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Led Zeppelin III is the eponymous third studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released on 5 October 1970 by Atlantic Records in the United States and on 23 October 1970 in the United Kingdom. The songs were recorded using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, Headley Grange , the Island Studios , and Olympic Studios in London. The album represented a maturing of the band's music towards a greater emphasis on folk and acoustic sounds. This surprised many fans and critics, and upon its release the album received rather indifferent reviews.

Led Zeppelin III
A collage of butterflies, teeth, zeppelins and assorted imagery on a white background, with the artist name and "III" subtitle at center.
Studio album by Led Zeppelin
Released 5 October 1970
Recorded October 1969 – August 1970
Length 43:04
Label Atlantic
Producer Jimmy Page
Led Zeppelin chronology
Led Zeppelin II
Led Zeppelin III
Singles from Led Zeppelin III
  1. "Immigrant Song"
    Released: 5 November 1970

The album has since been praised and acknowledged as representing an important milestone in the band's history, and a turning point in their music. Although acoustic songs had been featured on its predecessors, this album showed that Led Zeppelin were more than just a conventional rock band, and that they could branch out into wider musical territory, like folk.



Many songs on Led Zeppelin II were written by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant in Bron-Yr-Aur cottage in Wales.

By 1970, Led Zeppelin had achieved commercial success in both the UK and the US with their first two albums. They were determined to have a proper break, having recorded most of Led Zeppelin II in various locations while on tour, and the album sales and tour receipts allowed this to happen.[1] Following an exhausting concert tour of North America that spring, Robert Plant recommended to Jimmy Page that they should retreat to Bron-Yr-Aur, an 18th-century cottage in Snowdonia, Wales, on a hilltop overlooking the Dyfi Valley, three miles north of the market town Machynlleth. Plant had spent holidays there with his family.[1][2]

This remote setting had no running water or electric power, which encouraged a slight change of musical direction for the band towards an emphasis on acoustic arrangements.[1][3] Page later explained the tranquility of Bron-Yr-Aur stood in sharp contrast to the continual touring of 1969, and affected the overall tone of the songwriting, and the dominance of acoustic guitars.[4] His playing was influenced by folk guitarists Davey Graham and Bert Jansch, who regularly used alternative guitar tunings. Plant also recalled the band were "obsessed with change" and enjoyed listening to John Fahey.[5] The band specifically wanted a change in direction, to show they could play any style of music they wanted.[6]


The first recording sessions for Led Zeppelin III took place at Olympic Studios in October 1969. A press statement from manager Peter Grant said the group were recording a non-album track to be released as a single, but this was ultimately abandoned. Further sessions took place towards the end of the year, in between touring, before the decision to stop work and take a break at Bron-Yr-Aur.[7] After preparing material for the album there, Page and Plant were joined by John Bonham and John Paul Jones at Headley Grange, a mansion in East Hampshire, to rehearse the songs. The rural atmosphere gave a relaxed feel to the sessions, and the band found it a more enjoyable environment to develop songs than a studio in the city.[1]

The album was recorded between May and June 1970 at Headley Grange (using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio) and at Olympic, with further recording at Island Records' Basing Street Studios in Notting Hill the following month. Mixing took place at Ardent Studios, Memphis, in August 1970 partway through the group's sixth American concert tour.[1][8] The album was produced by Page and engineered by Andy Johns and Terry Manning.[9] Page had first met Manning when the latter's band, Lawson & Four More had supported Page's old band The Yardbirds in 1966. Manning had been to several Led Zeppelin shows, and this led to Page asking him to engineer the new album.[10]


Led Zeppelin III marked a change in focus for the band from late 1960s hard rock to a folk rock and acoustic sound.[11] These styles had been present to a lesser degree in the band's first two releases, such as "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" and "Ramble On" from the first and second albums respectively. However, on this album they received the main emphasis, and would remain prominent to various degrees in the group's later releases. This development endeared the band to fans who were not as keen on Led Zeppelin's established blues and rock repertoire.[12] With Led Zeppelin III the group's songwriting dynamic also changed, from Page's domination of the first two albums towards a more democratic situation in which all four group members contributed their own compositions and ideas.[1]

Side OneEdit

"Immigrant Song" was written about the Viking invasions of England and inspired by a short tour of Iceland in June 1970. It was released as a single in the US and became a top 20 hit. It was the opening song for the band's appearance at the Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music and subsequent gigs for the next two years.[11] It was later popularised in the movie School of Rock after Jack Black made a short video with fans asking for permission.[13]

"Friends" was an acoustic guitar based track, and featured a string arrangement from Jones. The song segues into "Celebration Day" via a moog synthesizer drone.[14]

