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When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

·
Dot
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above, dấu hỏi ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nukta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ
Ċ ċ
Ç̇ ç̇ Ć̣ ć̣
Č̣ č̣
Ė ė Ė́ ė́
Ė̃ ė̃
Ġ ġ
İ
i̇̀ i̇́ i̇̃ į̇́ į̇̃
j̇̃
Ŀ ŀ
Ȯ ȯ
Ȱ ȱ
Q̣̇ q̣̇ Q̣̈ q̣̈
Ṡ̃ ṡ̃
U̇̄ u̇̄
ṿ
Ż ż

OverdotEdit

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:

The overdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called anusvara.

In mathematics and physics, when using Newton's notation the dot denotes the time derivative as in  . However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation.[citation needed] In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in  , which is equal to the fraction ⅓, and   or  , which is equal to .

UnderdotEdit

  • In Inari Sami, an underdot denotes a half-long voiced consonant: đ̣, j̣, ḷ, ṃ, ṇ, ṇj, ŋ̣, ṛ, and ṿ. The underdot is used in dictionaries, textbooks, and linguistic publications only.
  • In IAST and National Library at Calcutta romanization, transcribing languages of India, a dot below a letter distinguishes the retroflex consonants ṭ, ḍ, ṛ, ḷ, ṇ, ṣ, while m with underdot () signifies an anusvara. Very frequently (in modern transliterations of Sanskrit) an underdot is used instead of the ring (diacritic) below the vocalic r and l.
  • In romanizations of some Afroasiatic languages, particularly Semitic Languages and Berber Languages, an underdot indicates an emphatic consonant.
  • The underdot is also used in the PDA orthography for Domari to show pharyngealization—the underdotted consonants ⟨ḍ ḥ ṣ ṭ ẓ⟩ represent the emphaticized sounds /d̪ˤ ħ sˤ t̪ˤ zˤ/.
  • In Asturian, (underdotted double ll) represents the voiced retroflex plosive or the voiceless retroflex affricate, depending on dialect, and (underdotted h) the voiceless glottal fricative.
  • In Romagnol, ẹ ọ are used to represent [e, o], e.g. Riminese dialect fradẹll, ọcc [fraˈdell, ˈotʃː] "brothers, eyes".
  • In academic notation of Old Latin, ẹ̄ (e with underdot and macron) represents the long vowel, probably //, that developed from the early Old Latin diphthong ei. This vowel usually became ī in Classical Latin.
  • In academic transcription of Vulgar Latin, used in describing the development of the Romance languages, ẹ and ọ represent the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/, in contrast with the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/, which are represented as e and o with ogonek (ę ǫ).
  • In O'odham language, (d with underdot) represents a voiced retroflex stop.
  • Vietnamese: The nặng tone (low, glottal) is represented with a dot below the base vowel: ạ ặ ậ ẹ ệ ị ọ ộ ợ ụ ự ỵ.
  • In Yoruba, the dot (or alternatively a small vertical line) is used below the o for an "open-o" sound, the e for an "open-e," and the s for an "sh" sound (ẹ, ọ, ṣ). The marking distinguishes these from the unmarked characters since the sound differences are meaningful.
  • In Igbo, an underdot can be used on i, o, and u to make , , and . The underdot symbolizes a reduction in the vowel height.
  • In Americanist phonetic notation, x with underdot represents a voiceless uvular fricative.
  • Underdots are used in the Rheinische Dokumenta phonetic writing system to denote a voiced s and special pronunciations of r and a.
  • In the Fiero-Rhodes orthography for Eastern Ojibwe and Odaawaa, in , , and , underdot is used to indicate labialization when either ⟨o⟩ or ⟨w⟩ following them was lost in syncope.
  • In Marshallese, underdots on consonants represent velarization, such as the velarized bilabial nasal .
  • UNGEGN romanization of Urdu includes ḍ, g̣, ḳ, ṭ, ẉ, and ỵ.[1]
  • In Mizo, represents /t͡r/.
  • The underdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called nukta.

Raised DotEdit

  • Number digits in Enclosed Alphanumerics like 🄀 ⒈ ⒉ ⒊ ⒋ ⒌ ⒍ ⒎ ⒏ ⒐
  • In Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, in addition to the middle dot as a letter, centred dot diacritic, and dot above diacritic, there also is a two-dot diacritic in Naskapi Language representing /_w_V/ which depending on the placement on the specific Syllabic letter may resemble a colon when placed vertically, diaeresis when placed horizontally, or a combination of middle dot and dot above diacritic when placed either at an angle or enveloping a small raised letter ⟨ᓴ⟩. Additionally, in Northwestern Ojibwe, a small raised /wi/ as /w/, the middle dot is raised farther up as either ⟨ᣜ⟩ or ⟨ᣝ⟩; there also is a raised dot Final ⟨ᣟ⟩, which represents /w/ in some Swampy Cree and /y/ in some Northwestern Ojibwe.

EncodingEdit

In Unicode, the dot is encoded at:

  • U+0307 ◌̇ COMBINING DOT ABOVE (HTML ̇)

and at:

  • U+0323 ◌̣ COMBINING DOT BELOW (HTML ̣)
  • U+0358 ◌͘ COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT (HTML ͘)
  • U+1DF8 ◌᷸ COMBINING DOT ABOVE LEFT (HTML ᷸)

There is also:

  • U+02D9 ˙ DOT ABOVE (HTML ˙)
  • U+18DF CANADIAN SYLLABICS FINAL DOT RAISED DOT

Pre-composed characters:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (2007). "Technical reference manual for the standardization of geographical names" (PDF). New York: United Nations. p. 169. ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5.

External linksEdit