Heavy metal music
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, and acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. The genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with aggression and machismo.
|Cultural origins||Late 1960s, United Kingdom|
|2019 in heavy metal music|
In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were often derided by critics. Following the blueprint laid down by Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, several American bands modified heavy metal into more accessible forms during the 1970s: the raw, sleazy sound and outrageous stage shows of Alice Cooper and Kiss; the blues-rooted rock of Aerosmith; and the flashy guitar leads and wild party rock of Van Halen. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence; Motörhead introduced a punk rock sensibility and an increasing emphasis on speed. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers".
During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Bon Jovi and Mötley Crüe. Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer, Megadeth, and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre. These include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which often incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 Etymology
- 3 History
- 3.1 Antecedents: 1950s to late 1960s
- 3.2 Origins: late 1960s and early 1970s
- 3.3 Mainstream: late 1970s and 1980s
- 3.4 Other heavy metal genres: 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s
- 3.5 1990s and early 2000s subgenres and fusions
- 3.6 Recent styles: mid–late 2000s and 2010s
- 4 Women in heavy metal
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, and vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously emphasize, alter, or omit one or more of these attributes. The New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, and a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist. Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; by the 1990s, in "almost every subgenre of heavy metal" synthesizers were used.
The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of high volumes and heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music; the guitar amplifier is turned up loud to produce the characteristic "punch and grind". Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and tightly compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code ... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", which is "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity". Some exceptions are nu metal and grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos. With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal ... [is created by] palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end.
The lead role of the guitar in heavy metal often collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims that the metal singer's "tone of voice" is more important than the lyrics.
The prominent role of the bass is also key to the metal sound, and the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy". The bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary widely in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars. Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead often played overdriven power chords in his bass lines.
The essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed, power, and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", and drummers have to develop "considerable speed, coordination, and dexterity ... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and then immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand (or, in some cases, the same striking hand), producing a burst of sound. The metal drum setup is generally much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats".
In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital. In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy metal concerts as "the sensory equivalent of war". Following the lead set by Jimi Hendrix, Cream and The Who, early heavy metal acts such as Blue Cheer set new benchmarks for volume. As Blue Cheer's Dick Peterson put it, "All we knew was we wanted more power." A 1977 review of a Motörhead concert noted how "excessive volume in particular figured into the band's impact." Weinstein makes the case that in the same way that melody is the main element of pop and rhythm is the main focus of house music, powerful sound, timbre, and volume are the key elements of metal. She argues that the loudness is designed to "sweep the listener into the sound" and to provide a "shot of youthful vitality".
Heavy metal performers tended to be almost exclusively male until at least the mid-1980s apart from exceptions such as Girlschool. However, by the 2010s women were making more of an impact, and PopMatters' Craig Hayes argues that metal "clearly empowers women". In the sub-genres of symphonic and power metal, there has been a sizable number of bands that have had women as the lead singers; bands such as Nightwish, Delain, and Within Temptation have featured women as lead singers with men playing instruments.
Rhythm and tempoEdit
The rhythm in metal songs is emphatic, with deliberate stresses. Weinstein observes that the wide array of sonic effects available to metal drummers enables the "rhythmic pattern to take on a complexity within its elemental drive and insistency". In many heavy metal songs, the main groove is characterized by short, two-note or three-note rhythmic figures—generally made up of 8th or 16th notes. These rhythmic figures are usually performed with a staccato attack created by using a palm-muted technique on the rhythm guitar.
Brief, abrupt, and detached rhythmic cells are joined into rhythmic phrases with a distinctive, often jerky texture. These phrases are used to create rhythmic accompaniment and melodic figures called riffs, which help to establish thematic hooks. Heavy metal songs also use longer rhythmic figures such as whole note- or dotted quarter note-length chords in slow-tempo power ballads. The tempos in early heavy metal music tended to be "slow, even ponderous". By the late 1970s, however, metal bands were employing a wide variety of tempos. In the 2000s decade, metal tempos range from slow ballad tempos (quarter note = 60 beats per minute) to extremely fast blast beat tempos (quarter note = 350 beats per minute).
One of the signatures of the genre is the guitar power chord. In technical terms, the power chord is relatively simple: it involves just one main interval, generally the perfect fifth, though an octave may be added as a doubling of the root. When power chords are played on the lower strings at high volumes and with distortion, additional low frequency sounds are created, which add to the "weight of the sound" and create an effect of "overwhelming power". Although the perfect fifth interval is the most common basis for the power chord, power chords are also based on different intervals such as the minor third, major third, perfect fourth, diminished fifth, or minor sixth. Most power chords are also played with a consistent finger arrangement that can be slid easily up and down the fretboard.
Typical harmonic structuresEdit
Heavy metal is usually based on riffs created with three main harmonic traits: modal scale progressions, tritone and chromatic progressions, and the use of pedal points. Traditional heavy metal tends to employ modal scales, in particular the Aeolian and Phrygian modes. Harmonically speaking, this means the genre typically incorporates modal chord progressions such as the Aeolian progressions I-♭VI-♭VII, I-♭VII-(♭VI), or I-♭VI-IV-♭VII and Phrygian progressions implying the relation between I and ♭II (I-♭II-I, I-♭II-III, or I-♭II-VII for example). Tense-sounding chromatic or tritone relationships are used in a number of metal chord progressions. In addition to using modal harmonic relationships, heavy metal also uses "pentatonic and blues-derived features".
The tritone, an interval spanning three whole tones—such as C to F#—was a forbidden dissonance in medieval ecclesiastical singing, which led monks to call it diabolus in musica—"the devil in music".
Heavy metal songs often make extensive use of pedal point as a harmonic basis. A pedal point is a sustained tone, typically in the bass range, during which at least one foreign (i.e., dissonant) harmony is sounded in the other parts. According to Robert Walser, heavy metal harmonic relationships are "often quite complex" and the harmonic analysis done by metal players and teachers is "often very sophisticated". In the study of heavy metal chord structures, it has been concluded that "heavy metal music has proved to be far more complicated" than other music researchers had realized.
Relationship with classical musicEdit
Robert Walser stated that, alongside blues and R&B, the "assemblage of disparate musical styles known ... as 'classical music'" has been a major influence on heavy metal since the genre's earliest days. Also that metal's "most influential musicians have been guitar players who have also studied classical music. Their appropriation and adaptation of classical models sparked the development of a new kind of guitar virtuosity [and] changes in the harmonic and melodic language of heavy metal."
In an article written for Grove Music Online, Walser stated that the "1980s brought on ... the widespread adaptation of chord progressions and virtuosic practices from 18th-century European models, especially Bach and Antonio Vivaldi, by influential guitarists such as Ritchie Blackmore, Marty Friedman, Jason Becker, Uli Jon Roth, Eddie Van Halen, Randy Rhoads and Yngwie Malmsteen". Kurt Bachmann of Believer has stated that "If done correctly, metal and classical fit quite well together. Classical and metal are probably the two genres that have the most in common when it comes to feel, texture, creativity."
Although a number of metal musicians cite classical composers as inspiration, classical and metal are rooted in different cultural traditions and practices—classical in the art music tradition, metal in the popular music tradition. As musicologists Nicolas Cook and Nicola Dibben note, "Analyses of popular music also sometimes reveal the influence of 'art traditions'. An example is Walser's linkage of heavy metal music with the ideologies and even some of the performance practices of nineteenth-century Romanticism. However, it would be clearly wrong to claim that traditions such as blues, rock, heavy metal, rap or dance music derive primarily from "art music'."
According to scholars David Hatch and Stephen Millward, Black Sabbath, and the numerous heavy metal bands that they inspired, have concentrated lyrically "on dark and depressing subject matter to an extent hitherto unprecedented in any form of pop music". They take as an example Sabbath's second album Paranoid (1970), which "included songs dealing with personal trauma—'Paranoid' and 'Fairies Wear Boots' (which described the unsavoury side effects of drug-taking)—as well as those confronting wider issues, such as the self-explanatory 'War Pigs' and 'Hand of Doom'." Deriving from the genre's roots in blues music, sex is another important topic—a thread running from Led Zeppelin's suggestive lyrics to the more explicit references of glam metal and nu metal bands.
The thematic content of heavy metal has long been a target of criticism. According to Jon Pareles, "Heavy metal's main subject matter is simple and virtually universal. With grunts, moans and subliterary lyrics, it celebrates ... a party without limits ... [T]he bulk of the music is stylized and formulaic." Music critics have often deemed metal lyrics juvenile and banal, and others have objected to what they see as advocacy of misogyny and the occult. During the 1980s, the Parents Music Resource Center petitioned the U.S. Congress to regulate the popular music industry due to what the group asserted were objectionable lyrics, particularly those in heavy metal songs. Andrew Cope states that claims that heavy metal lyrics are misogynistic are "clearly misguided" as these critics have "overlook[ed] the overwhelming evidence that suggests otherwise". Music critic Robert Christgau called metal "an expressive mode [that] it sometimes seems will be with us for as long as ordinary white boys fear girls, pity themselves, and are permitted to rage against a world they'll never beat".
Heavy metal artists have had to defend their lyrics in front of the U.S. Senate and in court. In 1985, Twisted Sister frontman Dee Snider was asked to defend his song "Under the Blade" at a U.S. Senate hearing. At the hearing, the PMRC alleged that the song was about sadomasochism and rape; Snider stated that the song was about his bandmate's throat surgery. In 1986, Ozzy Osbourne was sued over the lyrics of his song "Suicide Solution". A lawsuit against Osbourne was filed by the parents of John McCollum, a depressed teenager who committed suicide allegedly after listening to Osbourne's song. Osbourne was not found to be responsible for the teen's death. In 1990, Judas Priest was sued in American court by the parents of two young men who had shot themselves five years earlier, allegedly after hearing the subliminal statement "do it" in the song Better by You, Better than Me, it was featured on the album Stained Class (1978), the song was also a Spooky Tooth cover. While the case attracted a great deal of media attention, it was ultimately dismissed. In 1991, UK police seized death metal records from the British record label Earache Records, in an "unsuccessful attempt to prosecute the label for obscenity".
In some predominantly Muslim countries, heavy metal has been officially denounced as a threat to traditional values. In countries such as Morocco, Egypt, Lebanon, and Malaysia, there have been incidents of heavy metal musicians and fans being arrested and incarcerated. In 1997, the Egyptian police jailed many young metal fans and they were accused of "devil worship" and blasphemy, after police found metal recordings during searches of their homes. In 2013, Malaysia banned Lamb of God from performing in their country, on the grounds that the "band's lyrics could be interpreted as being religiously insensitive" and blasphemous. Some people considered heavy metal music to being a leading factor for mental health disorders, and thought that heavy metal fans were more likely to suffer with a poor mental health, but study has proven that this is not true and the fans of this music have a lower or similar percentage of people suffering from poor mental health.
Image and fashionEdit
For many artists and bands, visual imagery plays a large role in heavy metal. In addition to its sound and lyrics, a heavy metal band's image is expressed in album cover art, logos, stage sets, clothing, design of instruments, and music videos.
Down-the-back long hair is the "most crucial distinguishing feature of metal fashion". Originally adopted from the hippie subculture, by the 1980s and 1990s heavy metal hair "symbolised the hate, angst and disenchantment of a generation that seemingly never felt at home", according to journalist Nader Rahman. Long hair gave members of the metal community "the power they needed to rebel against nothing in general".
