Garage rock (sometimes called '60s punk or garage punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada. The style is characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars and other instruments, sometimes distorted through a fuzzbox, as well as often unsophisticated and occasionally aggressive lyrics and delivery. The term "garage rock" derives from the perception that groups were often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, although many were professional.
|Cultural origins||Early 1960s, United States and Canada|
|Garage punk (fusion genre)|
In the US and Canada, surf rock—and later the Beatles and other beat groups of the British Invasion—motivated thousands of young people to form bands between 1963 and 1968. Hundreds of acts produced regional hits, and some had national hits. Though largely associated with North America, counterparts were present elsewhere as part of the worldwide "beat boom" of the era. With the advent of psychedelia, a number of garage bands incorporated exotic elements into the genre's primitive stylistic framework, but after 1968, as more elaborate forms of rock music overtook the marketplace, garage rock records largely disappeared from national and regional charts, and the garage band movement faded.
During the 1960s the music was not recognized as a distinct genre and had no specific name, but critical hindsight in the early 1970s—and particularly the release of the 1972 compilation album Nuggets—did much to define and memorialize the style. Certain rock critics from 1971 to 1973 began to retroactively identify garage music as a genre and for a time used the term "punk rock", making it the first form of music to bear this description. Since then, the genre has sometimes been referred to as "garage punk", as well as later labels such as "'60s punk" or "proto-punk", which distinguish it from the more commonly known punk movement of the mid- to late-1970s that it influenced. The term "garage rock" came into favor in the early 1980s.
Garage rock has experienced various revivals. In the early to mid-1980s, several garage revival scenes sprung up featuring acts that consciously attempted to replicate the look and sound of 1960s garage bands. Later in the decade, a louder, more contemporary garage/fusion subgenre developed that combined garage rock with contemporary punk rock and other influences, lending an updated definition to the term "garage punk". In the 2000s, a wave of garage-influenced acts associated with the post-punk revival emerged, and a some achieved commercial success. Garage rock continues to appeal to musicians and audiences who prefer a "back to basics" or "do-it-yourself" musical approach.
Social milieu and stylistic featuresEdit
The term "garage rock", originally used in reference to 1960s acts, stems from the perception that its performers were young and amateurish, and often rehearsed in the family garage. While numerous bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional musicians in their twenties. The term "garage band" often refers to musical acts in this genre.
Though it is impossible to determine how many garage bands were active in the 1960s, their numbers were extensive. According to Mark Nobles, it is estimated that over 180,000 bands formed in the United States, amongst which several thousand made records.[a] Garage bands performed in a variety of venues. Less-established groups typically played at parties, school dances, and teen clubs. For acts of legal age (and in some cases younger), bars, nightclubs, and college fraternity socials also provided regular engagements. Occasionally, local groups had the opportunity to open at shows for famous touring acts. Some garage rock bands went on tour, particularly better-known acts, but also lesser-known groups receiving bookings or airplay beyond their locale. Groups often competed in "battles of the bands", which gave musicians an opportunity to gain exposure and a chance to win a prize, such as free equipment or recording time in a local studio. Battles of the bands were held, locally, regionally and nationally, and three of the most prestigious national contests were held annually by the Tea Council of the U.S.A., the Music Circus, and the United States Junior Chamber.
Performances often sounded amateurish, naïve, or intentionally raw, with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. The lyrics and delivery were frequently more aggressive than the more polished acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals, sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of release. Instrumentation was characterized by basic chord structures played on electric guitars or keyboards often distorted through a fuzzbox, teamed with bass and drums. Guitarists sometimes played using aggressive-sounding bar chords, sometimes referred to as power chords. Organs such as the Farfisa were commonly used as well as harmonicas or hand-held percussion such as tambourines.  Occasionally, the tempo was sped up in passages sometimes referred to as "raveups".
Garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style, ranging from crude and amateurish to near-studio level musicianship. There were also regional variations in flourishing scenes, such as in California and Texas. The north-western states of Idaho, Washington and Oregon had a distinctly recognizable regional sound with bands such as the Sonics and Paul Revere & the Raiders.
Recognition and classificationEdit
In the 1960s, garage rock had no name and was not thought of as a genre, but as typical primitive rock of the period. "Garage rock" was not the first name applied to the style. In the early 1970s certain rock critics began to speak nostalgically of mid-1960s garage bands (and artists perceived to be in their tradition) as a loosely defined genre and used the term "punk rock" to characterize it, making it the first rock genre to bear the description. Conjuring up the mid-1960s, Lester Bangs in 1971 wrote: "... then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever".
Though the coinage of the phrase "punk rock" is unknown, Dave Marsh was the first music critic to use it in print, when in the May 1971 issue of Creem he described ? and the Mysterians as a "landmark exposition of punk rock". Much of the revival of interest in 1960s garage rock can be traced to the release of the 1972 album Nuggets compiled by rock journalist and future Patti Smith guitarist Lenny Kaye. In the liner notes, Kaye used the term "punk rock" to describe 1960s garage bands, and also "classic garage-punk" in reference to a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight. In the January 1973 Rolling Stone review of Nuggets, Greg Shaw commented "Punk rock is a fascinating genre... Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the 1960s to the original rockabilly spirit of rock & roll." In May 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine,[b] which pre-dated the better-known 1975 publication of the same name, but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts.
Though the phrase "punk rock" was the favored generic term in the early 1970s, "garage band" was also used. In Rolling Stone in 1971 John Mendelsohn alluded to "every last punk teenage garage band having its Own Original Approach". The term "punk rock" was later appropriated for the more familiar punk rock movement that emerged in the mid-1970s, and is now most commonly applied to groups that formed after 1974. The term "garage rock" came into favor in the early 1980s. According to Mike Markesich: "Initially launched into the underground vernacular at the start of the '80s, the garage tag had slowly sifted its way amid like-minded fans to finally be recognized as a worthy descriptive replacement". Garage rock of the 1960s has also been called "garage punk", "'60s punk", or "proto-punk".
Early 1960s: OriginsEdit
In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable recordings. Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white teenagers listening to and purchasing R&B records.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Many young people were inspired by musicians such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, and Eddie Cochran, whose recordings of relatively unsophisticated and hard-driving songs from a few years earlier proclaimed personal independence and freedom from parental controls and conservative norms. Ritchie Valens' 1958 hit "La Bamba" helped jump-start the Chicano rock scene in Southern California and provided a three-chord template for the songs of numerous 1960s garage bands. By the end of the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and helped set the stage for garage rock the 1960s.
Guitarist Link Wray was an early influence on garage rock and used innovative guitar techniques and effects such as power chords and distortion. He is best known for his 1959 instrumental "Rumble", which featured the sound of distorted, "clanging" guitar chords, which anticipated much of what was to come. The combined influences of early-1960s instrumental rock and surf rock also played significant roles in helping shape the sound garage rock.
Emergence of garage styleEdit
According to Lester Bangs, "the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties". The Pacific Northwest, which encompasses Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, played a critical role in the inception of garage rock, hosting the first scene to produce a sizable number of acts, and pre-dated the British Invasion by several years. The signature garage sound of the Pacific Northwest is sometimes referred to as "the Northwest Sound" and had its origins in the late 1950s, when a handful of R&B and rock & roll acts sprung up in various cities and towns in an area stretching from Puget Sound to Seattle and Tacoma, and beyond.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by touring R&B performers such as Johnny Otis and Richard Berry, and began to play cover versions of R&B songs. During the late 1950s and early 1960s other instrumental groups playing in the region, such as the Ventures, formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington, who came to specialize in a surf rock sound, and The Frantics from Seattle. The Blue Notes from Tacoma, Washington, fronted by "Rockin' Robin" Roberts, were one of the city's first teenage rock & roll bands. The Wailers (often referred to as the Fabulous Wailers) had national chart hit in 1959, the instrumental "Tall Cool One". After the demise of Blue Notes, "Rockin' Robin" did a brief stint with the Wailers, and with him on vocals in 1962, they recorded a version of Richard Berry's 1957 song "Louie Louie", which became a standard for practically every band in the region. It was Portland group the Kingsmen's 1963 off-the-cuff version of "Louie Louie", largely based on the Wailers' arrangement, that had the greatest impact, first as a regional hit in Seattle, then rising to No. 1 on the national charts and eventually becoming a hit overseas, making it the de facto "big bang" for three-chord rock.
Elsewhere, regional scenes of teenage bands playing R&B-oriented rock were particularly well established several years before the British Invasion, in places such as Texas and the Midwest. By 1963 singles by several such bands began appearing on the national charts, including those by the Trashmen, from Minneapolis, and the Rivieras, from South Bend, Indiana. At the same time, in southern California surf bands formed, playing raucous guitar- and saxophone-driven instrumentals. There was a resulting cross-pollination between surf rock, hot rod music, and other influences resulting in an energetic and upbeat style sometimes referred to as frat rock, which can be viewed as an early subgenre of garage rock. It is often associated with many Pacific Northwest acts such as the Kingsmen, and also thrived elsewhere. Writer Neil Campbell commented: "There were literally thousands of rough-and-ready groups performing in local bars and dance halls throughout the US prior to the arrival of the Beatles ... [T]he indigenous popular music which functioned in this way ... was the protopunk more commonly identified as garage rock".