"Since I've Been Loving You" was one of the first songs to be written for the album in late 1969.[15] It is a blues in the key of C minor featuring Jones on Hammond organ. The song become a live performance staple for the band throughout the rest of their career, replacing "I Can't Quit You Baby" from the first album as the band's slow blues showcase, with Page's guitar solo featured both on the recorded version and in the band's live show.[16]

"Out on the Tiles" was written by Bonham, who came up with the idea for the riffs that run through the track. The introduction was later used to open live versions of "Black Dog" (from 1971's untitled album), and Bonham's drum solo on the 1977 US tour.[17]

Side TwoEdit

"Gallows Pole" is an updated arrangement of a traditional folk song called "The Maid Freed from the Gallows", and was inspired by a version recorded by Fred Gerlach. Page played a variety of acoustic and electric guitars and banjo, while Jones played mandolin as well as bass.[17] It was reworked by Page and Plant for their 1994 album No Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded.[18]

"Tangerine" was written by Page in 1968 when The Yardbirds were still together. The track features pedal steel guitar as well as acoustic. It was performed live throughout 1971-2 as part of the group's acoustic set, and revived as a four-part harmony arrangement in 1975.[17]

"That's The Way" was written in Bron-Y-Aur about the problems two people faced in a relationship, and the clashes with their families. It was originally called "The Boy Next Door". It was a staple part of the group's acoustic set throughout the 1970s, and was part of the Bath Festival set, where Led Zeppelin performed acoustically for the first time in the UK.[17][19] Page thought highly of Plant's lyrics and considered it a breakthrough in their development as a songwriting team.[20]

"Bron-Y-Aur Stomp" was originally called "Jennings Farm Blues" and recorded as an electric arrangement at the end of 1969. It was subsequently reworked as an acoustic number, and featured Bonham playing spoons. The closing track, "Hats Off to (Roy) Harper" was based on the Bukka White blues song "Shake 'Em On Down" and named as a tribute to their friend and the folk singer, Roy Harper. The original LP credited the arrangement to "Charles Obscure".[17]

Unreleased materialEdit

Six other songs that were recorded during the Led Zeppelin III sessions were released at a later date. "Poor Tom" was released on the 1982 Coda album, "Bron-Yr-Aur" was included on the 1975 double album Physical Graffiti, "Hey, Hey, What Can I Do" was released as the b-side to the 1970 "Immigrant Song" single, and the 1972 sampler album The New Age of Atlantic.[17] It later appeared on the first box set in 1990 and then Coda (Deluxe Edition) in 2015 with "St. Tristan's Sword", and "Jennings Farm Blues" and "Key to the Highway/Trouble in Mind" later appeared on the 2014 deluxe edition of the album.

Release and receptionEdit

Professional ratings
Aggregate scores
Review scores
AllMusic     [21]
The Daily Telegraph     [22]
Pitchfork Media9.5/10[25]
Q     [26]
Rolling Stone(mixed)[27]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide     [28]
The Village VoiceA–[29]
Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music     [30]

Led Zeppelin III was one of the most anticipated albums of 1970, and advance orders in the US alone were close to the million mark. In the lead-up to it, the group took out a full page advertisement taken out in Melody Maker magazine at the end of September, which simply said "Thank you for making us the world's number one band."[11] The album was released in the US on 5 October, then in the UK on 23 October. It immediately topped the British charts.[32]

Although the band's expanding musical boundaries were greeted warmly by some, detractors attacked the heavier tracks as being mindless noise. In a representative review published in Rolling Stone, critic Lester Bangs praised "That's the Way" as "beautiful and genuinely moving", while characterising the band's heavier songs as crude and little differentiated from each other.[33] Others criticised the acoustic material for merely imitating the music of Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, which Page refuted as the group had featured that style on their previous albums.[6][34][35]

Page has also said that the negative press given to the third album affected him so much that he did not give press interviews for 18 months after its release, and was also one of the reasons why the band's subsequent untitled album contained no written information on it at all.[4] He subsequently realised journalists had little time to listen to the material and were simply looking for "the new Whole Lotta Love" instead of appreciating the material on its own merits.[36]

Led Zeppelin III was a trans-Atlantic #1 hit. In the UK, it remained on the chart for 40 weeks, while in the US it stayed there for 19, being certified Gold on 8 October 1970.[37] However, following the lukewarm, if not confused and sometimes dismissive reception from critics, sales lagged after this initial peak.[20]

Despite indifferent reviews and lower sales than Led Zeppelin's previous two albums, Led Zeppelin III's reputation has recovered over time. The RIAA certified the album 2x platinum in 1990, and 6x platinum in 1999.[38] The 2014 reissue of the album helped itself get back into the Billboard Top 10.[39]


Publication Country Accolade Year Rank
The Book of Rock Lists United States "The Top 40 Albums (1970)"[40] 1981 39
Mojo United Kingdom "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made"[41] 1996 99
Colin Larkin United Kingdom All Time Top 1000 Albums[42] 1998 361
Q United Kingdom "50 Best British Albums Ever"[43] 2004 9
Robert Dimery United States 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die[44] 2005 *
Classic Rock United Kingdom "100 Greatest British Rock Album Ever"[45] 2006 31
(*) designates unordered lists.