The classic uniform of heavy metal fans consists of light colored, ripped frayed or torn blue jeans, black T-shirts, boots, and black leather or denim jackets. Deena Weinstein writes, "T-shirts are generally emblazoned with the logos or other visual representations of favorite metal bands." In the 1980s, a range of sources, from punk and goth music to horror films, influenced metal fashion. Many metal performers of the 1970s and 1980s used radically shaped and brightly colored instruments to enhance their stage appearance.
Fashion and personal style was especially important for glam metal bands of the era. Performers typically wore long, dyed, hairspray-teased hair (hence the nickname, "hair metal"); makeup such as lipstick and eyeliner; gaudy clothing, including leopard-skin-printed shirts or vests and tight denim, leather, or spandex pants; and accessories such as headbands and jewelry. Pioneered by the heavy metal act X Japan in the late 1980s, bands in the Japanese movement known as visual kei—which includes many nonmetal groups—emphasize elaborate costumes, hair, and makeup.
Many metal musicians when performing live engage in headbanging, which involves rhythmically beating time with the head, often emphasized by long hair. The il cornuto, or devil horns, hand gesture was popularized by vocalist Ronnie James Dio while with Black Sabbath and Dio. Although Gene Simmons of Kiss claims to have been the first to make the gesture on the 1977 Love Gun album cover, there is speculation as to who started the phenomenon.
Attendees of metal concerts do not dance in the usual sense. It has been argued that this is due to the music's largely male audience and "extreme heterosexualist ideology". Two primary body movements used are headbanging and an arm thrust that is both a sign of appreciation and a rhythmic gesture. The performance of air guitar is popular among metal fans both at concerts and listening to records at home. According to Deena Weinstein, thrash metal concerts have two elements that are not part of the other metal genres: moshing and stage diving, which "were imported from the punk/hardcore subculture". Weinstein states that moshing participants bump and jostle each other as they move in a circle in an area called the "pit" near the stage. Stage divers climb onto the stage with the band and then jump "back into the audience".
It has been argued that heavy metal has outlasted many other rock genres largely due to the emergence of an intense, exclusionary, strongly masculine subculture. While the metal fan base is largely young, white, male, and blue-collar, the group is "tolerant of those outside its core demographic base who follow its codes of dress, appearance, and behavior". Identification with the subculture is strengthened not only by the group experience of concert-going and shared elements of fashion, but also by contributing to metal magazines and, more recently, websites. Attending live concerts in particular has been called the "holiest of heavy metal communions."
The metal scene has been characterized as a "subculture of alienation", with its own code of authenticity. This code puts several demands on performers: they must appear both completely devoted to their music and loyal to the subculture that supports it; they must appear uninterested in mainstream appeal and radio hits; and they must never "sell out". Deena Weinstein states that for the fans themselves, the code promotes "opposition to established authority, and separateness from the rest of society".
Musician and filmmaker Rob Zombie observes, "Most of the kids who come to my shows seem like really imaginative kids with a lot of creative energy they don't know what to do with" and that metal is "outsider music for outsiders. Nobody wants to be the weird kid; you just somehow end up being the weird kid. It's kind of like that, but with metal you have all the weird kids in one place". Scholars of metal have noted the tendency of fans to classify and reject some performers (and some other fans) as "poseurs" "who pretended to be part of the subculture, but who were deemed to lack authenticity and sincerity".
The origin of the term "heavy metal" in a musical context is uncertain. The phrase has been used for centuries in chemistry and metallurgy, where the periodic table organizes elements of both light and heavy metals (e.g., uranium). An early use of the term in modern popular culture was by countercultural writer William S. Burroughs. His 1962 novel The Soft Machine includes a character known as "Uranian Willy, the Heavy Metal Kid". Burroughs' next novel, Nova Express (1964), develops the theme, using heavy metal as a metaphor for addictive drugs: "With their diseases and orgasm drugs and their sexless parasite life forms—Heavy Metal People of Uranus wrapped in cool blue mist of vaporized bank notes—And The Insect People of Minraud with metal music". Inspired by Burroughs' novels, the term was used in the title of the 1967 album Featuring the Human Host and the Heavy Metal Kids by Hapshash and the Coloured Coat, which has been claimed to be its first use in the context of music. The phrase was later lifted by Sandy Pearlman, who used the term to describe The Byrds for their supposed "aluminium style of context and effect", particularly on their album The Notorious Byrd Brothers (1968).
Metal historian Ian Christe describes what the components of the term mean in "hippiespeak": "heavy" is roughly synonymous with "potent" or "profound," and "metal" designates a certain type of mood, grinding and weighted as with metal. The word "heavy" in this sense was a basic element of beatnik and later countercultural hippie slang, and references to "heavy music"—typically slower, more amplified variations of standard pop fare—were already common by the mid-1960s, such as in reference to Vanilla Fudge. Iron Butterfly's debut album, released in early 1968, was titled Heavy. The first use of "heavy metal" in a song lyric is in reference to a motorcycle in the Steppenwolf song "Born to Be Wild", also released that year: "I like smoke and lightning/Heavy metal thunder/Racin' with the wind/And the feelin' that I'm under."
The first documented use of the phrase to describe a type of rock music identified to date appears in a review by Barry Gifford. In the May 11, 1968, issue of Rolling Stone, he wrote about the album A Long Time Comin' by U.S. band Electric Flag: "Nobody who's been listening to Mike Bloomfield—either talking or playing—in the last few years could have expected this. This is the new soul music, the synthesis of white blues and heavy metal rock." In January 1970 Lucian K. Truscott IV reviewing Led Zeppelin II for the Village Voice described the sound as "heavy" and made comparisons with Blue Cheer and Vanilla Fudge.
Other early documented uses of the phrase are from reviews by critic Mike Saunders. In the November 12, 1970 issue of Rolling Stone, he commented on an album put out the previous year by the British band Humble Pie: "Safe as Yesterday Is, their first American release, proved that Humble Pie could be boring in lots of different ways. Here they were a noisy, unmelodic, heavy metal-leaden shit-rock band with the loud and noisy parts beyond doubt. There were a couple of nice songs ... and one monumental pile of refuse". He described the band's latest, self-titled release as "more of the same 27th-rate heavy metal crap".
In a review of Sir Lord Baltimore's Kingdom Come in the May 1971 Creem, Saunders wrote, "Sir Lord Baltimore seems to have down pat most all the best heavy metal tricks in the book". Creem critic Lester Bangs is credited with popularizing the term via his early 1970s essays on bands such as Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. Through the decade, heavy metal was used by certain critics as a virtually automatic putdown. In 1979, lead New York Times popular music critic John Rockwell described what he called "heavy-metal rock" as "brutally aggressive music played mostly for minds clouded by drugs", and, in a different article, as "a crude exaggeration of rock basics that appeals to white teenagers".
Coined by Black Sabbath drummer Bill Ward, "downer rock" was one of the earliest terms used to describe this style of music and was applied to acts such as Sabbath and Bloodrock. Classic Rock magazine described the downer rock culture revolving around the use of Quaaludes and the drinking of wine. Later the term would be replaced by "heavy metal".
Earlier on, as "heavy metal" emerged partially from the heavy psychedelic rock scene, also known as acid rock, "acid rock" was often used interchangeably with "heavy metal" and "hard rock". Musicologist Steve Waksman stated that "the distinction between acid rock, hard rock, and heavy metal can at some point never be more than tenuous", while percussionist John Beck defined "acid rock" as synonymous with hard rock and heavy metal.
Apart from "acid rock", the terms "heavy metal" and "hard rock" have often been used interchangeably, particularly in discussing bands of the 1970s, a period when the terms were largely synonymous. For example, the 1983 Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll includes this passage: "known for its aggressive blues-based hard-rock style, Aerosmith was the top American heavy-metal band of the mid-Seventies".
Antecedents: 1950s to late 1960sEdit
Heavy metal's quintessential guitar style, built around distortion-heavy riffs and power chords, traces its roots to early 1950s Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, and particularly Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, nastier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues" (1954); the late 1950s instrumentals of Link Wray, particularly "Rumble" (1958); the early 1960s surf rock of Dick Dale, including "Let's Go Trippin'" (1961) and "Misirlou" (1962); and The Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" (1963) which made it a garage rock standard.
However, the genre's direct lineage begins in the mid-1960s. American blues music was a major influence on the early British rockers of the era. Bands like The Rolling Stones and The Yardbirds developed blues rock by recording covers of classic blues songs, often speeding up the tempos. As they experimented with the music, the UK blues-based bands—and the U.S. acts they influenced in turn—developed what would become the hallmarks of heavy metal, in particular, the loud, distorted guitar sound. The Kinks played a major role in popularising this sound with their 1964 hit "You Really Got Me".
In addition to The Kinks' Dave Davies, other guitarists such as The Who's Pete Townshend and The Yardbirds' Jeff Beck were experimenting with feedback. Where the blues rock drumming style started out largely as simple shuffle beats on small kits, drummers began using a more muscular, complex, and amplified approach to match and be heard against the increasingly loud guitar. Vocalists similarly modified their technique and increased their reliance on amplification, often becoming more stylized and dramatic. In terms of sheer volume, especially in live performance, The Who's "bigger-louder-wall-of-Marshalls" approach was seminal.
The combination of blues rock with psychedelic rock and acid rock formed much of the original basis for heavy metal. The variant or subgenre of psychedelic rock often known as "acid rock" was particularly influential on heavy metal; acid rock is often defined as a heavier, louder, or harder variant of psychedelic rock, or the more extreme side of the psychedelic rock genre, frequently containing a loud, improvised, and heavily distorted guitar-centered sound. Acid rock has been described as psychedelic rock at its "rawest and most intense," emphasizing the heavier qualities associated with both the positive and negative extremes of the psychedelic experience rather than only the idyllic side of psychedelia. American acid rock garage bands such as the 13th Floor Elevators epitomized the frenetic, heavier, darker and more psychotic sound of acid rock, a sound characterized by droning guitar riffs, amplified feedback, and guitar distortion, while the 13th Floor Elevators' sound in particular featured yelping vocals and "occasionally demented" lyrics. Frank Hoffman notes that: "Psychedelia was sometimes referred to as 'acid rock'. The latter label was applied to a pounding, hard rock variant that evolved out of the mid-1960s garage-punk movement. ... When rock began turning back to softer, roots-oriented sounds in late 1968, acid-rock bands mutated into heavy metal acts."
One of the most influential bands in forging the merger of psychedelic rock and acid rock with the blues rock genre was the British power trio Cream, who derived a massive, heavy sound from unison riffing between guitarist Eric Clapton and bassist Jack Bruce, as well as Ginger Baker's double bass drumming. Their first two LPs, Fresh Cream (1966) and Disraeli Gears (1967), are regarded as essential prototypes for the future style of heavy metal. The Jimi Hendrix Experience's debut album, Are You Experienced (1967), was also highly influential. Hendrix's virtuosic technique would be emulated by many metal guitarists and the album's most successful single, "Purple Haze", is identified by some as the first heavy metal hit. Vanilla Fudge, whose first album also came out in 1967, has been called "one of the few American links between psychedelia and what soon became heavy metal", and the band has been cited as an early American heavy metal group. On their self-titled debut album, Vanilla Fudge created "loud, heavy, slowed-down arrangements" of contemporary hit songs, blowing these songs up to "epic proportions" and "bathing them in a trippy, distorted haze."