1964–68: Peak yearsEdit
Impact of the Beatles and the British InvasionEdit
As the mid-1960s arrived, garage rock entered a new period reflecting a different set of influences and circumstances. On February 9, 1964, during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made a historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show watched by a record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death of President John F. Kennedy. For many, particularly the young, the Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that had momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination. Much of this new excitement was expressed in rock music, sometimes much to the chagrin of parents and elders.
Following the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful and increasingly bold British Invasion acts emerged between 1964 and 1966. These had a profound impact, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started bands by the thousands. In many cases, garage bands were particularly influenced by the British "beat groups" with a harder, blues-based attack, such as the Kinks, the Who, the Animals, the Yardbirds, Small Faces, Pretty Things, Them, and the Rolling Stones often resulting in a raw and primitive sound. Numerous acts sometimes characterized as garage formed in countries outside North America, such as England's the Troggs. Their 1966 worldwide hit Wild Thing" became a staple in countess American garage bands' repertoires. By 1965, the influence of the British Invasion prompted folk musicians such as Bob Dylan and members of the Byrds to adopt the use of electric guitars and amplifiers, resulting in folk rock. The emergence of folk rock and the resulting success of Dylan, the Byrds, and others influenced the approach of numerous garage bands.
Success and airplayEdit
In the wake of the British Invasion garage rock experienced its most widespread period of success, as part of the rock boom of the era. Thousands of garage bands were active in the US and Canada and hundreds produced regional hits during this period, often receiving airplay on local AM radio stations. Several acts gained wider exposure just long enough to have one or occasionally more national hits in an era rife with one-hit wonders.  In 1965 the Beau Brummels broke into the national charts with "Laugh, Laugh", followed by "Just a Little". According to Richie Unterberger, they were perhaps the fist American group to pose a successful response to the British Invasion. That year, Sam the Sham & the Pharaohs' "Wooly Bully" went to No. 2, and they followed it up a year later with another No. 2 hit, "Little Red Riding Hood". Also in 1965, the Castaways almost reached Billboard's top ten with "Liar, Liar", which was later included on the 1972 Nuggets compilation. It is generally agreed that the garage rock boom peaked around 1966. That April, the Outsiders from Cleveland hit No. 5 with "Time Won't Let Me", which was later covered by acts such as Iggy Pop. In July, the Standells from Los Angeles almost made it into the US top ten with "Dirty Water", a song now often associated with Boston. "Psychotic Reaction" by the Count Five went to No. 5 on Billboard's Hot 100 and was later memorialized by Lester Bangs in his 1971 piece "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung".
Musicologist Pete Dale notes "96 Tears" as a typical example of 1960s punk, containing a "basic beat, repetitive structure, and a hypnotically simple keyboard part".
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"96 Tears" (1966) by Question Mark and the Mysterians, from Saginaw, Michigan, became a No. 1 hit in the US. The song's organ riffs and theme of teenage heartbreak have been mentioned as a landmark recording of the garage rock era and recognized for influencing the works of acts as diverse as the B-52's, the Cramps, and Bruce Springsteen. Two months later, the Music Machine, who reached the top 20 with fuzz guitar-driven "Talk Talk", had a sound and image that helped pave the way for later acts such as the Ramones. The Syndicate of Sound's "Little Girl", which featured a cocksure half-spoken lead vocal set over chiming 12-string guitar chords, reached No. 8 on the Billboard charts and was later covered by acts such as the Dead Boys, the Banned, and the Chesterfield Kings. Discovered by a Pittsburgh disc jockey in 1965, the resulting success of "Hanky Panky" by a defunct group, the Shondells, whose membership included Tommy James, revived James' career, where he assembled a new group under the name Tommy James and the Shondells. They followed with twelve more top 40 singles.
Female garage bandsEdit
Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own instruments. One of the first of such acts was New York's Goldie and the Gingerbreads, who appeared at New York's Peppermint Lounge in 1964 and accompanied the Rolling Stones on their American tour the following year. They had a hit in England with a version of "Can't You Hear My Heartbeat". The Continental Co-ets from Fulda, Minnesota, were active from 1963-1967 and cut the single "I Don't Love You No More", which became a hit in Canada.
The Pleasure Seekers, from Detroit, later known as Cradle, featured Suzi Quatro and her sisters. Quatro went on to greater fame as a solo act in the early 1970s. The Luv'd Ones, also from Michigan, signed with Chicago's Dunwich Records and cut records with a sometimes somber sound such as "Up Down Sue". San Francisco's the Ace of Cups became a fixture in the Bay Area scene in the late 1960s. Other notable 1960s female groups were the Daughters of Eve from Chicago, the Feminine Complex from Nashville, and She (previously known as the Hairem) from Sacramento, California. The Liverbirds, a beat group, hailed from the Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in Germany, often performing in Hamburg's Star-Club. All-female bands of the 1960s anticipated later acts associated with the 1970s punk movement, such as the Runaways and the Slits.
Regional scenes in the United States and CanadaEdit
In 1964 and 1965 the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion shifted the musical landscape, presenting not only a challenge, but also a new impetus for teenagers in the Pacific Northwest to form bands, as many of the more experienced acts adapted to the new climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial or artistic success. The Kingsmen went through a significant roster shake-up in 1964, while unwittingly becoming the target of an FBI investigation in response to complaints about the alleged use of profanity in the nearly unintelligible lyrics of their hit version of "Louie Louie". With the new lineup featuring former drummer Lyn Eastman on vocals, they continued to be active until the end of the decade, recording a string of singles.
After relocating to Portland, Paul Revere & the Raiders in 1963 became the first rock-and-roll act to be signed to Columbia Records, but did not achieve their commercial breakthrough until 1965 with the song "Steppin Out", which was followed by string of chart-topping hits such as "Just Like Me", originally recorded by the Wilde Knights, and "Kicks". The Sonics from Tacoma had a raunchy, hard-driving sound that influenced later acts such as Nirvana and the White Stripes. According to Peter Blecha, they "were the unholy practitioners of punk rock long before anyone knew what to call it". Founded in 1960, they eventually enlisted the services of vocalist Gerry Rosalie and saxophonist Rob Lind and proceeded to cut their first single," The Witch" in 1964. The song was re-issued again in 1965, this time with the even more intense "Psycho" on the flip side. They released several albums and are also known for other "high-octane" rockers such as "Cinderella" and the power-chorded "He's Waitin'". Prompted by the Sonics, the Wailers entered the mid-1960s with a harder-edged sound in the fuzz-driven "Hang Up" and "Out of Our Tree".
New England and Mid-AtlanticEdit
The Barbarians from Cape Cod, wearing sandals and long hair, and cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several singles, such as "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl". In 1964 the group appeared on the T.A.M.I. Show on same bill as the Rolling Stones, James Brown, and others playing the characteristically primitive "Hey Little Bird". Impossible to ignore was the sight of their drummer, Victor "Moulty" Moulton, who played holding one of his drumsticks with a prosthetic clamp in place of his left hand, as the result of a prior accident. In 1966, Moulton recorded "Moulty", a spoken monologue set to music, in which he recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of the Band.
Boston's the Remains (sometimes called Barry and the Remains), led by Barry Tashian, became one of the region's most popular bands and, in addition to issuing five singles and a self-titled album, toured with the Beatles in 1966. Also from Boston, the Rockin' Ramrods released the distortion-driven "She Lied" in 1964, which Rob Fitzpatrick called "a truly spectacular piece of proto-punk, the sort of perfect blend of melody and aggression that the Ramones would go on to transform the planet with a dozen or more years later". The Squires from Bristol, Connecticut, issued a song now regarded as a garage rock classic, "All the Way". Garage rock flourished up and down the Atlantic coast, with acts such as the Blues Magoos from the Bronx, the Vagrants, from Long Island, and Richard and the Young Lions from Newark, New Jersey.
The garage craze came into full swing in California, particularly in Los Angeles. The Sunset Strip was the center of L.A. nightlife, providing bands with high-profile venues to attract a larger following and get the attention of record labels looking for the "the next big thing". Exploitation films such as Riot on Sunset Strip, Mondo Hollywood, captured the musical and social milieu of life on the strip. In Riot on Sunset Strip, several bands make appearances at the Pandora's Box, with the Standells supplying the theme song and later appearances by the Chocolate Watchband and others. The Seeds and the Leaves were favorites with the "in-crowd" and managed to achieve national hits with songs that have come to be regarded as garage classics: the Seeds with "Pushin' Too Hard" and the Leaves with a hit version of the oft-recorded "Hey Joe".
Love, a racially integrated band headed by African-American musician Arthur Lee, was one of the most popular bands in the scene. Their propulsive 1966 protopunk anthem "7 and 7 Is" became a staple in countless other bands' repertoires. The Music Machine, led by Sean Bonniwell, employed innovative musical techniques, sometimes building their own custom-made fuzzboxes. Their first album (Turn On) The Music Machine featured the hit "Talk Talk". The Sons of Adam were another popular band on the strip, who were notable for the presence of guitarist Randy Holden, who in 1966 left the band to join the San Francisco-based the Other Half and later Blue Cheer, and drummer Michael Stuart, who left to join Love and record on their 1967 album Forever Changes. Garage rock was also present in the Latino community of East L.A. The Premiers, who had a hit in 1964 with "Farmer John", and Thee Midniters are considered notable figures in Chicano rock, as are the San Diego-based, Cannibal & the Headhunters, who had a hit with Chris Kenner's "Land of a Thousand Dances".
