In phonology, hiatus (/hˈtəs/ hy-AY-təs) or diaeresis (/dˈɛrəsɪs, -ˈɪər-/ dy-ERR-ə-siss, -⁠EER-;[1] also spelled dieresis or diæresis) describes the occurrence of two separate vowel sounds in adjacent syllables with no intervening consonant. When two vowel sounds instead occur together as part of a single syllable, the result is called a diphthong.

Preference edit

Some languages do not have diphthongs, except sometimes in rapid speech, or they have a limited number of diphthongs but also numerous vowel sequences that cannot form diphthongs and so appear in hiatus. That is the case of Japanese, Nuosu, Bantu languages like Swahili, and Lakota. Examples are Japanese aoi (青い) 'blue/green', and Swahili eua 'purify', both with three syllables.

Avoidance edit

Many languages disallow or restrict hiatus and avoid it by deleting or assimilating the vowel or by adding an extra consonant.

Epenthesis edit

A consonant may be added between vowels (epenthesis) to prevent hiatus. That is most often a semivowel or a glottal, but all kinds of other consonants can be used as well, depending on the language and the quality of the two adjacent vowels. For example, some non-rhotic dialects of English often insert /r/ to avoid hiatus after non-high word-final or occasionally morpheme-final vowels.[2]

Contraction edit

In Greek and Latin poetry, hiatus is generally avoided although it occurs in many authors under certain rules, with varying degrees of poetic licence. Hiatus may be avoided by elision of a final vowel, occasionally prodelision (elision of initial vowel), synizesis (pronunciation of two vowels as one without a change in spelling), or contractions such as αει->ᾷ.

Glide formation edit

The first of the two vowels may be converted to a glide to prevent hiatus. This differs from epenthesis as described above, since only the second vowel is retained in its original form. For example, in Luganda, /muiko/ is realised as [mwiːk.o].[3] In some cases, this may result in the transfer of accent and/or length from the first to the second vowel, e.g. Icelandic sjá*sé + a.[4]

Marking edit

Diaeresis edit

In Dutch and French, the second of two vowels in hiatus is marked with a diacritic (or tréma) if otherwise that combination could be interpreted as a diphthong or as having one of the vowels silent. Examples are the Dutch word poëzie ("poetry") and the French word ambiguë (feminine form of ambigu, "ambiguous"). This usage is occasionally seen in English (such as coöperate, daïs and reëlect) but has never been common, and over the last century, its use in such words has been dropped or replaced by the use of a hyphen except in a very few publications, notably The New Yorker.[5][6] It is, however, still sometimes seen in loanwords such as naïve and Noël and in the proper names Zoë and Chloë.

Other ways edit

In German, hiatus between monophthongs is usually written with an intervening h, as in ziehen [ˈtsiː.ən] "to pull"; drohen [ˈdʁoː.ən] "to threaten"; sehen [ˈzeː.ən] "to see". In a few words (such as ziehen), the h represents a consonant that has become silent, but in most cases, it was added later simply to indicate the end of the stem.

Similarly, in Scottish Gaelic, hiatus is written by a number of digraphs: bh, dh, gh, mh, th. Some examples include abhainn [ˈa.ɪɲ] "river"; latha [ˈl̪ˠa.ə] "day"; cumha [ˈkʰũ.ə] "condition". The convention goes back to the Old Irish scribal tradition, but it is more consistently applied in Scottish Gaelic: lathe (> latha). However, hiatus in Old Irish was usually simply implied in certain vowel digraphs óe (> adha), ua (> ogha).

Correption edit

Correption is the shortening of a long vowel before a short vowel in hiatus.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "diaeresis". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ "Voice and Speech in the Theatre"
  3. ^ "Hiatus resolution". The Blackwell companion to phonology. Blackwell companions to linguistics series. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4051-8423-6.
  4. ^ Haugen, Odd Einar (2015). Norröne Grammatik im Überblick: Altisländisch und Altnorwegisch (in German). Translated by van Nahl, Astrid (NetzVersion ed.). Universität Bergen. §22.1.
  5. ^ diaeresis: December 9, 1998. The Mavens' Word of the Day. Random House.
  6. ^ Umlauts in English?. General Questions. Straight Dope Message Board.

Further reading edit

  • Davidson, Lisa; Erker, Daniel (2014). "Hiatus resolution in American English: The case against glide insertion". Language. 90/2 (2): 482–514. doi:10.1353/lan.2014.0028. S2CID 50882443.
  • Mompean, Jose A.; Gómez, Alberto (2011). "Hiatus-resolution strategies in non-rhotic English: The case of /r/-sandhi". Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS XVII). Hong Kong: IPA/City University of Hong Kong: 770–774.
  • Mompean, Jose A. (2021). "/r/-sandhi in the speech of Queen Elisabeth II". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 52 (2): 1–32. doi:10.1017/S0025100320000213.