During the late 1960s, many psychedelic singers, such as Arthur Brown, began to create outlandish, theatrical and often macabre performances; which in itself became incredibly influential to many metal acts. The American psychedelic rock band Coven, who opened for early heavy metal influencers such as Vanilla Fudge and the Yardbirds, portrayed themselves as practitioners of witchcraft or black magic, using dark—Satanic or occult—imagery in their lyrics, album art, and live performances. Live shows consisted of elaborate, theatrical "Satanic rites." Coven's 1969 debut album, Witchcraft Destroys Minds & Reaps Souls, featured imagery of skulls, black masses, inverted crosses, and Satan worship, and both the album artwork and the band's live performances marked the first appearances in rock music of the sign of the horns, which would later become an important gesture in heavy metal culture. At the same time in England, the band Black Widow were also among the first psychedelic rock bands to use occult and Satanic imagery and lyrics, though both Black Widow and Coven's lyrical and thematic influences on heavy metal were quickly overshadowed by the darker and heavier sounds of Black Sabbath.
Origins: late 1960s and early 1970sEdit
Critics disagree over who can be thought of as the first heavy metal band. Most credit either Led Zeppelin or Black Sabbath, with American commentators tending to favour Led Zeppelin and British commentators tending to favour Black Sabbath, though many give equal credit to both. Deep Purple, the third band in what is sometimes considered the "unholy trinity" of heavy metal, despite being slightly older than Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin, fluctuated between many rock styles until late 1969 when they took a heavy metal direction. A few commentators—mainly American—argue for other groups including Iron Butterfly, Steppenwolf or Blue Cheer as the first to play heavy metal.
In 1968, the sound that would become known as heavy metal began to coalesce. That January, the San Francisco band Blue Cheer released a cover of Eddie Cochran's classic "Summertime Blues", from their debut album Vincebus Eruptum, that many consider the first true heavy metal recording. The same month, Steppenwolf released its self-titled debut album, including "Born to Be Wild", which refers to "heavy metal thunder" in describing a motorcycle. In July, the Jeff Beck Group, whose leader had preceded Page as The Yardbirds' guitarist, released its debut record: Truth featured some of the "most molten, barbed, downright funny noises of all time," breaking ground for generations of metal ax-slingers. In September, Page's new band, Led Zeppelin, made its live debut in Denmark (billed as The New Yardbirds). The Beatles' White Album, released the following month, included "Helter Skelter", then one of the heaviest-sounding songs ever released by a major band. The Pretty Things' rock opera S.F. Sorrow, released in December, featured "proto heavy metal" songs such as "Old Man Going" and "I See You". Iron Butterfly's 1968 song "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida" is sometimes described as an example of the transition between acid rock and heavy metal or the turning point in which acid rock became "heavy metal", and both Iron Butterfly's 1968 album In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida and Blue Cheer's 1968 album Vincebus Eruptum have been described as laying the foundation of heavy metal and greatly influential in the transformation of acid rock into heavy metal.
In this counterculture period MC5, who began as part of the Detroit garage rock scene, developed a raw distorted style that has been seen as a major influence on the future sound of both heavy metal and later punk music. The Stooges also began to establish and influence a heavy metal and later punk sound, with songs such as "I Wanna Be Your Dog", featuring pounding and distorted heavy guitar power chord riffs. Pink Floyd released two of their heaviest and loudest songs to date; "Ibiza Bar" and "The Nile Song", which was regarded as "one of the heaviest songs the band recorded". King Crimson's debut album started with "21st Century Schizoid Man," which was considered heavy metal by several critics.
In January 1969, Led Zeppelin's self-titled debut album was released and reached number 10 on the Billboard album chart. In July, Zeppelin and a power trio with a Cream-inspired, but cruder sound, Grand Funk Railroad, played the Atlanta Pop Festival. That same month, another Cream-rooted trio led by Leslie West released Mountain, an album filled with heavy blues rock guitar and roaring vocals. In August, the group—now itself dubbed Mountain—played an hour-long set at the Woodstock Festival, exposing the crowd of 300,000 people to the emerging sound of heavy metal. Mountain's proto-metal or early heavy metal hit song "Mississippi Queen" from the album Climbing! is especially credited with paving the way for heavy metal and was one of the first heavy guitar songs to receive regular play on radio. In September 1969, the Beatles released the album Abbey Road containing the track "I Want You (She's So Heavy)" which has been credited as an early example of or influence on heavy metal or doom metal. In October 1969, British band High Tide debuted with the heavy, proto-metal album Sea Shanties.
Led Zeppelin defined central aspects of the emerging genre, with Page's highly distorted guitar style and singer Robert Plant's dramatic, wailing vocals. Other bands, with a more consistently heavy, "purely" metal sound, would prove equally important in codifying the genre. The 1970 releases by Black Sabbath (Black Sabbath and Paranoid) and Deep Purple (In Rock) were crucial in this regard.
Birmingham's Black Sabbath had developed a particularly heavy sound in part due to an industrial accident guitarist Tony Iommi suffered before cofounding the band. Unable to play normally, Iommi had to tune his guitar down for easier fretting and rely on power chords with their relatively simple fingering. The bleak, industrial, working class environment of Birmingham, a manufacturing city full of noisy factories and metalworking, has itself been credited with influencing Black Sabbath's heavy, chugging, metallic sound and the sound of heavy metal in general. Deep Purple had fluctuated between styles in its early years, but by 1969 vocalist Ian Gillan and guitarist Ritchie Blackmore had led the band toward the developing heavy metal style. In 1970, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple scored major UK chart hits with "Paranoid" and "Black Night", respectively. That same year, two other British bands released debut albums in a heavy metal mode: Uriah Heep with ...Very 'Eavy ...Very 'Umble and UFO with UFO 1. Bloodrock released their self-titled debut album, containing a collection of heavy guitar riffs, gruff style vocals and sadistic and macabre lyrics. The influential Budgie brought the new metal sound into a power trio context, creating some of the heaviest music of the time. The occult lyrics and imagery employed by Black Sabbath and Uriah Heep would prove particularly influential; Led Zeppelin also began foregrounding such elements with its fourth album, released in 1971. In 1973, Deep Purple released the song "Smoke on the Water", with the iconic riff that's usually considered as the most recognizable one in "heavy rock" history, as a single of the classic live album Made in Japan.
On the other side of the Atlantic, the trend-setting group was Grand Funk Railroad, described as "the most commercially successful American heavy-metal band from 1970 until they disbanded in 1976, [they] established the Seventies success formula: continuous touring". Other influential bands identified with metal emerged in the U.S., such as Sir Lord Baltimore (Kingdom Come, 1970), Blue Öyster Cult (Blue Öyster Cult, 1972), Aerosmith (Aerosmith, 1973) and Kiss (Kiss, 1974). Sir Lord Baltimore's 1970 debut album and both Humble Pie's debut and self-titled third album were all among the first albums to be described in print as "heavy metal", with As Safe As Yesterday Is being referred to by the term "heavy metal" in a 1970 review in Rolling Stone magazine. Various smaller bands from the U.S., U.K, and Continental Europe, including Bang, Josefus, Leaf Hound, Primeval, Hard Stuff, Truth and Janey, Dust, JPT Scare Band, Frijid Pink, Cactus, May Blitz, Captain Beyond, Toad, Granicus, Iron Claw, and Yesterday's Children, though lesser known outside of their respective scenes, proved to be greatly influential on the emerging metal movement. In Germany, Scorpions debuted with Lonesome Crow in 1972. Blackmore, who had emerged as a virtuoso soloist with Deep Purple's highly influential album Machine Head (1972), left the band in 1975 to form Rainbow with Ronnie James Dio, singer and bassist for blues rock band Elf and future vocalist for Black Sabbath and heavy metal band Dio. Rainbow with Ronnie James Dio would expand on the mystical and fantasy-based lyrics and themes sometimes found in heavy metal, pioneering both power metal and neoclassical metal. These bands also built audiences via constant touring and increasingly elaborate stage shows.
As described above, there are arguments about whether these and other early bands truly qualify as "heavy metal" or simply as "hard rock". Those closer to the music's blues roots or placing greater emphasis on melody are now commonly ascribed the latter label. AC/DC, which debuted with High Voltage in 1975, is a prime example. The 1983 Rolling Stone encyclopedia entry begins, "Australian heavy-metal band AC/DC". Rock historian Clinton Walker writes, "Calling AC/DC a heavy metal band in the seventies was as inaccurate as it is today. ... [They] were a rock 'n' roll band that just happened to be heavy enough for metal". The issue is not only one of shifting definitions, but also a persistent distinction between musical style and audience identification: Ian Christe describes how the band "became the stepping-stone that led huge numbers of hard rock fans into heavy metal perdition".
Black Sabbath's audience was ... left to scavenge for sounds with similar impact. By the mid-1970s, heavy metal aesthetic could be spotted, like a mythical beast, in the moody bass and complex dual guitars of Thin Lizzy, in the stagecraft of Alice Cooper, in the sizzling guitar and showy vocals of Queen, and in the thundering medieval questions of Rainbow. ... Judas Priest arrived to unify and amplify these diverse highlights from hard rock's sonic palette. For the first time, heavy metal became a true genre unto itself.
Though Judas Priest did not have a top 40 album in the United States until 1980, for many it was the definitive post-Sabbath heavy metal band; its twin-guitar attack, featuring rapid tempos and a non-bluesy, more cleanly metallic sound, was a major influence on later acts. While heavy metal was growing in popularity, most critics were not enamored of the music. Objections were raised to metal's adoption of visual spectacle and other trappings of commercial artifice, but the main offense was its perceived musical and lyrical vacuity: reviewing a Black Sabbath album in the early 1970s, leading critic Robert Christgau described it as "dull and decadent ... dim-witted, amoral exploitation."
Mainstream: late 1970s and 1980sEdit
Punk rock emerged in the mid-1970s as a reaction against contemporary social conditions as well as what was perceived as the overindulgent, overproduced rock music of the time, including heavy metal. Sales of heavy metal records declined sharply in the late 1970s in the face of punk, disco, and more mainstream rock. With the major labels fixated on punk, many newer British heavy metal bands were inspired by the movement's aggressive, high-energy sound and "lo-fi", do it yourself ethos. Underground metal bands began putting out cheaply recorded releases independently to small, devoted audiences.
Motörhead, founded in 1975, was the first important band to straddle the punk/metal divide. With the explosion of punk in 1977, others followed. British music papers such as the NME and Sounds took notice, with Sounds writer Geoff Barton christening the movement the "New Wave of British Heavy Metal". NWOBHM bands including Iron Maiden, Saxon, and Def Leppard re-energized the heavy metal genre. Following the lead set by Judas Priest and Motörhead, they toughened up the sound, reduced its blues elements, and emphasized increasingly fast tempos.
"This seemed to be the resurgence of heavy metal," noted Ronnie James Dio, who joined Black Sabbath in 1979. "I've never thought there was a desurgence of heavy metal – if that's a word! – but it was important to me that, yet again [after Rainbow], I could be involved in something that was paving the way for those who are going to come after me."
