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- In the Alvarez/Hale orthography of the Tohono Oʼodham language to represent retroflex [ʂ] (Akimel O'odham and Saxton/Saxton use <sh> instead)
- the transliteration of Indic languages to represent retroflex [ʂ]
- the transcription of Afro-Asiatic languages (mostly Semitic languages) to represent an "emphatic s" [sˀ] as in Arabic ص (Ṣād) and as in the Hebrew צ (Tzadi/Ṣādī) spoken by the Jews of Yemen and North Africa
- the orthography of Yoruba in Nigeria to represent the voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant (the English "sh" sound)
In HTML these are Ṣ: Ṣ and ṣ: ṣ.