverted Breve Below||◌̯||U+032F||̯|
|Combining Double Inverted Breve||◌͡◌||U+0361||͡|
|Combining Double Inverted Breve Below||◌᷼◌||U+1DFC||᷼|
|Modifier Breve With Inverted Breve||꭛||U+AB5B||꭛|
|Latin Capital Letter A With Inverted Breve||Ȃ||U+0202||Ȃ|
|Latin Small Letter A With Inverted Breve||ȃ||U+0203||ȃ|
|Latin Capital Letter E With Inverted Breve||Ȇ||U+0206||Ȇ|
|Latin Small Letter E With Inverted Breve||ȇ||U+0207||ȇ|
|Latin Capital Letter I With Inverted Breve||Ȋ||U+020A||Ȋ|
|Latin Small Letter I With Inverted Breve||ȋ||U+020B||ȋ|
|Latin Capital Letter O With Inverted Breve||Ȏ||U+020E||Ȏ|
|Latin Small Letter O With Inverted Breve||ȏ||U+020F||ȏ|
|Latin Capital Letter R With Inverted Breve||Ȓ||U+0212||Ȓ|
|Latin Small Letter R With Inverted Breve||ȓ||U+0213||ȓ|
|Latin Capital Letter U With Inverted Breve||Ȗ||U+0216||Ȗ|
|Latin Small Letter U With Inverted Breve||ȗ||U+0217||ȗ|
- Herbert Weir Smyth. Greek Grammar. par. 20 a: semivowels.
- "LaTeX for Classical Philologists and Indo-Europeanists". Retrieved 2010-09-23.[dead link]