By 1980, the NWOBHM had broken into the mainstream, as albums by Iron Maiden and Saxon, as well as Motörhead, reached the British top 10. Though less commercially successful, NWOBHM bands such as Venom and Diamond Head would have a significant influence on metal's development. In 1981, Motörhead became the first of this new breed of metal bands to top the UK charts with the live album No Sleep 'til Hammersmith.
The first generation of metal bands was ceding the limelight. Deep Purple broke up soon after Blackmore's departure in 1975, and Led Zeppelin split following drummer John Bonham's death in 1980. Black Sabbath were plagued with infighting and substance abuse, while facing fierce competition from their opening band, the Los Angeles band Van Halen. Eddie Van Halen established himself as one of the leading metal guitarists of the era. His solo on "Eruption", from the band's self-titled 1978 album, is considered a milestone. Eddie Van Halen's sound even crossed over into pop music when his guitar solo was featured on the track "Beat It" by Michael Jackson (a U.S. number 1 in February 1983).
Inspired by Van Halen's success, a metal scene began to develop in Southern California during the late 1970s. Based on the clubs of L.A.'s Sunset Strip, bands such as Quiet Riot, Ratt, Mötley Crüe, and W.A.S.P. were influenced by traditional heavy metal of the earlier 1970s. These acts incorporated the theatrics (and sometimes makeup) of glam metal or "hair metal" such as Alice Cooper and Kiss. Glam metal bands were often visually distinguished by long, overworked hair styles accompanied by wardrobes which were sometimes considered cross-gender. The lyrics of these glam metal bands characteristically emphasized hedonism and wild behavior, including lyrics which involved sexual expletives and the use of narcotics.
In the wake of the new wave of British heavy metal and Judas Priest's breakthrough British Steel (1980), heavy metal became increasingly popular in the early 1980s. Many metal artists benefited from the exposure they received on MTV, which began airing in 1981—sales often soared if a band's videos screened on the channel. Def Leppard's videos for Pyromania (1983) made them superstars in America and Quiet Riot became the first domestic heavy metal band to top the Billboard chart with Metal Health (1983). One of the seminal events in metal's growing popularity was the 1983 US Festival in California, where the "heavy metal day" featuring Ozzy Osbourne, Van Halen, Scorpions, Mötley Crüe, Judas Priest, and others drew the largest audiences of the three-day event.
Between 1983 and 1984, heavy metal went from an 8 percent to a 20 percent share of all recordings sold in the U.S. Several major professional magazines devoted to the genre were launched, including Kerrang! (in 1981) and Metal Hammer (in 1984), as well as a host of fan journals. In 1985, Billboard declared, "Metal has broadened its audience base. Metal music is no longer the exclusive domain of male teenagers. The metal audience has become older (college-aged), younger (pre-teen), and more female".
By the mid-1980s, glam metal was a dominant presence on the U.S. charts, music television, and the arena concert circuit. New bands such as L.A.'s Warrant and acts from the East Coast like Poison and Cinderella became major draws, while Mötley Crüe and Ratt remained very popular. Bridging the stylistic gap between hard rock and glam metal, New Jersey's Bon Jovi became enormously successful with its third album, Slippery When Wet (1986). The similarly styled Swedish band Europe became international stars with The Final Countdown (1986). Its title track hit number 1 in 25 countries. In 1987, MTV launched a show, Headbanger's Ball, devoted exclusively to heavy metal videos. However, the metal audience had begun to factionalize, with those in many underground metal scenes favoring more extreme sounds and disparaging the popular style as "light metal" or "hair metal".
One band that reached diverse audiences was Guns N' Roses. In contrast to their glam metal contemporaries in L.A., they were seen as much more raw and dangerous. With the release of their chart-topping Appetite for Destruction (1987), they "recharged and almost single-handedly sustained the Sunset Strip sleaze system for several years". The following year, Jane's Addiction emerged from the same L.A. hard-rock club scene with its major label debut, Nothing's Shocking. Reviewing the album, Rolling Stone declared, "as much as any band in existence, Jane's Addiction is the true heir to Led Zeppelin". The group was one of the first to be identified with the "alternative metal" trend that would come to the fore in the next decade. Meanwhile, new bands such as New York's Winger and New Jersey's Skid Row sustained the popularity of the glam metal style.
Other heavy metal genres: 1980s, 1990s, and 2000sEdit
Many subgenres of heavy metal developed outside of the commercial mainstream during the 1980s such as crossover thrash. Several attempts have been made to map the complex world of underground metal, most notably by the editors of AllMusic, as well as critic Garry Sharpe-Young. Sharpe-Young's multivolume metal encyclopedia separates the underground into five major categories: thrash metal, death metal, black metal, power metal, and the related subgenres of doom and gothic metal.
In 1990, a review in Rolling Stone suggested retiring the term "heavy metal" as the genre was "ridiculously vague". The article stated that the term only fueled "misperceptions of rock & roll bigots who still assume that five bands as different as Ratt, Extreme, Anthrax, Danzig and Mother Love Bone" sound the same.
Thrash metal emerged in the early 1980s under the influence of hardcore punk and the new wave of British heavy metal, particularly songs in the revved-up style known as speed metal. The movement began in the United States, with Bay Area thrash metal being the leading scene. The sound developed by thrash groups was faster and more aggressive than that of the original metal bands and their glam metal successors. Low-register guitar riffs are typically overlaid with shredding leads. Lyrics often express nihilistic views or deal with social issues using visceral, gory language. Thrash has been described as a form of "urban blight music" and "a palefaced cousin of rap".
The subgenre was popularized by the "Big Four of Thrash": Metallica, Anthrax, Megadeth, and Slayer. Three German bands, Kreator, Sodom, and Destruction, played a central role in bringing the style to Europe. Others, including San Francisco Bay Area's Testament and Exodus, New Jersey's Overkill, and Brazil's Sepultura and Sarcófago, also had a significant impact. Although thrash began as an underground movement, and remained largely that for almost a decade, the leading bands of the scene began to reach a wider audience. Metallica brought the sound into the top 40 of the Billboard album chart in 1986 with Master of Puppets, the genre's first platinum record. Two years later, the band's ...And Justice for All hit number 6, while Megadeth and Anthrax also had top 40 records on the American charts.
Though less commercially successful than the rest of the Big Four, Slayer released one of the genre's definitive records: Reign in Blood (1986) was credited for incorporating heavier guitar timbres, and for including explicit depictions of death, suffering, violence and occult into thrash metal's lyricism. Slayer attracted a following among far-right skinheads, and accusations of promoting violence and Nazi themes have dogged the band. Even though Slayer did not receive substantial media exposure, their music played a key role in the development of extreme metal.
In the early 1990s, thrash achieved breakout success, challenging and redefining the metal mainstream. Metallica's self-titled 1991 album topped the Billboard chart, as the band established international following. Megadeth's Countdown to Extinction (1992) debuted at number two, Anthrax and Slayer cracked the top 10, and albums by regional bands such as Testament and Sepultura entered the top 100.
Thrash soon began to evolve and split into more extreme metal genres. "Slayer's music was directly responsible for the rise of death metal," according to MTV News. The NWOBHM band Venom was also an important progenitor. The death metal movement in both North America and Europe adopted and emphasized the elements of blasphemy and diabolism employed by such acts. Florida's Death, San Francisco Bay Area's Possessed, and Ohio's Necrophagia are recognized as seminal bands in the style. Both groups have been credited with inspiring the subgenre's name, the latter via its 1984 demo Death Metal and the song "Death Metal", from its 1985 debut album Seven Churches (1985). In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Swedish death metal became notable and melodic forms of death metal were created.
Death metal utilizes the speed and aggression of both thrash and hardcore, fused with lyrics preoccupied with Z-grade slasher movie violence and Satanism. Death metal vocals are typically bleak, involving guttural "death growls", high-pitched screaming, the "death rasp", and other uncommon techniques. Complementing the deep, aggressive vocal style are downtuned, heavily distorted guitars and extremely fast percussion, often with rapid double bass drumming and "wall of sound"–style blast beats. Frequent tempo and time signature changes and syncopation are also typical.
Death metal, like thrash metal, generally rejects the theatrics of earlier metal styles, opting instead for an everyday look of ripped jeans and plain leather jackets. One major exception to this rule was Deicide's Glen Benton, who branded an inverted cross on his forehead and wore armor on stage. Morbid Angel adopted neo-fascist imagery. These two bands, along with Death and Obituary, were leaders of the major death metal scene that emerged in Florida in the mid-1980s. In the UK, the related style of grindcore, led by bands such as Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, emerged from the anarcho-punk movement.
The first wave of black metal emerged in Europe in the early and mid-1980s, led by the United Kingdom's Venom, Denmark's Mercyful Fate, Switzerland's Hellhammer and Celtic Frost, and Sweden's Bathory. By the late 1980s, Norwegian bands such as Mayhem and Burzum were heading a second wave. Black metal varies considerably in style and production quality, although most bands emphasize shrieked and growled vocals, highly distorted guitars frequently played with rapid tremolo picking, a dark atmosphere and intentionally lo-fi production, with ambient noise and background hiss.
Satanic themes are common in black metal, though many bands take inspiration from ancient paganism, promoting a return to supposed pre-Christian values. Numerous black metal bands also "experiment with sounds from all possible forms of metal, folk, classical music, electronica and avant-garde". Darkthrone drummer Fenriz explains, "It had something to do with production, lyrics, the way they dressed and a commitment to making ugly, raw, grim stuff. There wasn't a generic sound."
Although bands such as Sarcófago had been donning corpsepaint, by 1990, Mayhem was regularly wearing corpsepaint; many other black metal acts also adopted the look. Bathory inspired the Viking metal and folk metal movements and Immortal brought blast beats to the fore. Some bands in the Scandinavian black metal scene became associated with considerable violence in the early 1990s, with Mayhem and Burzum linked to church burnings. Growing commercial hype around death metal generated a backlash; beginning in Norway, much of the Scandinavian metal underground shifted to support a black metal scene that resisted being co-opted by the commercial metal industry.
By 1992, black metal scenes had begun to emerge in areas outside Scandinavia, including Germany, France, and Poland. The 1993 murder of Mayhem's Euronymous by Burzum's Varg Vikernes provoked intensive media coverage. Around 1996, when many in the scene felt the genre was stagnating, several key bands, including Burzum and Finland's Beherit, moved toward an ambient style, while symphonic black metal was explored by Sweden's Tiamat and Switzerland's Samael. In the late 1990s and early 2000s decade, Norway's Dimmu Borgir brought black metal closer to the mainstream, as did Cradle of Filth.
During the late 1980s, the power metal scene came together largely in reaction to the harshness of death and black metal. Though a relatively underground style in North America, it enjoys wide popularity in Europe, Japan, and South America. Power metal focuses on upbeat, epic melodies and themes that "appeal to the listener's sense of valor and loveliness". The prototype for the sound was established in the mid-to-late 1980s by Germany's Helloween, which combined the power riffs, melodic approach, and high-pitched, "clean" singing style of bands like Judas Priest and Iron Maiden with thrash's speed and energy, "crystalliz[ing] the sonic ingredients of what is now known as power metal".