San Jose and the South Bay area had a bustling scene featuring the Chocolate Watchband, the Count Five, and the Syndicate of Sound. Though San Francisco was primarily known for sophisticated acid rock, the garage sound was present in a handful of bands such as the Brogues, some of whose members went on to form Quicksilver Messenger Service. Their fuzz guitar-driven "I Ain't No Miracle Workder" was later covered by the Chocolate Watchband and Jimmy & the Offbeats.
Chicago, known for electric blues, continued to have a strong recording industry in the 1960s and was also a hotbed of activity for garage rock bands, providing hits for the American Breed, the Buckinghams, and the Cryan' Shames. Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones, the Pretty Things, and the Yardbirds influenced the Shadows of Knight, who recorded for Dunwich Records and were known for a tough, hard-driving sound. In 1966 they had hits with versions of Them's Van Morrison-penned "Gloria" and Bo Diddley's "Oh Yeah", and also released the aggressive "I'm Gonna Make You Mine", which Mike Stax remarked "was recorded live in the studio with the amps cranked beyond distortion, this is 60s punk at its sexually charged, aggressive best." Also recording for Dunwich were the Banshees, who released the cathartic "Project Blue" and the Del-Vetts. Other notable Chicago acts were the Little Boy Blues and the New Colony Six.
Michigan had one of the largest scenes in the country. In early 1966, Detroit's MC5 released a version of "I Can Only Give You Everything" before they went on to greater success at the end of the decade. The Unrelated Segments recorded a string of songs beginning with local hit "You Can't Buy Love", followed by others such as "Where You Gonna Go". The Rationals from Ann Arbor had a soul-infused garage sound and were fronted by Scott Morgan. The Litter from Minneapolis had a hard sound and released the distortion-laden "Action Woman" in 1966—a song which Michael Hann described as "one of garage's gnarliest, snarliest, most tight-trousered pieces of hormonal aggression". In addition to the Outsiders, Ohio, was also the home to groups such as the Choir, also from Cleveland, who had a regional hit with "It's Cold Outside".
Texas had several burgeoning centers of activity. Dallas and Fort Worth both had thriving scenes. Kenny and the Kasuals were one of the most popular bands in Dallas and had a local hit with "Journey to Tyme" Their album Impact featured songs from their live set and has attracted the interest of record collectors. The Gentlemen from Oak Cliff, cut the fuzz-drenched "It's a Cry'n Shame", which was ranked by a panel of garage rock writers and experts in Mike Markesich's Teenbeat Mayhem as one of the top two garage rock songs of all time, second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me", by the 13th Floor Elevators.
The Moving Sidewalks were from Houston and their membership included Billy Gibbons on guitar, later of ZZ Top. The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin featured Roky Erickson on guitar and vocals and are perhaps the best-remembered Texas band of the era. The Outcasts from San Antonio cut five singles including "I'm in Pittsburgh and It's Raining" and "1523 Blair", which Jason Ankeny described as "Texas psychedelia at its finest".
Florida was rife with activity, particularly on the Peninsula. We the People, a popular fixture in the Orlando area, came about as the result of the merger of two previous bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor. They went recorded a string of self-composed songs, such as primitive rockers, "You Burn Me Upside Down" and "Mirror of my Mind", as well as the esoteric "In the Past", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband. Evil from Miami, had a reputation for musical mayhem on display in hard-driving numbers such as "I'm Movin' On and "From a Curbstone". The Painted Faces from Fort Myers released the single "Anxious Color", which Mojo magazine included in its 1997 list "Psychedelia: The 100 Greatest Classics". The Gants from Greenwood, Mississippi, were one of the relatively few garage bands from the Deep South to make a national impression in the mid 1960s. Memphis, known for blues, rockabilly, and soul, also had an prolific garage scene in the 1960s. The Guilloteens, one of the city's best-known groups, went to Los Angeles to record with Phil Spector.
Great Plains and SouthwestEdit
The Five Americans were from Durant, Oklahoma, and released a string of singles, such as "Western Union", which became a top 10 US hit in 1967. From Phoenix, Arizona, the Spiders featured Vincent Furnier, later known as Alice Cooper. The group recorded two singles, most notably "Don't Blow Your Mind", which became a local hit in Phoenix. They ventured to Los Angeles in 1967 in hopes of achieving greater success, which the group found not there, but in Detroit in the early 1970s, re-christened as Alice Cooper. The Grodes (sometimes credited as the Tongues of Truth) were from Tucson, Arizona, and recorded the original version of "Let's Talk About Girls", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband, and "Cry a Little Longer". In 1967 the Chob from Albuquerque cut the frantic "We're Pretty Quick".[c]
Canada, islands, and territoriesEdit
Like the United States, Canada experienced a large and vigorous garage rock movement. Vancouver's the Northwest Company, who recorded "Hard to Cry", had a power chord-driven approach. The Painted Ship were known for primal songs such as the angst-ridden "Frustration" and "Little White Lies", which Stansted Montfichet called a "punk classic". The Guess Who from Winnipeg, Manitoba, began in 1958 and entered the mid-1960s with a hit, Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over".
In 1966 the Ugly Ducklings from Toronto had a hit with "Nothin'" and toured with the Rolling Stones. The Haunted from Montreal specialized in a gritty blues-based sound influenced by the Rolling Stones and released the single "1–2–5". Two other bands from Toronto were the Paupers and the Mynah Birds. The Paupers released several singles and two albums. The Mynah Birds featured the combination of Rick James on lead vocals and Neil Young on guitar, who both went on to fame as solo acts, as well as Bruce Palmer who later accompanied Young to California to join Buffalo Springfield in 1966. They signed a contract with Motown Records and recorded several songs including "It's My Time".
Outside of the mainland, garage rock became a fixture in the islands and territories adjacent to the continent. The Savages from Bermuda recorded the album Live 'n Wild, which features "The World Ain't Round It's Square", an angry song of youthful defiance.
International scenes and counterpartsEdit
The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. The particular countries involved had grass-roots rock movements which closely mirrored what was happening in the North America, several of which are sometimes retroactively referred to as freakbeat Nederbeat, Uruguayan Invasion, or Group Sounds, as well as "beat" or "garage rock". Its attributes were present in much of the beat music played in various countries throughout the world, as bands proliferated in the wake of the British Invasion.
Although Britain did not develop a distinctly defined garage rock genre in the same way as the United States, some British bands shared characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them, and are sometimes seen as counterparts to US garage bands, particularly in the subgenre known retrospectively as "freakbeat".
Beat music emerged in Britain in the early 1960s, as musicians who originally come together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated American rhythm and blues influences and adopted the more powerful amplification becoming available. The genre provided the model for the format of many later rock groups, based around a lead singer with guitars and drums. Many groups formed to play this music in local establishments – the Liverpool area alone had a particularly high concentration of acts and venues. The Beatles emerged from this beat music boom, and their energetic approach served as a template for the formation of countless groups. Some bands developed a distinctively British blues style. Nationally popular beat and R&B groups included the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds from London, the Animals from Newcastle, and Them (featuring Van Morrison), from Belfast in Northern Ireland. From about 1965, bands such as the Who and the Small Faces tailored their appeal to the mod subculture centered in London.
Particularly after the "British Invasion" of the US, musical cross-fertilization developed between the two continents. In their 1964 transatlantic hits "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night", the Kinks took the influence of the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" and applied greater volume and distortion, which in turn, influenced the approach of many American garage bands. Their influence continued with several more hard-driving, yet increasingly despondent songs, such as "Where Have All the Good Times Gone", as well as "I'm Not Like Everybody Else", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband. The Pretty Things were known for their raw approach to blues-influenced rock, exhibited in songs such as "Midnight to Six Man" and "Don't Bring Me Down". The Downliners Sect were even more raw in their approach. Northern Ireland's Them recorded two songs that were widely covered by American garage bands: "Gloria", which became a big hit for Chicago's the Shadows of Knight, and "I Can Only Give You Everything" which was covered by numerous American acts. The Wheels, who were also from Belfast, recorded the original version of "Bad Little Woman", which like Them's "Gloria" was covered in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.
The Troggs had a worldwide hit in 1966 with "Wild Thing" (written by American Chip Taylor). Extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo, the Troggs were the British band that Lester Bangs singled out as perhaps the quintessential "punk" [i.e. garage] band of the 1960s. The Equals, a racially integrated band from North London featuring guitarist Eddy Grant, specialized in an upbeat style of rock; their 1966 recording "Baby Come Back" was a hit in Europe before becoming a British number one in 1968. In keeping with the popularity of blues-based rock and the onset of psychedelic music in the mid-1960s, some of the harder-driving and more obscure bands associated with the mod scene in the UK are sometimes retroactively referred to as Freakbeat, which is sometimes viewed as the more stylish British parallel to garage rock. Several bands often mentioned as Freakbeat are the Creation, the Action, the Move, the Smoke, the Sorrows, and Wimple Winch.