Packaging and artworkEdit

The volvelle used on the front cover

Led Zeppelin III's original vinyl edition was packaged in a gatefold sleeve with an innovative cover, designed by Zacron, a multi-media artist whom Page had met in 1963 whilst Zacron was a student at Kingston College of Art.[10][46] Zacron has subsequently graduated at the Royal Academy of Arts and become a lecturer at Leeds University. Page asked him if he would help design a sleeve for the album, and on 24 January 1970, Zacron met the band at their gig at this venue, and agreed to do the cover. That spring, he met the band members individually and took a series of photos of each of them, which would be put into collage.[47]

The cover and interior gatefold art consisted of a surreal collection of seemingly random images on a white background, many of them connected thematically with flight or aviation. Behind the front cover was a rotatable laminated card disc, or volvelle, covered with more images, including photos of the band members, which showed through holes in the cover. Moving an image into place behind one hole would usually bring one or two others into place behind other holes.[48] The back cover was a composite shot of the best photographs from the photography sessions. Zacron chose the images because he wanted to "show them as the giant force they were in music".[48] In France, this album was released with a different album cover, simply showing a photo of the four band members.[49]

Zacron later said that upon his completion of the artwork, Page telephoned him while he was in New York to express his satisfaction with the results, saying "I think it is fantastic".[50] He later thought the artwork was unsatisfactory because of working to a deadline.[51]

2014 reissueEdit

Along with the group's self-titled debut album and their second album, Led Zeppelin II, the album was remastered and reissued on 2 June 2014. The reissue comes in six formats: a standard CD edition, a deluxe two-CD edition, a standard LP version, a deluxe two-LP version, a super deluxe two-CD plus two-LP version with a hardback book, and as high-resolution, 96k/24-bit digital downloads. The deluxe and super deluxe editions feature bonus material containing alternative takes, backing tracks and the previously unreleased songs, "Bathroom Sound", "Jennings Farm Blues" and "Key to the Highway/Trouble in Mind". The LP versions replicate the original volvelle sleeve design. The reissue was released with an inverted colour version of the original album's artwork as its bonus disc's cover.[52]

Track listingEdit

Standard editionEdit

Side one
1."Immigrant Song"2:26
  • Page
  • Plant
3."Celebration Day"3:29
4."Since I've Been Loving You"
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
5."Out on the Tiles"
Side two
6."Gallows Pole"Traditional, arr.
  • Page
  • Plant
8."That's the Way"
  • Page
  • Plant
9."Bron-Y-Aur Stomp"
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
10."Hats Off to (Roy) Harper"Traditional, arr. Charles Obscure3:41

Deluxe edition bonus discEdit

1."The Immigrant Song" (Alternate mix)
  • Page
  • Plant
2."Friends" (Track, no vocal)
  • Page
  • Plant
3."Celebration Day" (Alternate mix)
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
4."Since I've Been Loving You" (Rough mix of first recording)
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
5."Bathroom Sound" ("Out on the Tiles") (Track, no vocal)
  • Bonham
  • Page
  • Plant
6."Gallows Pole" (Rough mix)Traditional, arr. Page, Plant5:17
7."That's the Way" (Rough mix with dulcimer & backwards echo)
  • Page
  • Plant
8."Jennings Farm Blues" ("Bron-Y-Aur Stomp") (Rough mix of all guitar overdubs that day)
  • Jones
  • Page
  • Plant
9."Key to the Highway/Trouble in Mind" (Rough mix)4:05
Total length:41:29





Weekly chartsEdit


Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Argentina (CAPIF)[69] Platinum 40,000^
Australia (ARIA)[70] 3× Platinum 210,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[71] 3× Platinum 300,000^
France (SNEP)[72] Platinum 300,000*
Germany (BVMI)[73] Gold 250,000^
Italy (FIMI)[74] Gold 50,000*
Netherlands (NVPI)[75] Gold 50,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[76] Gold 50,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[77] Gold 25,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[78] Platinum 300,000^
United States (RIAA)[79] 6× Platinum 6,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone



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  • Lewis, Dave (1990). Led Zeppelin : A Celebration. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-711-92416-1. 
  • Lewis, Dave (2012). From A Whisper to A Scream: The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-857-12788-4. 
  • McParland, Robert (2018). Myth and Magic in Heavy Metal Music. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-476-63298-8. 
  • Welch, Chris (1994). Led Zeppelin. London: Orion Books. ISBN 1-85797-930-3. 

External linksEdit