Traditional power metal bands like Sweden's HammerFall, England's DragonForce, and America's Iced Earth have a sound clearly indebted to the classic NWOBHM style. Many power metal bands such as America's Kamelot, Finnish groups Nightwish, Stratovarius and Sonata Arctica, Italy's Rhapsody of Fire, and Russia's Catharsis feature a keyboard-based "symphonic" sound, sometimes employing orchestras and opera singers. Power metal has built a strong fanbase in Japan and South America, where bands like Brazil's Angra and Argentina's Rata Blanca are popular.
Closely related to power metal is progressive metal, which adopts the complex compositional approach of bands like Rush and King Crimson. This style emerged in the United States in the early and mid-1980s, with innovators such as Queensrÿche, Fates Warning, and Dream Theater. The mix of the progressive and power metal sounds is typified by New Jersey's Symphony X, whose guitarist Michael Romeo is among the most recognized of latter-day shredders.
Emerging in the mid-1980s with such bands as California's Saint Vitus, Maryland's The Obsessed, Chicago's Trouble, and Sweden's Candlemass, the doom metal movement rejected other metal styles' emphasis on speed, slowing its music to a crawl. Doom metal traces its roots to the lyrical themes and musical approach of early Black Sabbath. The Melvins have also been a significant influence on doom metal and a number of its subgenres. Doom emphasizes melody, melancholy tempos, and a sepulchral mood relative to many other varieties of metal.
The 1991 release of Forest of Equilibrium, the debut album by UK band Cathedral, helped spark a new wave of doom metal. During the same period, the doom-death fusion style of British bands Paradise Lost, My Dying Bride, and Anathema gave rise to European gothic metal, with its signature dual-vocalist arrangements, exemplified by Norway's Theatre of Tragedy and Tristania. New York's Type O Negative introduced an American take on the style.
In the United States, sludge metal, mixing doom and hardcore, emerged in the late 1980s—Eyehategod and Crowbar were leaders in a major Louisiana sludge scene. Early in the next decade, California's Kyuss and Sleep, inspired by the earlier doom metal bands, spearheaded the rise of stoner metal, while Seattle's Earth helped develop the drone metal subgenre. The late 1990s saw new bands form such as the Los Angeles–based Goatsnake, with a classic stoner/doom sound, and Sunn O))), which crosses lines between doom, drone, and dark ambient metal—the New York Times has compared their sound to an "Indian raga in the middle of an earthquake".
1990s and early 2000s subgenres and fusionsEdit
The era of heavy metal's mainstream dominance in North America came to an end in the early 1990s with the emergence of Nirvana and other grunge bands, signaling the popular breakthrough of alternative rock. Grunge acts were influenced by the heavy metal sound, but rejected the excesses of the more popular metal bands, such as their "flashy and virtuosic solos" and "appearance-driven" MTV orientation.
Glam metal fell out of favor due not only to the success of grunge, but also because of the growing popularity of the more aggressive sound typified by Metallica and the post-thrash groove metal of Pantera and White Zombie. In 1991, the band Metallica released their album Metallica, also known as The Black Album, which moved the band's sound out of the thrash metal genre and into standard heavy metal. The album was certified 16× Platinum by the RIAA. A few new, unambiguously metal bands had commercial success during the first half of the decade—Pantera's Far Beyond Driven topped the Billboard chart in 1994—but, "In the dull eyes of the mainstream, metal was dead". Some bands tried to adapt to the new musical landscape. Metallica revamped its image: the band members cut their hair and, in 1996, headlined the alternative musical festival Lollapalooza founded by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell. While this prompted a backlash among some long-time fans, Metallica remained one of the most successful bands in the world into the new century.
Like Jane's Addiction, many of the most popular early 1990s groups with roots in heavy metal fall under the umbrella term "alternative metal". Bands in Seattle's grunge scene such as Soundgarden, credited as making a "place for heavy metal in alternative rock", and Alice in Chains were at the center of the alternative metal movement. The label was applied to a wide spectrum of other acts that fused metal with different styles: Faith No More combined their alternative rock sound with punk, funk, metal, and hip hop; Primus joined elements of funk, punk, thrash metal, and experimental music; Tool mixed metal and progressive rock; bands such as Fear Factory, Ministry and Nine Inch Nails began incorporating metal into their industrial sound, and vice versa, respectively; and Marilyn Manson went down a similar route, while also employing shock effects of the sort popularized by Alice Cooper. Alternative metal artists, though they did not represent a cohesive scene, were united by their willingness to experiment with the metal genre and their rejection of glam metal aesthetics (with the stagecraft of Marilyn Manson and White Zombie—also identified with alt-metal—significant, if partial, exceptions). Alternative metal's mix of styles and sounds represented "the colorful results of metal opening up to face the outside world."
In the mid- and late 1990s came a new wave of U.S. metal groups inspired by the alternative metal bands and their mix of genres. Dubbed "nu metal", bands such as Slipknot, Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Papa Roach, P.O.D., Korn and Disturbed incorporated elements ranging from death metal to hip hop, often including DJs and rap-style vocals. The mix demonstrated that "pancultural metal could pay off". Nu metal gained mainstream success through heavy MTV rotation and Ozzy Osbourne's 1996 introduction of Ozzfest, which led the media to talk of a resurgence of heavy metal. In 1999, Billboard noted that there were more than 500 specialty metal radio shows in the United States, nearly three times as many as ten years before. While nu metal was widely popular, traditional metal fans did not fully embrace the style. By early 2003, the movement's popularity was on the wane, though several nu metal acts such as Korn or Limp Bizkit retained substantial followings.
Recent styles: mid–late 2000s and 2010sEdit
Metalcore, a hybrid of extreme metal and hardcore punk, emerged as a commercial force in the mid-2000s decade. Through the 1980s and 1990s, metalcore was mostly an underground phenomenon; pioneering bands include Earth Crisis, other prominent bands include Converge, Hatebreed and Shai Hulud. By 2004, melodic metalcore—influenced as well by melodic death metal—was popular enough that Killswitch Engage's The End of Heartache and Shadows Fall's The War Within debuted at numbers 21 and 20, respectively, on the Billboard album chart.
Evolving even further from metalcore comes mathcore, a more rhythmically complicated and progressive style brought to light by bands such as The Dillinger Escape Plan, Converge, and Protest the Hero. Mathcore's main defining quality is the use of odd time signatures, and has been described to possess rhythmic comparability to free jazz.
Heavy metal remained popular in the 2000s, particularly in continental Europe. By the new millennium Scandinavia had emerged as one of the areas producing innovative and successful bands, while Belgium, The Netherlands and especially Germany were the most significant markets. Metal music is more favorably embraced in Scandinavia and Northern Europe than other regions due to social and political openness in these regions. Established continental metal bands that placed multiple albums in the top 20 of the German charts between 2003 and 2008, including Finnish band Children of Bodom, Norwegian act Dimmu Borgir, Germany's Blind Guardian and Sweden's HammerFall.
In the 2000s, an extreme metal fusion genre known as deathcore emerged. Deathcore incorporates elements of death metal, hardcore punk and metalcore. Deathcore features characteristics such as death metal riffs, hardcore punk breakdowns, death growling, "pig squeal"-sounding vocals, and screaming. Deathcore bands include Whitechapel, Suicide Silence, Despised Icon and Carnifex.
The term "retro-metal" has been used to describe bands such as Texas-based The Sword, California's High on Fire, Sweden's Witchcraft, and Australia's Wolfmother. The Sword's Age of Winters (2006) drew heavily on the work of Black Sabbath and Pentagram, Witchcraft added elements of folk rock and psychedelic rock, and Wolfmother's self-titled 2005 debut album had "Deep Purple-ish organs" and "Jimmy Page-worthy chordal riffing". Mastodon, which plays in a progressive/sludge style, has inspired claims of a metal revival in the United States, dubbed by some critics the "New Wave of American Heavy Metal".
By the early 2010s, metalcore was evolving to more frequently incorporate synthesizers and elements from genres beyond rock and metal. The album Reckless & Relentless by British band Asking Alexandria (which sold 31,000 copies in its first week), and The Devil Wears Prada's 2011 album Dead Throne (which sold 32,400 in its first week) reached up to number 9 and 10, respectively, on the Billboard 200 chart. In 2013, British band Bring Me the Horizon released their fourth studio album Sempiternal to critical acclaim. The album debuted at number 3 on the UK Album Chart and at number 1 in Australia. The album sold 27,522 copies in the US, and charted at number 11 on the US Billboard Chart, making it their highest charting release in America until their follow-up album That's the Spirit debuted at no. 2 in 2015.
Also in the 2010s, a metal style called "djent" developed as a spinoff of standard progressive metal. Djent music uses rhythmic and technical complexity, heavily distorted, palm-muted guitar chords, syncopated riffs and polyrhythms alongside virtuoso soloing. Another typical characteristic is the use of extended range seven, eight, and nine-string guitars. Djent bands include Periphery, Tesseract and Textures.
Women in heavy metalEdit
The history of women in heavy metal can be traced back as far as the 1970s when the band Vixen was formed in 1973. Another hard rock band that featured all-female members, The Runaways, was founded in 1975; two members, Joan Jett and Lita Ford, later had successful solo careers. In 1978, with the rise of the new wave of British heavy metal, the band Girlschool was founded, later collaborating with Motörhead under the pseudonym Headgirl in 1980. In 1996, Finnish band Nightwish was founded and has featured women as vocalists. This was followed by more women fronting heavy metal bands, such as Halestorm, Within Temptation, Arch Enemy, and Epica among others. In Japan, the 2010s brought a boom of all-female metal bands including Destrose, Aldious, Mary's Blood, Cyntia, and Lovebites.
Women have had an important role behind the scenes, such as Gaby Hoffmann and Sharon Osbourne. In 1981, Hoffmann helped Don Dokken acquire his first record deal. Hoffmann also became the manager of Accept in 1981 and wrote songs under the pseudonym of "Deaffy" for many of band's studio albums. Vocalist Mark Tornillo stated that Hoffmann still had some influence in songwriting on their later albums. Osbourne, the wife and manager of Ozzy Osbourne, founded the Ozzfest music festival and managed several bands, including Motörhead, Coal Chamber, The Smashing Pumpkins, Electric Light Orchestra, Lita Ford and Queen.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (August 4, 2016). "A Brief History of Post-Metal". Bandcamp. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
- "Grunge". AllMusic. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Du Noyer (2003), p. 96; Weinstein (2000), pp. 11–13.
- Weinstein (2000), pp. 14, 118.
- Fast (2005), pp. 89–91; Weinstein (2000), pp. 7, 8, 23, 36, 103, 104.
- Tom Larson (2004). History of Rock and Roll. Kendall/Hunt Pub. pp. 183–187. ISBN 978-0-7872-9969-9.
- Heavy Metal Music Genre Overview at AllMusic
- Walser (1993), p. 6.
- "As much as Sabbath started it, Priest were the ones who took it out of the blues and straight into metal." Bowe, Brian J. Judas Priest: Metal Gods. ISBN 0-7660-3621-9.
- Pareles, Jon. "Heavy Metal, Weighty Words" The New York Times, July 10, 1988. Retrieved on November 14, 2007.