The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of numerous bands who played in styles sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock. The Netherlands had one of the largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as Nederbeat. From Amsterdam, the Outsiders, who Richie Unterberger singled out as one of the most important 1960s rock acts from a non-English Speaking country, featured Wally Tax on lead vocals and specialized in an eclectic R&B and folk-based style. Q65 from the Hague recorded extensively and lasted well into the 1970s, releasing the invective "I Despise You" in 1966. Also from the Hague, the Golden Earrings, who later gained international fame in the 1970s and 1980s as Golden Earring, had a top ten hit in the Netherlands in 1965 with "Please Go", followed by "That Day", which went to number two on the Dutch charts.
Having nurtured the Beatles' early development in Hamburg, Germany was well-positioned to play a key role as the beat craze overtook the continent. Bands from Britain and around Europe traveled there to gain exposure, playing in clubs and appearing on popular German television shows such as Beat Club and Beat! Beat! Beat!. The Lords, founded in Düsseldorf in 1959, pre-dated the British Invasion by several years, and adapted their sound and look to reflect the influence of the British groups, even singing in English, but providing a comic twist. The Rattles from Hamburg also had a lengthy history, but were more serious in their approach. Even during the Franco regime there were numerous bands active in Spain, such as Los Bravos, who had a worldwide hit with "Black Is Black", and other bands such as los Cheyenes.
Latin America had a significant amount of musical activity in the worldwide beat craze. Mexico had its own equivalent of American garage. The nation's proximity to the United States was detectable in the raw sounds produced by a number of groups. Mexico often absorbed American musical influences and trends, and embraced the British Invasion. One of Mexico's most popular acts were Los Dug Dug's, who recorded several albums and stayed active well into the 1970s.
The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mid-1960s in a period sometimes referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion. Two of the best known acts were Los Shakers and Los Mockers. In Peru, los Saicos were one of the first bands to gain national prominence. Their 1965 song "¡Demolición!" with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a huge hit in Peru. AllMusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted that "The guitars sound like nothing so much as fountains of sparks, the drums have a tribal post-surf throb, and the vocals are positively unhinged" and "These guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the time". Los Yorks became one of Peru's leading groups. Colombia had bands such Los Speakers from Bogata. Los Gatos Salvajes, who came from Rosario, Argentina, were one of the country's first beat groups, and two of their members went on to form Los Gatos, who became a popular act in Argentina during the late 1960s.
The far East was not immune to the beat craze, and Japan was no exception, particularly after the Beatles' 1966 visit, when they played two shows at Tokyo's Budokan arena. The popular 1960s beat/garage movement in Japan is often referred to as Group Sounds (or GS). The Spiders[d] were one of the better-known groups. Other notable bands were the Golden Cups and the Tigers. 
Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the 1960s, even persisting into the beginning of the next decade with the 1960s musical style intact, after it had fallen out of favor practically everywhere else.[e] The Beatles' mid-1960s success had a major impact on India's youth and resulted in the formation of numerous groups. Mumbai, with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife, had a bustling music scene. The Jets, who were active from 1964 to 1966, were perhaps the first beat group to become popular there. Also popular in Mumbai were the Trojans, featuring Biddu, originally from Bangalore, who later moved to London and become a solo act. Every year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial Tobacco Company. Groups from all over India, such as the Fentones and Velvet Fogg, competed in the event.
Australia and New ZealandEdit
Australia and New Zealand experienced a garage and beat explosion in the mid-1960s. Before the British Invasion hit, the land down under enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as the Atlantics, who had several instrumental hits, as well as the Aztecs and the Sunsets. In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion influence started permeating the music scenes there. In June 1964 the Beatles visited Australia as part of their world tour and were greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adelaide. In response, many prior Australian surf bands adapted by adding vocals over guitars, and a host of new bands formed. The first wave of British-inspired bands tended towards the pop-oriented sound of the Merseybeat. With rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged that favored a harder, blues-influenced approach.
Sydney was the host to numerous acts during this time. Though the Atlantics had begun as an instrumental surf group, after the advent of the British Invasion, they brought in veteran singer Johnny Rebb, formerly with Johnny Rebb and His Rebels, to supply vocals on songs such as "Come On". The Easybeats became the most popular group in Australia during the mid-sixties. Most of their pre-1967 songs were written by vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young, the older brother of Angus Young and Malcolm Young, later of AC/DC. In late 1966, they re-located to London and had a worldwide hit with "Friday on My Mind". One of Sydney's most notorious acts was the Missing Links, who throughout 1965 went through a complete and total lineup change between the release their first single in March and on the subsequent releases later that year, such as the primitivist anthems "Wild About You", as well as their self-titled LP. Also in 1966, The Throb had a hit in Australia with their version of "Fortune Teller", and later that year released "Black", a brooding version of a traditional folk ballad noted for its expressionistic use of guitar feedback. The Black Diamonds issued the "I Want, Need, Love You" in 1966, a song which featured an intense and hard-driving guitar sound that Ian D. Marks described as "speaker cone-shredding".
From Brisbane came the Pleazers and the Purple Hearts, and from Melbourne the Pink Finks, the Loved Ones, Steve and the Board, and the Moods. Like Sydney's the Missing Links, the Creatures were another notorious group of the period, who Iain McIntyre remarked "Thanks to their brightly coloured hair and bad-ass attitude, the Creatures left in their wake a legacy of multiple arrests, bloodied noses and legendary rave ups". The Masters Apprentices' early sound was largely R&B-influenced garage and psychedelic, and their career stretched into the 1970s.
From New Zealand, the Bluestars cut the defiant "Social End Product", that with its line "I don't stand for the queen" aimed at social oppression and anticipated some of the anti-royalist sentiments of the Sex Pistols and other 1970s punk rock acts. Chants R&B were known for a raw R&B-influenced sound. The La De Das recorded a version of the Changin' Times' "How is the Air Up There?", which went to No. 4 on the nation's charts.
Integration with psychedelia and countercultureEdit
Historical and cultural associationsEdit
Increasingly throughout 1966, partly due to the growing influence of drugs such as marijuana and LSD, numerous bands began to expand their sound, sometimes employing eastern scales and various sonic effects to achieve exotic and hypnotic soundscapes in their music. The development was nonetheless the result of a longer musical evolution growing out of folk rock and other forms, and prefigured even in certain surf rock recordings.[f] As the decade progressed, psychedelic influences became pervasive in much garage rock. Garage rock helped lay the groundwork for acid rock.
By the mid-1960s numerous garage bands began to employ tone-altering devices such as fuzzboxes on guitars often for the purpose of enhancing the music's sonic palate and adding an aggressive edge, using loudly amplified instruments to create a barrage of "clanging" sounds, often expressing anger, defiance, and sexual frustration. A sense of despondency and restlessness entered the psyche of the youth in the United States and elsewhere, with a growing rise of tension and alienation creeping into the collective mindset—even in the largely conservative suburban communities which produced so many garage bands. The garage bands, though generally apolitical, nonetheless reflected the tenor of the times. Nightly news reports had a cumulative effect on the mass consciousness, including musicians. Detectable in much of the music from this era is a combination of disparate emotions, particularly in light of President Kennedy's assassination and the ongoing escalation of troops sent to Vietnam, yet often mixed with an accompanying innocence.
In 1965, the influence of artists such as Bob Dylan, who moved beyond political protest by experimenting with abstract and surreal lyrical imagery, then switched to electric guitar, became increasingly pervasive across the musical landscape, affecting a number of genres, including garage rock. The members of garage bands, like so many musicians of the 1960s, were part of a generation that was largely born into the paradigm and customs of an older time, but grew up confronting a new set of issues facing a more advanced and technological age. Postwar prosperity brought the advantages of better education, was well as additional spare time for recreation. With the advent of television, nuclear weapons, civil rights, the Cold War, and space exploration, the new generation began to conceive of a higher order of human relations and attempted to reach for a set of transcendent ideals. Though set to a backdrop of tragic events that ultimately proved disillusioning, various forms of personal and musical experimentation held promise, at least for a time, in the minds of many. While testing the frontiers of what the new world had to offer, 1960s youth ultimately had to accept the limitations of the new reality, yet often did so while experiencing the ecstasy of a moment when the range of possibilities seemed boundless and within reach.
Garage-based psychedelic/acid rockEdit
Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist, musicians sonically pushed barriers and explored new horizons. Garage acts, while generally lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the scale of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band or the instrumental virtuosity of acts such as Jimi Hendrix or Cream, nonetheless managed to combine esoteric elements with basic primitive rock. The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, Texas, led by Roky Erickson, infused their garage sound with psychedelic impulses, and are usually thought of as the first band to use the term "psychedelic" in their promotional literature with the phrase "psychedelic rock" appearing on their business card as early as January 1966. The band used the term in the title of their debut album released in November, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. The album featured the track "You're Gonna Miss Me", a regional hit for the band. In August 1966, the Deep traveled from New York to Philadelphia to record a set of hallucinogenic songs for the album Psychedelic Moods: A Mind-Expanding Phenomena, released in October 1966, one month before the 13th Floor Elevators' debut album, and whose all-night sessions produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness ramblings.
The Electric Prunes were one of the more successful garage bands to incorporate psychedelia into their sound. Producer and recording engineer David Hassinger helped them tailor their psychedelic soundscapes, such as in the hit "I Had Too Much to Dream (Last Night)", whose opening featured a buzzing fuzz-toned guitar, and which appeared on their self titled debut LP. Their second album, Underground, saw the band exercise a greater degree of creative freedom. The Chocolate Watchband was another notable group to integrate garage rock with psychedelia. They released several singles in 1967, including "Are You Gonna Be There (at the Love In)", which was also featured on their debut album No Way Out that came out that same year. The album's opening cut was a rendition of "Let's Talk About Girls", previously recorded by the Tongues of Truth (aka the Grodes). In addition to their 1966 hit "(We Ain't Got) Nothin' Yet", the Blues Magoos cut several albums, including Psychedelic Lollipop, which featured their long version of "Tobacco Road", and the 1967 follow-up, Electric Comic Book. Strawberry Alarm Clock emerged from the garage outfit Thee Sixpence and had a No. 1 hit in 1967 with "Incense and Peppermints". The Third Bardo from New York City released the 1967 single "I'm Five Years Ahead of My Time", that according to Richie Unterberger is regarded by many record collectors as one of the greatest psychedelic garage songs.
Primitivist avant-garde actsEdit
Certain acts conveyed a world view markedly removed from the implicit innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often infusing their work with subversive political or philosophical messages, dabbling in concepts then considered radical, such as nihilism and New Left ideology. Such artists shared certain characteristics with the garage bands in their use of primitivistic instrumentation and arrangements, while displaying psychedelic rock's affinity for exploration—essentially creating a more urbanized, intellectual, and avant garde version of garage rock. New York City was the home to several such groups. The Fugs, who formed in 1963, were one of rock's first experimental bands and its core members were singer, poet, and social activist Ed Sanders, along with Tuli Kupferberg and Ken Weaver. They specialized in a satirical mixture of amateurish garage rock, jug, folk, and psychedelic laced with leftist political commentary, as on their 1965 debut The Fugs First Album and their self-titled second album. In a 1970 interview, Ed Sanders became the first known musician to describe his music as "punk rock".
The Velvet Underground, whose best-known lineup consisted of Lou Reed, John Cale, Sterling Morrison, and Moe Tucker, are now generally considered the foremost experimental rock group of the period. At the time of recording their first album, they were involved with Andy Warhol, who produced some its tracks, and his assemblage of "scenesters" at the Factory, including model-turned-singer Nico. She briefly accompanied them on the resulting album, The Velvet Underground & Nico. The album's lyrics, though generally apolitical, depict the world of hard drugs in songs such as "I'm Waiting for the Man" and "Heroin", and other topics considered taboo at the time. Their follow up, White Light/White Heat, saw the group stretching even further into the experimental realm, but after John Cale's subsequent departure from the group, they moved in a less experimental direction. Two other notable New York-based primitivist avant garde acts of the period were Henry Flynt & The Insurrections[g] andThe Godz".
Outside of New York were the Monks from Germany, whose members were former US servicemen who chose to remain in Germany, where in 1965 they developed an experimental sound on their album Black Monk Time. The group, who sometimes wore habits and partially shaven tonsures, specialized in a style featuring chanting and hypnotic percussion.
Even at the height of garage rock's popularity in the mid-1960s, the success of most of its records, despite a handful of notable exceptions, was relegated to local and regional markets. In the wake of psychedelia, as rock music became increasingly sophisticated, garage rock began to fade. After the release of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and other late-1960s big-production spectaculars, rock albums became increasingly elaborate and were expected to display maturity and complexity, while the 45-inch single ceded to the long-play album as the preferred medium.
Album-oriented progressive FM stations eventually overtook AM radio in popularity, and as the large major-label record companies became more powerful and less willing to sign new acts, the once plentiful "mom and pop" independent labels of the mid-1960s began to fold.  Radio playlists became more regimented and disc jockeys began to have less freedom, making it increasingly difficult for local and regional bands to receive airplay. Teen clubs and dance venues which previously served as reliable and steady engagements for young groups started to close. The garage sound disappeared at both the national and local level, as band members graduated, departing for college, work, or the military. Musicians in bands frequently faced the prospect of the Vietnam War draft, and some were selected for service, in some cases losing their lives in action. With the tumultuous political events of 1968, the tense mood of the country reached a breaking point, while increasing use of drugs and other factors intermingled with shifting musical tastes. New styles either evolved out of garage rock or replaced it, such as acid rock, progressive rock, heavy metal, country rock, and bubblegum. By 1969 the garage rock phenomenon was largely over.
Garage-based proto-punk 1969–1974Edit
The garage rock boom faded at the end of the 1960s, but a handful of maverick acts carried its impetus into the next decade, seizing on the style's rougher edges, but brandishing them with increased volume and aggression. Such acts, often retroactively described as "proto-punk", worked in a variety of rock genres and came from disparate places, notably Michigan. Such bands specialized in an energetic and hard-rocking style that was heavy, but more primitive than most of the sophisticated hard rock sounds typical of the time, which often relied on extended instrumental soloing and jams.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, several Michigan bands rooted in garage rock recorded a works that became highly influential, particularly with the 1970s punk movement. In 1969, MC5 issued their live debut LP, Kick Out the Jams, which featured a set of highly energetic, politically-charged songs. The Stooges, from Ann Arbor were fronted by lead singer Iggy Pop, Describing their approach, Stephen Thomas Erlewine commented: "Taking their cue from the over-amplified pounding of British blues, the primal raunch of American garage rock, and the psychedelic rock (as well as the audience-baiting) of the Doors, the Stooges were raw, immediate, and vulgar." The group released three albums during this period, beginning with the self-titled The Stooges in 1969 and culminating with Raw Power (now billed as Iggy and the Stooges) in 1973, which featured the cathartic opeing cut, "Search and Destroy". The Alice Cooper band relocated to Detroit, where they began to gain success with a new "shock rock" image, and recorded 1971's Love It to Death, which featured their breakout hit "I'm Eighteen".
Other notable bands came from Michigan, such as the Up, who lived with members of MC5 in John Sinclair's commune, released their 1970 debut single, "Like an Aborigine", which according to Jason Arkeny, shares key characteristics with later punk. The Punks, who formed in 1973 during the waning days of the Detroit scene, created a sometimes thrashing sound that rock journalist Lester Bangs described as "intense" in songs such as "My Time's Comin'", which was featured in a 2016 episode of HBO's Vinyl. In 1974, Death, whose membership was made up of brothers David, Bobby, and Dannis Hackney, recorded tracks for an album that remained unreleased for over 30 years, ...For the Whole World to See, which, along with their other subsequently-issued tracks, finally earned them a reputation as pioneers in punk rock.
In Boston, the Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with their minimalistic style. In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square. The Real Kids were founded by former Modern Lover John Felice. Between 1969 and 1974, there were other movements further removed from the American garage rock tradition, such as Glam and pub rock in Great Britain, as well as Krautrock in Germany, that nonetheless displayed hallmarks of proto-punk and had an influence on 1970s punk.
Emergence of punk aesthetic and movement 1975–1978Edit
Identification of garage rock by certain critics in the early 1970s (and their use of the term "punk rock" to describe it), as well as the 1972 Nuggets compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the subsequent punk movement of the mid-to-late 1970s. As a result of the popularity of Nuggets and critical attention paid to primitive-sounding rock of the past and present, a self-conscious musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term "punk" that, with the eventual arrival of the New York and London punk scenes, grew into a subculture, with its own look, iconography, identity, and values.
The mid- to late-1970s saw the arrival of the bands most often viewed as the quintessential punk rock acts. One of the most prominent was the Ramones from New York, some of whose members had played in 1960s garage bands, and who are usually considered the first punk band as the term is now commonly understood. They were followed by the Sex Pistols from London, who struck an even more defiant pose and effectively heralded the arrival punk as a cause célèbre in the larger public mind. Both bands spearheaded the popular punk movement from their respective locations. Though garage rock and protopunk influenced many of the bands from the New York and London scenes of this period, punk rock now emerged as a distinct movement with a subculture all of its own, and the garage band era of the 1960s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner.
Revivalist and hybrid movements 1980–presentEdit
Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and continues to influence numerous modern acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach. The earliest group to attempt to revive the sound of 1960s garage was the Droogs, from Los Angeles, who formed in 1972 and pre-dated many of the revival acts of the 1980s. In the early 1980s, revival scenes linked to the underground music movements of the period sprang up in Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and elsewhere, with acts such as the Chesterfield Kings, the Fuzztones, the Pandoras, and the Lyres earnestly attempting to replicate the sound and look of the 1960s garage bands. This trend fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge explosion, which embraced influenceces by 1960s garage bands such as the Sonics and the Wailers.