- Weinstein (2000), p. 25
- Hannum, Terence (March 18, 2016). "Instigate Sonic Violence: A Not-so-Brief History of the Synthesizer's Impact on Heavy Metal". noisey.vice.com. Vice. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
In almost every subgenre of heavy metal, synthesizers held sway. Look at Cynic, who on their progressive death metal opus Focus (1993) had keyboards appear on the album and during live performances, or British gothic doom band My Dying Bride, who relied heavily on synths for their 1993 album, Turn Loose the Swans. American noise band Today is the Day used synthesizers on their 1996 self titled album to powerfully add to their din. Voivod even put synthesizers to use for the first time on 1991's Angel Rat and 1993's The Outer Limits, played by both guitarist Piggy and drummer Away. The 1990s were a gold era for the use of synthesizers in heavy metal, and only paved the way for the further explorations of the new millennia.
- Weinstein (2000), p. 23
- Walser, Robert (1993). Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-8195-6260-2.
- Hodgson, Peter (April 9, 2011). "METAL 101: Face-melting guitar tones". iheartguitarblog.com. I Heart Guitar. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- Weinstein, p. 24
- Walser, p. 50
- Dickinson, Kay (2003). Movie Music, the Film Reader. Psychology Press. p. 158.
- Grow, Kory (February 26, 2010). "Final Six: The Six Best/Worst Things to Come out of Nu-Metal". Revolver magazine. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
The death of the guitar solo[:] In its efforts to tune down and simplify riffs, nu-metal effectively drove a stake through the heart of the guitar solo
- "Lesson four- Power chords". Marshall Amps.
- Damage Incorporated: Metallica and the Production of Musical Identity. By Glenn Pillsbury. Routledge, 2013
- Weinstein (2000), p. 26
- Cited in Weinstein (2000), p. 26
- Weinstein (2000), p. 24
- Weinstein (2009), p. 24
- "Cliff Burton's Legendary Career: The King of Metal Bass". Archived November 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Bass Player, February 2005. Retrieved on November 13, 2007.
- Wall, Mick. Lemmy: The Definitive Biography. Orion Publishing Group, 2016.
- Dawson, Michael. "Lamb of God's Chris Adler: More than Meets the Eye", August 17, 2006. Modern Drummer Online. Retrieved on November 13, 2007.
- Berry and Gianni (2003), p. 85
- Cope, Andrew L. (2010). Black Sabbath and the Rise of Heavy Metal Music. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 130.
- Arnett (1996), p. 14
- Walser (1993), p. 9
- Paul Sutcliffe quoted in Waksman, Steve. "Metal, Punk, and Motörhead: Generic Crossover in the Heart of the Punk Explosion". Echo: A Music-Centered Journal 6.2 (Fall 2004). Retrieved on November 15, 2007.
- Brake, Mike (1990). "Heavy Metal Culture, Masculinity and Iconography". In Frith, Simon; Goodwin, Andrew (eds.). On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word. Routledge. pp. 87–91.
- Walser, Robert (1993). Running with the Devil:Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 76.
- Eddy, Chuck (July 1, 2011). "Women of Metal". Spin. SpinMedia Group.
- Kelly, Kim (January 17, 2013). "Queens of noise: heavy metal encourages heavy-hitting women". The Telegraph.
- Hayes, Craig. "A Very Dirty Lens: How Can We Listen to Offensive Metal". PopMatters. September 20, 2013.
- "Master of Rhythm: The Importance of Tone and Right-hand Technique", Guitar Legends, April 1997, p. 99
- Walser (1993), p. 2
- Walser, Robert (2014). Running With the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 43.
- See, e.g., Glossary of Guitar Terms. Mel Bay Publications. Retrieved on November 15, 2007.
- "Shaping Up and Riffing Out: Using Major and Minor Power Chords to Add Colour to Your Parts", Guitar Legends, April 1997, p. 97
- Schonbrun (2006), p. 22
- Walser (1993), p. 46
- Marshall, Wolf. "Power Lord—Climbing Chords, Evil Tritones, Giant Callouses", Guitar Legends, April 1997, p. 29
- Dunn, Sam (2005). "Metal: A Headbanger's Journey". Archived August 7, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Warner Home Video (2006). Retrieved on March 19, 2007.
- Lilja, Esa (2009). "Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony". Advanced Musicology. IAML Finland. 1.
- The first explicit prohibition of that interval seems to occur with the "development of Guido of Arezzo's hexachordal system which made B flat a diatonic note, namely as the 4th degree of the hexachordal on F. From then until the end of Renaissance the tritone, nicknamed the 'diabolus in musica', was regarded as an unstable interval and rejected as a consonance" (Sadie, Stanley . "Tritone", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1st ed. MacMillan, pp. 154–155. ISBN 0-333-23111-2. See also Arnold, Denis . "Tritone", in The New Oxford Companion to Music, Volume 1: A–J. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311316-3). During the Romantic era and in modern classical music composers have used it freely, exploiting the evil connotations with which it is culturally associated.
- Kennedy (1985), "Pedal Point", p. 540
- Walser, Robert (2014). Running With the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 47.
- Walser (1993), p. 58
- Walser, Robert. "Heavy metal". Grove Music Online. Retrieved March 6, 2010. (subscription required)
- Wagner, Wilson, p. 156.
- See Cook and Dibben (2001), p. 56
- Hatch and Millward (1989), p. 167
- Weinstein (1991), p. 36
- Gore, Tipper (2007). "The Cult of Violence". In Cateforis, Theo (ed.). The Rock History Reader. Taylor & Francis. pp. 227–233. ISBN 978-0-415-97501-8. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- See, e.g., Ewing and McCann (2006), pp. 104–113
- Cope, Andrew L. Black Sabbath and the Rise of Heavy Metal Music. Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2010. p. 141
- Christgau, Robert (October 13, 1998). "Nothing's Shocking". The Village Voice. New York. Archived from the original on September 12, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Ostroff, Joshua (September 18, 2015). "Twisted Sister's Dee Snider Blasts Irresponsible Parents On PMRC Hearings' 30th Anniversary". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- Elovaara, Mika (2014). "Chapter 3: Am I Evil? The Meaning of Metal Lyrics to its Fans". In Abbey, James; Helb, Colin (eds.). Hardcore, Punk and Other Junk: Aggressive Sounds in Contemporary Music. Lexington Books. p. 38.
- VH1: Behind The Music—Ozzy Osbourne, VH1. Paramount Television, 1998.
- "Revisiting Judas Priest's Subliminal Lyrics Trial".
- Kahn-Harris, Keith, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge, Oxford: Berg, 2007, ISBN 1-84520-399-2. p. 28
- Whitaker, Brian (June 2, 2003). "Highway to Hell". Guardian. Retrieved March 3, 2009. "Malaysia Curbs Heavy Metal Music". BBC News. London. August 4, 2001. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- Weber, Katherine. "Malaysia Bans 'Lamb of God', Grammy-Nominated Heavy Metal Band, Says Lyrics are Blasphemous". The Christian Post. September 5, 2013.
- Recours, R; Aussaguel, F; Trujillo, N (2009). "Metal music and mental health in France" (PDF). Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. 33 (3): 473–488. doi:10.1007/s11013-009-9138-2. PMID 19521752.
- Weinstein (2000), p. 27
- Weinstein (2000), p. 129
- Rahman, Nader. "Hair Today Gone Tomorrow" Archived December 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Star Weekend Magazine, July 28, 2006. Retrieved on November 20, 2007.
- Weinstein (2000), p. 127
- Pospiszyl, Tomáš. "Heavy Metal". Umelec, January 2001. Retrieved on November 20, 2007. Archived June 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Thompson (2007), p. 135
- Blush, Steven (November 11, 2007). "American Hair Metal – Excerpts: Selected Images and Quotes". Feral House. Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
- Strauss, Neil (June 18, 1998). "The Pop Life: End of a Life, End of an Era". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- Appleford, Steve. "Odyssey of the Devil Horns". MK Magazine, September 9, 2004. Retrieved on March 31, 2007.
- Weinstein, p. 130
- Weinstein, p. 95
- Weinstein, Deena (2009). Heavy Metal:The Music and its Culture. Da Capo Press. pp. 228–229.
- Weinstein, pp. 103, 7, 8, 104
- Weinstein, pp. 102, 112
- Weinstein, pp. 181, 207, 294
- Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Vol. 4, no. 1 (2014) p. 105
- "Three profiles of heavy metal fans: A taste for sensation and a subculture of alienation", Jeffrey Arnett. In Qualitative Sociology; Publisher Springer Netherlands. ISSN 0162-0436. Volume 16, Number 4 / December 1993. Pages 423–443.
- Weinstein, pp. 46, 60, 154, 273
- Weinstein, p. 166
- Dunn, "Metal: A Headbanger's Journey" B000EGEJIY (2006)
- Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen (1996). Metalheads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation.
- Burroughs, William S. "Nova Express" Archived April 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. New York: Grove Press, 1964. P. 112.
- Thorgerson, Storm (1999). 100 Best Album Covers. DK. p. 1969.
- Palacios, Julian (2010). Syd Barrett & Pink Floyd: Dark Globe. Plexus. p. 170. ISBN 978-0859654319.
- Malcolm Dome. "Arena: 'Heavy Metal'". Arena (Tv show). 4:06 – 4:21 minutes in. BBC. BBC Two.
- Christe (2003), p. 10
- Walser (1993), p. 8
- Gifford, Barry. Rolling Stone, May 11, 1968, p. 20.
- "Riffs". Lucian K. Truscott IV for the Village Voice. January 22, 1970. "Led Zeppelin, popularly looked on as an English version of Blue Cheer, given to Vanilla Fudgeish heavy-handedness in all that it does, has come out with a good album, 'Led Zeppelin II' (Atlantic SD 8236). Sure, it's 'heavy.' Sure, it's volume-rock at a time when the trend seems to be toward acoustical niceties of country music".
- Saunders, Mike (November 12, 1970). "Humble Pie: 'Town and Country' (review)". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 30, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
- Saunders, Mike (May 1971). "Sir Lord Baltimore's 'Kingdom Come' (review)". Creem. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
- Weinstein (1991), p. 19
- Rockwell, John. New York Times, February 4, 1979, p. D22
- Rockwell, John. New York Times, August 13, 1979, p. C16
- Sleazegrinder (March 2007). "The Lost Pioneers of Heavy Metal". Classic Rock.
- Kevin Holm-Hudson, Progressive Rock Reconsidered, (Routledge, 2002), ISBN 0-8153-3715-9
- Waksman (2001), p. 262
- Beck, John H. (2013). Encyclopedia of Percussion. Routledge. p. 335. ISBN 978-1-317-74768-0.
- Du Noyer (2003), pp. 96, 78
- Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 4
- Miller, Jim (1980). The Rolling Stone illustrated history of rock & roll. Rolling Stone. New York. ISBN 978-0-394-51322-5. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
Black country bluesmen made raw, heavily amplified boogie records of their own, especially in Memphis, where guitarists like Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson (with the early Howlin' Wolf band) and Pat Hare (with Little Junior Parker) played driving rhythms and scorching, distorted solos that might be counted the distant ancestors of heavy metal.
- Robert Palmer, "Church of the Sonic Guitar", pp. 13–38 in Anthony DeCurtis, Present Tense, Duke University Press, 1992, pp. 24–27. ISBN 0-8223-1265-4.
- Strong (2004), p. 1693; Buckley (2003), p. 1187
- Buckley (2003) p. 1144.