Out of the garage revival, a more aggressive form of garage rock known as garage punk emerged in the late 1980s. It differed from the "retro" revival in that its acts did not attempt to replicate the exact look and sound of 1960s groups, and their approach tended to be louder, often infusing garage rock with elements of Stooges-era protopunk, 1970s punk rock, and other influences, creating a new hybrid. Several notable garage punk bands were the Gories, thee Mighty Caesars, the Mummies and thee Headcoats. Garage punk and revival acts persisted into the 1990s and the new millennium, with independent record labels releasing records by bands playing fast-paced, lo-fi music. Some of the more prolific independent labels include Estrus, Get Hip, Bomp!, and Sympathy for the Record Industry.
In the early 2000s, a garage rock or post-punk revival achieved the airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of the past. This was led by four bands: the Strokes of New York City, the Hives of Fagersta, Sweden, the Vines of Sydney, and the White Stripes from Detroit, Michigan. Other products of the Detroit rock scene included the Von Bondies, Electric 6, the Dirtbombs, the Detroit Cobras, and Rock 455. Elsewhere, acts such as Billy Childish and the Buff Medways from Chatham, England, the (International) Noise Conspiracy from Umeå, Sweden, and Jay Reatard and the Oblivians from Memphis, enjoyed moderate underground success and appeal. Out of Japan came Guitar Wolf from Nagasaki and the 184.108.40.206's from Tokyo. A second wave of bands that gained international recognition as a result of the movement included the Black Keys, Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Death from Above 1979, the Yeah Yeah Yeahs, the Killers, Interpol, and Kings of Leon from the US, the Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Bloc Party, Editors, and Franz Ferdinand from the UK, Jet from Australia, and the Datsuns and the D4 from New Zealand.
The mid-2000s saw several underground bands achieve mainstream prominence. Acts such as Ty Segall, Thee Oh Sees, Black Lips and Jay Reatard, that initially released records on smaller garage punk labels such as In the Red Records, began signing to larger, better-known independent labels. Several bands followed them in signing to larger labels such as Rough Trade and Drag City.
According to Peter Aaron, there over a thousand 1960s garage rock compilations featuring work by various artists. The first major garage rock compilation, Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968, was released by Electra Records in 1972. Nuggets grew into a multi-volume series, when Rhino Records in the 1980s released fifteen installments that consisted of songs from the original album plus additional tracks. In 1998, Rhino released a four-CD box set version of Nuggets, containing the original album and three additional discs of material, that included extensive liner notes by some of garage rock's most influential writers.
The Pebbles series was begun by Greg Shaw and originally appeared on his Bomp label in 1978 and has been issued in successive installments on LP and CD. Back from the Grave is a series issued by Crypt Records that focuses on hard-driving and primitive examples of the genre. Big Beat Records' Uptight Tonight: The Ultimate 1960s Garage Punk Primer also features harder material. There are several notable anthologies devoted to female garage bands from the 1960s. Girls in the Garage was the first female garage rock series, and Ace Records' issued the more recent Girls with Guitars compilations.
There are numerous collections featuring garage/beat music from outside of North America. Rhino's Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964–1969 4-CD box set includes music from the Untied Kingdom and other countries in the British commonwealth. It is of particular interest to fans of freakbeat. Ugly Things was the first compilation series to highlight Australian garage bands from the 1960s. Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts 1965–1967 also covers Australian acts. The Trans World Punk Rave-Up series focuses on garage and Nederbeat music from Continental Europe.
Los Nuggetz Volume Uno is devoted primarily to Latin American groups and is available in a single-CD edition, as well as an expanded 4-CD box set. GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s and its companion piece GS I Love You Too: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s Both sets feature GS acts from Japan. The Simla Beat 70/71 compilation consists of recordings by garage rock acts from India that competed in the 1970 and 1971 Simla Beat contests. Though its tracks were recorded at the turn of 1970s, most of them bear a striking resemblance to music made in the West several years earlier.
List of bandsEdit
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garage rock.|
- On p. 49, Markesich mentions that the number of bands/acts included in the book's discography amounts to over 4,500. His discography on pages 53–281 is devoted strictly to US acts and does not include Canadian acts or any from other countries.
- Letters in title were not capitalized.
- Song ranked at No. 12 in the list of 1000 greatest garage rock records, voted on by a panel of noted writers and experts
- Not to be confused with Alice Cooper's American band of the same name.
- On pages 10 and 51 the author indicates that the term often used for many the Indian bands of the 1960s is "garage bands".
- The title of the Gamblers' 1960 instrumental "LSD-25" mentions LSD, and in "Miserlou" (1962), Dick Dale used a Phrygian scale. The first musical act to use the term "psychedelic was the New York-based folk group the Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly's "Hesitation Blues" (there pronounced as "psycho-delic") in 1964.
- The Insurrections were headed by philosopher/musician/multi-media artist Henry Flynt, who is sometimes credited with coining the phrase "conceptual art" and described his philosophy as "cognitive nihilism". Flynt briefly played with the Velvet Underground in 1966 before forming the Insurrections, who record a series of tracks later that year, subsequently released on the 2004 album I Don't Wanna. Like the Fugs, the group's lyrics were laced with agit prop and antiwar sentiments.
- Punk Blues (AllMusic.
- Shuker 2005, p. 140.
- Abbey 2006, p. 74.
- Flanagan 2014.
- Nobles 2012, p. 21.
- Markesich 2012, p. 49.
- Markesich 2012, p. 16; Tupica 2013.
- Markesich 2012, p. 16; Fensterstock 2013.
- Nobles 2011, p. 75.
- Nobles 2012, pp. 75, 83–88.
- Markesich 3y1992, p. 20; Hicks 1999, p. 25; Lemlich, pp. 17–18, 30.
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 17–18, 30.
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 17–18, 30; Tupica 2013; Markesich 2012, p. 20.
- Markesich 2012, p. 20.
- Shuker 2005, p. 140; Tupica 2013; Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 3.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 18–22.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 17–18.
- Roller 1992, p. 119; Garage Rock Revival (AllMusic).
- Hicks 1999, p. 31.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 23–24, 53–54, 60–61, 67.
- Blecha 2009, pp. x, 169–188; Campbell 2004, pp. 213–214.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 5, 294.
- Markesich 2012, p. 295.
- Laing 2015, pp. 21–23; Bangs 2003, pp. 8, 56–57, 61, 64, 101, 113, 225.
- Bangs 2003, p. 8.
- Laing 2015, p. 21.
- Shapiro 2006, p. 492.
- Unterberger 1998, p. 69.
- Smith 2009, pp. 96-98.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 106–107.
- Kaye 1972.
- Shaw 1973, p. 68.
- Laing 2015, p. 23.
- Markesich 2012, p. 295; Aaron 2013, p. 51.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 294–296.
- Markesich 2012, p. 295; Bangs 1981, pp. 261–264.
- Aaron 2013, pp. 39–40.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 39–40.
- Bangs 1981, pp. 261–264.
- Morrison 2005, pp. 383–342.
- Whiteside 2015.
- Roller 2013, p. 15.
- Blecha 2007, p. 59.
- Roller 2013, p. 115.
- Markesich 2012, p. 10.
- Gilmore 1990.
- R&R Hall of Fame (Valens.
- Shaw 1998, pp. 18–19.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 17, 21.
- Hicks 1999, p. 17.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 10, 12.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 6, 26, 159–160.
- Pareles 1997.
- Blecha 2009, p. 1.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 98–99.
- Planer (Frantics).
- Blecha 2009, pp. 28–33.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 23, 26, 35–37, 64–65, 67–68.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 78–85, 90, 109–116, 138–140, 189–190; Morrison 2005, pp. 838–842.
- Bangs 1981, pp. 261–264; Blecha 2009, pp. 119, 135–138.
- Hicks 1999, p. 24; Roller 2013, pp. 22–29.
- Austen 2005, p. 19; Unterberger (The Trashmen).
- Waksman 2009, p. 116.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 10-12; Shaw 1998, pp. 18–19.
- Sabin 1999, p. 159; Frat Rock (AllMusic.
- Campbell 2004, p. 213.
- Shaw 1998, pp. 18–19; Gilmore 1990; Lemlich 1992, pp. 2–3.
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 2–3; Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8, 10–11; Dean 2014.
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 2–3; Dean 2014.
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 1–4; Dean 2014; Spitz 2013, pp. 56.
- Dean 2014.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 17–18, 62; Janovitz.
- Shepherd, p. 222.
- Hicks 1999, p. 36; Buckley 2003, p. 1103.
- Laing 2015, p. 22.
- Markesich 2012, p. 14.
- Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 3; Szatmary 2013, p. 134.
- Markesich 2012, p. 28.
- Markesich 2012, p. 21; Simmons 2015.
- Palao 1998, pp. 54-55.
- Unterberger (Beau Brummels).
- Stax 1998, pp. 77-78; Markesich 2012, p. 21, 230.
- Stax 1998, p. 37; Markesich 2012, p. 21.
- Markesich 2012, p. 23; Shaw 1998, p. 20.
- Stax 1998, p. 52.
- Deming (Iggy Pop - Party).
- Stax 1998, p. 31.
- Greene 2013.
- Stax 1998, pp. 38–39; Markesich 2012, p. 23.
- Dale 2016, p. 31.
- Dimery 2010, p. 184.
- Dimery 2010, p. 184; Avant-Mier 2010, p. 102.
- Stax 1998, pp. 45–46}; Markesich 2012, p. 32.
- Aaron 2014, p. 62.
- Stax 1998, p. 60; Markesich 2012, p. 23.
- Planer (Little Girl).
- Markesich 2012, p. 23.
- Shuker 2005, p. 75.
- Eder (Goldie & The Gingerbreads).
- Steil 2001; Markesich 2012, p. 85.
- Ankeny (The Pleasure Seekers).
- Koda, Cub. "Truth Gotta Stand". AllMusic. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Markesich 2012, p. 156.
- Unterberger (Ace of Cups).
- Ankeny, Jason. "Daughters of Eve". AllMusic. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Ankeny, Jason. "The Feminine Complex". AllMusic. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Unterberger (She).
- Unterberger, Richie (July 6, 2010). "From Merseyside to Hamburg: Complete Star Club – The Liverbirds | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- MacLeod 2015, pp. 122–123.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 133–138, 151–155.
- Markesich 2012, p. 143.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 35–36; Blecha 2009, pp. 124–126, 141, 180–182.
- Kot 2015.
- Blecha 2009, p. 169.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 3, 17, 172, 178; Blecha 2009, pp. 174–178.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 176–177; Markesich 2012, p. 219.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 172–178, 183.
- Blecha 2009, pp. 176–177.
- Stax 1998, p. 35.
- Viglione (Victor Moulton).
- Stax 1998, pp. 35-36; Viglione (Victor Moulton).
- Unterberger (Barry & the Remains).
- Fitzpatrick 2014.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 387.
- Stax 1998, pp. 32-33.
- Ankeny (Richard and the Young Lions).
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Where the Action Is! Los Angeles Nuggets 1965–1968: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Prevost & Stax 2014.
- ""Riot on Sunset Strip" (Review)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Hall 2015; Gibron 2011; Thorn 2013.
- Hicks 1999, p. 10.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 47–48.
- Stax 1998, pp. 51-52.
- Schinder & Schwartz 2008, p. 263.
- Robinson, Sean Michael (October 28, 2014). "The Music Machine: Black Glove and the Loneliest Garage". The Hooded Utilitarian. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Aaron 2013, p. 63.
- Avant-Mier 2008, pp. 555–74; Stax 1998, p. 44.
- Cuevas, Steven. "Founding member of '60s LA garage rock band the Premiers to be laid to rest in Riverside". Arts & Entertainment. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Unterberger (Thee Midniters).
- Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8.
- Stax 2014, p. 51.
- Ruhlmann, William. "The American Breed". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Dahl, Bill. "The Buckinghams". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Stax 1998, p. 40.
- Aaron 2014, p. 58.
- Stax 1998, pp. 34, 53.
- Aaron 2014.
- Stax 1998, p. 53.
- Jarema 1991, pp. 1–13; Markesich 2012, pp. 60, 381.
- Stax, p. 46.
- Ankeny (Little Boy Blues).
- Stax 1998, pp. 62-63.
- Ankeny, Jason. "MC5". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Stax 1998, p. 73.
- Unterberger (Rationals).
- Hann, Michael (June 1, 2012). "Old Music: The Electras - Action Woman". The Guardian. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- Stax 1998, p. 64.
- Wilonsky 2011; Nobles 2012, pp. 7, 22.
- Stax 1998, p. 47.
- Unterberger (Kenny & the Kasuals).
- Markesich 2012, pp. 118, 387.
- Markesich 2012, p. 388.
- Ward 2013.
- Unterberger (Moving Sidewalks).
- Deming, Mark. "The 13th Floor Elevators". AllMusic. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Ankeny, Jason. "The Outcasts". AllMusic. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 7–25, 48–60, 94–127, 140–142 – In Chapter 2, Lemlich provides an overview of the scope and size of the Florida scene, mentioning many of its notable acts. South Florida, and the Peninsula receive much discussion, with Miami being identified as the largest scene..
- Unterberger (We the People).
- Lemlich 1992, pp. 14–17, 29–30, 34–35, 49, 51, 88.
- Hicks 1999, p. 9.
- Savage, Jon (June 1997). "Psychedelia: The 100 Greatest Classics". Mojo. Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
- Unterberger (Gants).
- Gordon 2013.
- "Memphis Music History: Rockabilly". Memphis Rock n Soul Museum. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "Memphis Soul Music: The Beginnings". Memphis Rock n Soul Museum. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Hall 2001, pp. 9–14.
- Hall 2001, pp. 71–76.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 21, 110.
- Aaron 2014, p. 98.
- "Alice Cooper Biography". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Dominic 2003.
- Powers, Jim. "Review:Let's Talk About Girls! Music from Tucson 1964–1968". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 122, 384 – In the section listing the 1000 greatest garage rock records, voted on by a panel of garage rock writers and experts, "Cry a Little Longer is ranked at No. 45.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 81, 386.
- Montfichet, Stansted. "Northwest Company". Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- Montfichet, Stansted. "Painted Ship". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- Sendra, Tim. "Shakin' All Over/Hey Ho/It's Time: All Music Review". Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- Unterberger (Ugly Ducklings).
- Pettipas, Keith. "The Ugly Ducklings - Somewhere Outside". AllMusic. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Unterberger (The Haunted).
- Bush, John. "The Paupers". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Unterberger (Mynah Birds)).
- Jones, Josh (May 1, 2014). "When Neil Young & Rick James Created the 60's Motown Band, The Mynah Birds". Open Culture. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Unterberger (The Savages).
- Unterberger (The Savages: Live 'n Wild).
- Markesich 2012, pp. 209, 387.
- Palao 1998, p. 26; Bhatia 2014, pp. 10, 51; Marks & McIntyre (McFarland intro.), pp. 7-9.
- "Freakbeat". AllMusic. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Living in the Past: 19 Forgotten Nederbiet Gems '64-'67". AllMusic. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Unterberger (GS I Love You).
- Erlewine (Orig. Nuggets British Empire); Lymangrover (Los Nuggetz); Unterberger (GS I Love You).
- Palao 1998, p. 26.
- Bangs 2003, pp. 56–57, 61, 64, 101.
- Hicks 1999, p. 36.
- Longhurst 2007, p. 98.
- Bill Harry, "The Birth of Mersey Beat"
- Puterbaugh 1988.
- Schwartz 2007, p. 133.
- Butcher, Terrance (January 5, 2010). "The Who, the Mods, and the Quadrophenia Connection". Pop Matters. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Eder, Bruce. "Small Faces". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 17–18; Kitts 2007, p. 41.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Kinks". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- "Where Have All the Good Times Gone by The Kinks". Song Facts. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Chocolate Watchband". AllMusic. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Pretty Things". Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Pretty Things: Midnight to Six Man (Song Review)". Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Downliners Sect". Retrieved July 20, 2015.
- Hicks 1999, p. 34; Unterberger (Them).
- Unterberger (The Wheels).
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Troggs". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Bangs 2003, pp. 56-58, 101.
- Bush, John. "The Equals". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- "Police On My Back by The Equals". Song Facts. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "AllMusic Review: Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- "Pop/Rock » British Invasion » Freakbeat". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Various Artists: Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Trans-World Punk Rave-Up, Vol. 1–2: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "Dutch Sixties Beatgroups". Start. Retrieved July 11, 2015. Website database includes over 1,400 mid-1960s bands from the Netherlands
- Deming, Mark. "The Outsiders". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "Thinking About Today: Their Complete Works (Outsiders)". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Eder, Bruce. "Q 65". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Deming, Mark. "Nothing But Trouble: The Best of Q65". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Elliott, Steve (March 3, 2013). "Something Else! Interview: Frans Krassenburg of the Golden Earrings". Something Else!. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Hann, Michael (December 13, 2012). "Old music: Golden Earring – Twilight Zone". The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Brady, Kate (July 9, 2014). "Beat-Club: when TV and music Revolutionized German youth". DW. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "Beat! Beat! Beat!". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Lords". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Rattles". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Los Bravos". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Los Cheyenes". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Lymangrover, Jason. "Los Nuggetz Volume Uno:'60s Garage & Psych From Latin America: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Coerver, Pasztor & Huffington 2004, pp. 440–441; Shaw & Dennison 2005, p. 46.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Los Dug Dug's". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Los Shakers". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Los Mockers". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Watts, Jonathan; Collyns, Dan (September 14, 2012). "Where did Punk Begin? A Cinema in Peru". The Guardian. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- ¡Demolición!: The Complete Recordings Allmusic review
- Deming, Mark. "Los York's - Los York's '68". AllMuisc. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Los Speakers". Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Deming, Mark. "Los Gatos Salvajes". Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Bartlett 2008.
- Hicks 1999, p. 49.
- Cope, Julian. "The Golden Cups". Julian Cope Presents. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Various artists - GS I Love You Too (Review)". AllMusic. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- Bhatia 2014, p. 91. Bhatia mentions that Biddu, previously of India's the Trojans, produced the Tigers and that they cut a hit..
- Bhatia 2014, pp. 1–4, 10, 51; Unterberger (Simla Beat).