- Weinstein (1991), p. 18; Walser (1993), p. 9
- Wilkerson (2006), p. 19.
- "The Yardbirds". Richie Unterberger. AllMusic. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Walser (1993), p. 10
- McMichael (2004), p. 112
- Weinstein (1991), p. 16
- Heavy metal music at AllMusic
- Bisbort, Alan; Puterbaugh, Parke (2000). Rhino's Psychedelic Trip. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 9780879306267. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie (2001). All Music Guide: The Definitive Guide to Popular Music. Hal Corporation. ISBN 9780879306274. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- Hoffmann, Frank (ed.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, Routledge, p. 1725 ISBN 1135949506
- Charlton (2003), pp. 232–33
- Huey, Steve. "Vanilla Fudge (Biography)". Allmusic. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Browne, Ray Broadus; Browne, Pat (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. ISBN 9780879728212.
- Unterberger, Ritchie. "Arthur Brown (Biography)". Allmusic. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Polly Marshall, The God of Hellfire, the Crazy Life and Times of Arthur Brown, ISBN 0-946719-77-2, SAF Publishing, 2005, page 175.
- Polly Marshall, The God of Hellfire, the Crazy Life and Times of Arthur Brown, ISBN 0-946719-77-2, SAF Publishing, 2005, page 103.
- Heigl, Alex. "The Overwhelming (and Overlooked) Darkness of Jinx Dawson and Coven". People.com.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. ISBN 9781936239764.
- Charlton (2003), p. 241
- Weinstein (2000), pp. 14–15.
- McCleary (2004), pp. 240, 506.
- Gene Santoro, quoted in Carson (2001), p. 86.
- "Led Zeppelin Teen-Clubs, Box 45, Egegaard Skole – September 7, 1968". Led Zeppelin – Official Website. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Blake (1997), p. 143
- Strauss, Neil (September 3, 1998). "The Pop Life: The First Rock Opera (No, Not 'Tommy')". New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- Mason, Stewart. "I See You: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Rood 1994, p. 6.
- Smith, Nathan (February 13, 2012). "The Warning: The 10 Heaviest Albums Before Black Sabbath". Houston Press. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
- Bukszpan (2003), p. 288.
- Bukszpan (2003), p. 141.
- Braunstein and Doyle (2002), p. 133.
- Trynka, Paul (2007). Iggy Pop: open up and bleed. New York: Broadway Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-7679-2319-4.
- Kellman, Andy. "Relics, Pink Floyd: Review". Allmusic. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukee, Michigan: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 132.
- Fricke, David. "King Crimson: The Power To Believe : Music Reviews : Rolling Stone". web.archive.org. Archived from the original .
- Buckley 2003, p. 477, "Opening with the cataclysmic heavy-metal of '21st Century Schizoid Man', and closing with the cathedral-sized title track,"
- Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 9780793540426. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Though often identified now as "hard rock", the band's official debut album, Mountain Climbing (1970), placed 85th on the list of "Top 100 Metal Albums" compiled by Hit Parader in 1989. In November, Love Sculpture, with guitarist Dave Edmunds, put out Forms and Feelings, featuring a pounding, aggressive version of Khachaturian's "Sabre Dance". Grand Funk Railroad's Survival (1971) placed 72nd (Walser , p. 174).
- Hoffmann, Frank W. (1984). Popular Culture and Libraries. Library Professional Publications. ISBN 9780208019813.
- Ulibas, Joseph. "Hard rock band Mountain is riding the Mississippi Queen into the 21st century". AXS. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- "The 50 Heaviest Songs Before Black Sabbath: #40-31". guitarworld.com.
- Classic Rock Magazine, September 2014
- Neate, Wilson Allmusic Review
- Charlton (2003), p. 239
- "Whole Lotta Love". RollingStone.com. 2003. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
- di Perna, Alan. "The History of Hard Rock: The 70's". Guitar World. March 2001.
- Allsop, Laura (July 1, 2011). "Birmingham, England ... the unlikely birthplace of heavy metal". CNN. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- Wood, Rebecca (February 4, 2017). "Black Sabbath: 'We hated being a heavy metal band'". BBC. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- Michaud, Jon (August 4, 2013). "Keeping the Sabbath". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- Bentley, David (June 4, 2013). "Midlands rocks! How Birmingham's industrial heritage made it the birthplace of heavy metal". Birmingham Post. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- "Black Sabbath". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Buckley 2003, p. 232, "'Black Night', a UK #2 hit in November 1970, stole its riff from Ricky Nelson's 'Summertime'."
- Guarisco, Donald A. "Bloodrock: Bloodrock > Review". AllMusic. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Henderson, Alex. "Budgie (review)". Allmusic. Retrieved September 15, 2009.
- Fast (2001), pp. 70–71
- Parco, Nicholas. "SEE IT: From 'Kashmir' to 'Layla,' a look at the most iconic guitar riffs in rock history". Nydailynews.com. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- "Read Lars Ulrich's Deep Purple Rock Hall Induction Speech". Rolling Stone. April 9, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 225
- Saunders, Mike. Rolling Stone Archived January 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine November 12, 1970
- Owen Adams (May 11, 2009). "Label of love: Immediate Records". theguardian.com.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Rainbow". Allmusic. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 1
- Walker (2001), p. 297
- Christe (2003), p. 54
- Christe (2003), pp. 19–20
- Walser (1993), p. 11
- Christgau (1981), p. 49
- Christe (2003), pp. 30, 33
- Christe (2003), p. 33
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas; Prato, Greg. "Judas Priest". Allmusic. Retrieved April 30, 2007. "Genre—New Wave of British Heavy Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
- Ronnie James Dio interview with Tommy Vance for BBC Radio 1's Friday Rock Show; broadcast 21 August 1987; transcribed by editor Peter Scott for Sabbath fanzine Southern Cross #11, October 1996, p27
- Weinstein (1991), p. 44
- Burridge, Alan (April 1991). "Motörhead". Record Collector (140): 18–19.
- Popoff (2011), Black Sabbath FAQ: All That's Left to Know on the First Name in Metal P. 130
- Christe (2003), p. 25
- Christe (2003), p. 51
- "Van Halen – Van Halen." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. October 4, 2015.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Quiet Riot". AllMusic. Retrieved on March 25, 2007; Neely, Kim "Ratt". Rolling Stone. Retrieved on April 3, 2007; Barry Weber & Greg Prato. "Mötley Crüe". AllMusic. Retrieved on April 3, 2007; Dolas, Yiannis. "Blackie Lawless Interview" Archived April 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Rockpages. Retrieved on April 3, 2007.
- Christe (2003), pp. 55–57
- Freeborn, Robert (June 2010). "A SELECTIVE DISCOGRAPHY OF SCANDINAVIAN HEAVY METAL MUSIC". Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. 66 (4): 840–850.
- Christe (2003), p. 79
- Weinstein (1991), p. 45
- Walser (1993), p. 12
- Walser (1993), pp. 12–13, 182 n. 35
- "Rock Group Europe Plan Comeback". BBC News. London. October 3, 2003. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
- Walser (1993), p. 14; Christe (2003), p. 170
- Christe (2003), p. 165
- Steve Pond (October 20, 1988). "Jane's Addiction: Nothing's Shocking". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 2, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
- Covach, John. "Heavy Metal, Rap, and the Rise of Alternative Rock (1982–1992)". What's That Sound? An Introduction to Rock and its History (W. W. Norton). Retrieved on November 16, 2007.
- Weinstein (1991), p. 21
- Sharpe-Young (2007), p. 2
- Neely, Kim (October 4, 1990). "Anthrax: Persistence of Time". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Genre—Thrash Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved on March 3, 2007.
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), p. 26
- Walser (1993), p.14
- Nicholls (1997), p. 378
- "Metallica—Artist Chart History"; "Megadeth—Artist Chart History"; "Anthrax—Artist Chart History". Billboard.com. Retrieved on April 7, 2007.
- Phillipov (2012), p. 15, 16
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), p. 30; O'Neil (2001), p. 164
- Harrison (2011), p. 61
- Walser (1993), p. 15
- "Top 200 Albums". Billboard. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Harrison (2011), p. 60
- "Top 200 Albums". Billboard. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- "Top 200 Albums". Billboard. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Billboard 200 Chart Position: Testament – Ritual, chart date: May 30, 1992; Billboard 200 Chart Position: Sepultura – Chaos A.D., chart date: 1993-11-06
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Death—Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved on November 23, 2007.
- The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time—Slayer Archived July 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. MTVNews.com. Retrieved on February 27, 2008.
- "Necrophagia – Biography & History – AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2011).
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), p. 27
- Van Schaik, Mark. "Extreme Metal Drumming" Slagwerkkrant, March/April 2000. Retrieved on November 15, 2007.
- "Genre—Death Metal/Black Metal". AllMusic. Retrieved on February 27, 2007.
- Kahn-Harris, Keith (2007). Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge. Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84520-399-3.
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), p. 28
- Christe (2003), p. 270
- Jurek, Thom. "Striborg: Nefaria". Allmusic. Retrieved on November 15, 2007
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), p. 212
- Campion, Chris. "In the Face of Death". The Observer (UK), February 20, 2005. Retrieved on April 4, 2007.
- Christe (2003), p. 276
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), pp. 31–32
- Moynihan, Søderlind (1998), pp. 271, 321, 326
- Vikernes, Varg. "A Burzum Story: Part VI—The Music". Burzum.org, July 2005; retrieved on April 4, 2007.
- "Genre—Symphonic Black Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved on April 9, 2007.
- Tepedelen, Adem. "Dimmu Borgir's 'Death Cult'" (Archived at Wayback on October 31, 2007). Rolling Stone, November 7, 2003. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
- Bennett, J. "Dimmu Borgir". Decibel, June 2007. Retrieved on September 10, 2007.
- "Genre – Power Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
- Christe (2003), p. 372
- "Helloween – Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved on April 8, 2007.
- See, e.g., Reesman, Bryan. "HammerFall: Glory to the Brave". Allmusic; Henderson, Alex. "DragonForce: Sonic Firestorm". Allmusic. Both retrieved on November 11, 2007.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry (2003). A-Z of Power Metal. London: Cherry Red Books Ltd. pp. 19–20, 354–356. ISBN 978-1-901447-13-2.
- "Genre – Progressive Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved on March 20, 2007.
- Christe (2003), p. 345
- Begrand, Adrien. "Blood and Thunder: The Profits of Doom". February 15, 2006. popmatters.com. Retrieved on April 8, 2007.
- Wray, John. "Heady Metal". New York Times, May 28, 2006. Retrieved on March 21, 2007.
- Sharpe-Young (2007), pp. 246, 275; see also Stéphane Leguay, "Metal Gothique" in Carnets Noirs, éditions E-dite, 3e édition, 2006, ISBN 2-84608-176-X.
- Sharpe-Young (2007), p. 275
- Christe (2003), p. 347
- Jackowiak, Jason. "Hex: Or Printing in the Infernal Method" Archived September 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Splendid Magazine, September 2005. Retrieved on March 21, 2007.
- Christe (2003), pp. 304–6; Weinstein (1991), p. 278
- Christe (2003), p. 231
- Birchmeier, Jason. "Pantera". Allmusic.com. Retrieved on March 19, 2007.
- Popoff, Martin (November 15, 2013). Metallica. ISBN 9780760344828. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Gold & Platinum – January 17, 2010". RIAA. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007.
- Christe (2003), p. 305
- Christe (2003), p. 312
- Christe (2003), p. 322
- "Genre—Alternative Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved March 26, 2007.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Soundgarden (Biography)". Allmusic. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Christe (2003), p. 224
- Christe (2003), pp. 324–25
- Christe (2003), p. 329
- Christe (2003), p. 324
- Christe (2003), p. 344
- Christe (2003), p. 328
- D'angelo, Joe (January 24, 2003). "Nu Metal Meltdown". MTV.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Weinstein (2000), p. 288; Christe (2003), p. 372
- I. Christe, Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal (London: Harper Collins, 2003), ISBN 0-380-81127-8, p. 184.
- Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X. p. 222–223
- Ian Glasper, Terrorizer no. 171, June 2008, p. 78, "here the term (metalcore) is used in its original context, referencing the likes of Strife, Earth Crisis, and Integrity ..."
- Ross Haenfler, Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3852-1, p. 87–88.
- "Kill Your Stereo – Reviews: Shai Hulud – Misanthropy Pure". Retrieved February 17, 2012.
Shai Hulud, a name that is synonymous (in heavy music circles at least) with intelligent, provocative and most importantly unique metallic hardcore. The band's earliest release is widely credited with influencing an entire generation of musicians
- Mason, Stewart. "Shai Hulud". Allmusic. Retrieved February 17, 2012. "A positively themed metalcore band with some straight-edge and Christian leanings, the influential Shai Hulud have maintained a strong band identity since their original formation in the mid-'90s".
- "Killswitch Engage". Metal CallOut. Retrieved April 7, 2011. "Shadows Fall". Metal CallOut. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
- Kevin Stewart-Panko, "The Decade in Noisecore", Terrorizer no. 75, Feb 2000, p. 22–23.
- "Contemporary grindcore bands such as The Dillinger Escape Plan ... have developed avant-garde versions of the genre incorporating frequent time signature changes and complex sounds that at times recall free jazz." Keith Kahn-Harris (2007) Extreme Metal, Berg Publishers, ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 4.
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Oxford: Berg, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, pp. 86 and 116.
- Pazhoohi, F.; Luna, K. (2018). "Ecology of Musical Preference: the Relationship Between Pathogen Prevalence and the Number and Intensity of Metal Bands". Evolutionary Psychological Science. 4 (3): 294–300. doi:10.1007/s40806-018-0139-7.
- "Finland's Children of Bodom Debut at #22 on Billboard Chart with New Album, 'Blooddrunk'", Guitar Player, archived from the original on May 3, 2011
- "Chartverfolgung / Dimmu Borgir / Long play", Music Line.de, archived from the original on May 1, 2011
- "Chartverfolgung / Blind Guardian / Long play", Music Line.de, archived from the original on May 1, 2011
- "Chartverfolgung / Hammer Fall / Long play", Music Line.de, archived from the original on May 1, 2011
- allmusic.com Alex Henderson: "What is deathcore? ... it's essentially metalcore ... Drawing on both death metal and hardcore ..."
- lambgoat.com "This is deathcore. This is what happens when death metal and hardcore, along with healthy doses of other heavy music styles, are so smoothly blended ..."
- Lee, Cosmo. "Doom". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Rose Funeral – 'The Resting Sonata'". About.com.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (September 2008). "Dawn of the Deathcore". Revolver. Future US (72): 63–66. ISSN 1527-408X.)
- E. Rivadavia, "The Sword: Age of Winters", Allmusic, archived from the original on December 29, 2010
- Wolfmother. Rolling Stone, April 18, 2006. Retrieved on March 31, 2007. Archived March 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- A. Begrand (February 20, 2006), "The Sword: Age of Winters", PopMatters.com, archived from the original on May 13, 2011
- E. Rivadavia, "Witchcraft", Allmusic, archived from the original on March 8, 2011
- Sharpe-Young, Garry, New Wave of American Heavy Metal (link). Edward, James. "The Ghosts of Glam Metal Past". Lamentations of the Flame Princess. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2008. Begrand, Adrien. "Blood and Thunder: Regeneration". PopMatters.com. Retrieved May 14, 2008.
- "Lady Antebellum 'Own' the Billboard 200 with Second No. 1 Album". Billboard.com. September 14, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- "The Devil Wears Prada Post A Video Update For New Album". Metal Insider.
- Bowcott, Nick. "Meshuggah Share the Secrets of Their Sound". Guitar World. Future US. Archived from the original on May 17, 2016. (June 26, 2011)
- Angle, Brad. "Interview: Meshuggah Guitarist Fredrik Thordendal Answers Reader Questions". Guitar World. Future US. (July 23, 2011)
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Concealing Fate". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation.
- "Djent, the metal geek's microgenre". The Guardian. March 3, 2011
- Kennelty, Greg. "Here's Why Everyone Needs To Stop Complaining About Extended Range Guitars". Metal Injection.
- GuitarWorld Staff Member. "TesseracT Unveil New Video". Guitar World. Future US. Retrieved October 17, 2011. (March 16, 2011)
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "One". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation.
- Bland, Ben. "Textures – Dualism (Album Review)". Stereoboard.com. (October 3, 2011)
- "Lita Ford". Biography. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
- "The DESTROSE Connection ~The Prologue~". JaME. March 17, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
- "浜田麻里からLOVEBITESまでーーガールズHR/HM、波乱万丈の30年史". Real Sound (in Japanese). November 7, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
- "Michael Wagener's Biography". www.michaelwagener.com. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- "ACCEPT's MARK TORNILLO Says Fans Can Expect 'A Little More Diversity' On 'Blind Rage'". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. April 4, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
- "Interview: Sharon Osbourne". The Guardian. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- Arnold, Denis (1983). "Consecutive Intervals", in The New Oxford Companion to Music, Volume 1: A-J. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311316-3.
- Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen (1996). Metalheads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2813-6.
- Berelian, Essi (2005). Rough Guide to Heavy Metal. Rough Guides. Foreword by Bruce Dickinson of Iron Maiden. ISBN 1-84353-415-0.
- Berry, Mick and Jason Gianni (2003). The Drummer's Bible: How to Play Every Drum Style from Afro-Cuban to Zydeco. See Sharp Press. ISBN 1-884365-32-9.
- Blake, Andrew (1997). The Land Without Music: Music, Culture and Society in Twentieth-century Britain. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4299-2.
- Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-105-4.
- Braunstein, P. and Doyle, M. W., Imagine Nation: the American Counterculture of the 1960s and '70s (London: Routledge, 2002), ISBN 0-415-93040-5.
- Bukszpan, D. (2003), The Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-7607-4218-9.
- Carson, Annette (2001). Jeff Beck: Crazy Fingers. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-632-7.
- Charlton, Katherine (2003). Rock Music Styles: A History. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-249555-3.
- Christe, Ian (2003). Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-380-81127-8.
- Christgau, Robert (1981). "Master of Reality (1971) [review]", in Christgau's Record Guide. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0-89919-026-X.
- Cook, Nicholas, and Nicola Dibben (2001). "Musicological Approaches to Emotion", in Music and Emotion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-263188-8.
- Du Noyer, Paul (ed.) (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music. Flame Tree. ISBN 1-904041-70-1
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2011), Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0
- Ewing, Charles Patrick, and Joseph T. McCann (2006). Minds on Trial: Great Cases in Law and Psychology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-518176-X.
- Fast, Susan (2001). In the Houses of the Holy: Led Zeppelin and the Power of Rock Music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511756-5.
- Fast, Susan (2005). "Led Zeppelin and the Construction of Masculinity", in Music Cultures in the United States, ed. Ellen Koskoff. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96588-8.
- Guibert, Gérôme, and Fabien Hein (ed.) (2007), "Les Scènes Metal. Sciences sociales et pratiques culturelles radicales", Volume! La revue des musiques populaires, n°5-2, Bordeaux: Éditions Mélanie Seteun. ISBN 978-2-913169-24-1.
- Harrison, Thomas (2011). Music of the 1980s. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-36599-7
- Hatch, David, and Stephen Millward (1989). From Blues to Rock: An Analytical History of Pop Music. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2349-1.
- Kahn-Harris, Keith and Fabien Hein (2007), "Metal studies: a bibliography", Volume! La revue des musiques populaires, n°5-2, Bordeaux: Éditions Mélanie Seteun. ISBN 978-2-913169-24-1.
- Kennedy, Michael (1985). The Oxford Dictionary of Music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311333-3.
- Leguay, Stéphane (2006). "Metal Gothique", in Carnets Noirs, éditions E-dite, 3rd edition, ISBN 2-84608-176-X.
- McCleary, John Bassett (2004). The Hippie Dictionary: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1960s and 1970s. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-547-4.
- McMichael, Joe (2004). The Who Concert File. Omnibus Press. ISBN 1-84449-009-2.
- Moynihan, Michael, and Dirik Søderlind (1998). Lords of Chaos (2nd ed.). Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-94-6.
- Nicholls, David (1998). The Cambridge History of American Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45429-8
- O'Neil, Robert M. (2001). The First Amendment and Civil Liability. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34033-0.
- Pareles, Jon, and Patricia Romanowski (eds.) (1983). The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Rolling Stone Press/Summit Books. ISBN 0-671-44071-3.
- Phillipov, Michelle (2012). Death Metal and Music Criticism: Analysis at the Limits Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-6459-4
- Pillsbury, Glenn T. (2006). Damage Incorporated: Metallica and the Production of Musical Identity. Routledge.
- Rood, Karen Lane (1994). American culture after World War II. Gale Research. ISBN 9780810384811.
- Sadie, Stanley (1980). "Consecutive Fifth, Consecutive Octaves", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1st ed.). MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-23111-2.
- Schonbrun, Marc (2006). The Everything Guitar Chords Book. Adams Media. ISBN 1-59337-529-8.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry (2007). Metal: The Definitive Guide. Jawbone Press. ISBN 978-1-906002-01-5.
- Strong, Martin C. (2004). The Great Rock Discography. Canongate. ISBN 1-84195-615-5.
- Swinford, Dean (2013). Death Metal Epic (Book I: The Inverted Katabasis). Atlatl Press. ISBN 978-0-9883484-3-1.
- Thompson, Graham (2007). American Culture in the 1980s. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1910-0.
- Wagner, Jeff (2010). Mean Deviation: Four Decades of Progressive Heavy Metal. Bazillion Points. ISBN 978-0-9796163-3-4.
- Walser, Robert (1993). Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6260-2.
- Waksman, Steve (2001). Instruments of Desire: The Electric Guitar and the Shaping of Musical Experience. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674005473.
- Weinstein, Deena (1991). Heavy Metal: A Cultural Sociology. Lexington. ISBN 0-669-21837-5. Revised edition: (2000). Heavy Metal: The Music and its Culture. Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-80970-2.
- Wilkerson, Mark Ian (2006). Amazing Journey: The Life of Pete Townshend. Bad News Press. ISBN 1-4116-7700-5.
- Wiederhorn, Jon. Louder Than Hell: The Definitive Oral History of Metal. It Books, May 14, 2013 ISBN 978-0-06-195828-1
- van Zoonen, Liesbet (2005). Entertaining the Citizen: When Politics and Popular Culture Converge. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2906-1.