- Bhatia 2014, pp. 11, 15.
- Bhatia 2014, pp. 23, 32.
- Bhatia 2014, pp. 15–22, 91..
- Bhatia 2014, pp. 1–3, 46, 50–51, 54, 67, 78, 121, 134.
- Bhatia 2014, pp. 1-2, 29, 50, 54, 121-22, 134; Unterberger (Simla Beat).
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 12, 55, 63.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Atlantics". Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, p. 12.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 12, 16, 18–19, 87.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 55–61.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 117–132.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 87–100.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Missing Links". Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 49–54.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 252–253.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 197–204, 338.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Pleazers". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 154–155, 163.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 214–223.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 339.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 205–208.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 256.
- "The Creatures". Music Minder.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 275–292.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Masters Apprentices". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 265–269.
- "Bluestars". New Zealand Music. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 164-70.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Chants R&B". Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- Marks & McIntyre 2010, pp. 179–186.
- Stieb, Matt. "Trippin’ Out in TX: A journey through Texas’ psychedelic music scene". San Antonio Current. Retrieved December 24, 2015. Source B:"The 60's Drug Culture". Crescent Tok. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- Schinder & Schwartz 2008, pp. 266–267; Rubin & Melnick 2007, pp. 162–64.
- Hicks 1999, p. 59.
- Chadbourne, Eugene. "The Gamblers". Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Gress 2014.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 59–60; Hall 2014, pp. 116–117.
- Stiernberg 2014.
- "Psychedelic/Garage". AllMusic. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- Hoffmann 2004, p. 1725.
- Hicks 1999, pp. 18–22; Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 97–105; Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8.
- Berger 2014, pp. 101; Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 97; Markesich.
- Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8; Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 101.
- Shaw 1998, p. 21; Palao 1998, p. 27.
- Wilentz 2014.
- 1a1Shaw 1998, pp. 18–19; Philo 2015, p. 95.
- Berger & Coston 2014, p. 97; Kauppila 2006, pp. 7–8; Gilmore.
- Berger, Coston & 2014 Kauppila, p. 1.
- Gilmore 1990; Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 97.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 97-105.
- Gilmore 1990; Sclafani 2009.
- Lundborg, Patrick (2010). "A Recording Chronology Of The Early Days Of Psychedelic Culture". Lysergia. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- Deusner, Stephen M. (July 10, 2005). "The 13th Floor Elevators: The Psychedelic Sounds of...". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- Deming, Mark. "The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators". Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- Benes, Ross (March 12, 2014). "The First 'Psychedelic' Album Ever". Esquire. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Liner Notes for I Had Too Much to Dream Last Night". Richie Unterberger. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Electric Prunes". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Deming, Mark. "The Electric Prunes - Underground: Review". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Chocolate Watchband: Review". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- Markesich 2012, p. 81.
- Shaw 1998, p. 42.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 32, 67.
- Legett (Blues Magoos).
- Eder, Bruce. "Strawberry Alarm Clock". Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Third Bardo". Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- "Velvet Underground: The New York City Punk-Rock Poets". October 29, 2004. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- Medina 2005, p. 187; Woods 2017.
- Billet, Alexander (March 29, 2016). "Monk Time". Red Wedge. Retrieved February 13, 2017. Billet mentions "there is such a thing as 'avant-garde garage rock' and associates the Monks with the term. He also uses the term "proto-punk" to describe them. – Source B:Seavey, Todd Seavey (October 28, 2013). "All Tomorrow's Partisans: Lou Reed, 1942-2013". The American Spectator. Retrieved June 11, 2016. – Seavy uses "garage rock" as a descriptor for the Velvet Underground's stylistic approach.
- Dougan, John. "The Fugs - Final CD (Part 1)". PopMatters. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- "The Fugs – The Fugs First Album". Underground Music of the 1960s. March 2, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Fugs". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Raggett, Ned. "The Fugs (Review)". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Essor-Winston, Marissa (November 20, 2012). "The American Punk Rock Movement: From the 1970's On". Prezi. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Velvet Underground". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Deming, Mark. "The Velvet Underground & Nico". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Deming, Mark. "The Velvet Underground - White Light/White Heat". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Cope, Julian (November 2005). "Henry Flynt & the Insurrections:I Don't Wanna (Julian Cope's Album of the Month)". Unsung. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Medina 2005, p. 187.
- John Dougan, John Dougan. "The Godz". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Monks". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Demming, Mark. "The Monks - Black Monk Time (Review)". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 144, 148–149; Markesich 2012, pp. 36, 38.
- Marcotte, Amanda (May 29, 2017). "Against 'Sgt. Pepper': the Beatles Classic Made Pop Seem Male, Nerdy, and Important - and that Wasn't a Good Thing". Salon. Retrieved June 3, 2017. Source B: Clarke, Donald (April 15, 2017). "Sgt Pepper’s: When The Beatles Got High on Pomposity". The Irish Times. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Markesich 2012, pp. 36, 38.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 144, 148-149–149; Markasich 2012, pp. 36, 38; Shaw 1998, pp. 17-18.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 144, 152; Markesihch 2012, p. 36.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 144, 149, 152; Unterberger 1998, p. 69; Smith 2009, pp. 96–98.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 101-104, 146; Markesich 2012, p. 36.
- Moores, Sean (November 10, 2016). "Vietnam: the first rock and roll war". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 101-104, 146; Markesich 2012, pp. 36, 38.
- "Rewind to the garage rock era". Vox. August 10, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
- Berger & Coston 2014, pp. 144, 148-149–149; Markasich 2012, pp. 36, 38.
- Ankeny, Jason. "MC5: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Stooges: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Ankeny, Jason. "The Up: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- "Proto-Punk". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- Aaron 2013, pp. 94, 95.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo (February 27, 2014). "The Story of MC5's Historic 'Kick Out the Jams'". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Ankeny, Jason. "The Iguanas". AllMusic. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Petrides, Alexis (March 13, 2003). "Punk Profits". The Guardian. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Deming, Mark. "MC5 - Kick Out the Jams (Review)". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- Deming, Mark. "The Stooges - The Stooges (Review)". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- Deming, Mark. "Iggy and the Stooges - Raw Power (Review)". Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- Ankeny, Jason. "The Up". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Mosher, Mike. "Killer Up! by the Up". Bad Subjects. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Pell, Nicholas (January 26, 2012). "Deathmatch: Which is Better, Garage Rock or Pub Rock?". LA Weekly. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Graff, Gary (March 15, 2016). "Waterford Band the Punks Lives Again Thanks to HBO’s "Vinyl"". The Oakland Press. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- Monger; Rubin 2009; Jurek.
- Lewis, Uncle Dave. "The Modern Lovers: Artist Profile". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "Jonathan Richman Biography". Star Pulse.com. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "Culture Brats, Bars of Our Youth". Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Time Magazine via Boston Groupie News". Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Andersen and Jenkins (2001), p. 12. Vaughan, Robin (June 6–12, 2003). "Reality Bites". Boston Phoenix. Harvard, Joe. "Mickey Clean and the Mezz". Boston Rock Storybook.
- Gallagher, Paul (August 17, 2011). "Slade: Proto Punk Heroes of Glam Rock". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Sommer, Tim (July 7, 2015). "8 Krautrock Artists You Need to Hear Right Now". Observer. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Smith 2009, pp. 96–98; Gray 2004, pp. 26–29; Robb 2012, pp. 34, 66, 76, 106, 132-33, 187, 215.
- Laing 2015, pp. 22–23; Kent.
- Lister 2017; Hemingway 2011; Popova 2012; Revolting 2016.
- Aaron 2013, p. 53.
- "Ramones Biography | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Sex Pistols | Biography". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Gray 2004, pp. 26–29; Robb 2012, pp. 34, 66, 76, 106, 132-33, 187, 215; Aaron 2013, p. 53.
- Lister 2017; Hemingway 2011; Popova 2012.
- Gray 2004, pp. 26–29.
- Shaw 1998, p. 21.
- Stiernberg 2014; Heller 2015.
- Markesich 2012, p. 40.
- DeRogatis 2007, p. 35.
- Szatmary 2013, p. 134; Blecha 2009, pp. 184–196; Mazzarone 2013.
- Markesich 2012, p. 43.
- "Garage Punk". AllMusic. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Thee Mighty Caesars – biography. AllMusic. Retrieved February 1, 2014
- Rutter 2006.
- Blecha 2007, p. 121.
- Adams 2002, p. 469.
- Frith 2004, p. 98.
- True 2004, p. 73.
- Stuessy & Lipscomb 2006, p. 451.
- Smith 2009, p. 240.
- Buckley 2003, p. 1144.
- Buckley 2003, pp. 189–190.
- Bonnazzelli 2001, p. 69.
- True 2004, p. 59.
- Phares, Heather. "Guitar Wolf". AllMusic. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Rowthorn 2003, p. 37.
- Harvilla 2011.
- Blackman 2004, p. 90.
- Else 2007, p. 75.
- Smitz et al. 2005, p. 58.
- Rawlings-Way 2008, p. 52.
- "Signed: Black Lips Sign To Vice Records" Spacelab.tv. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Kharas 2007.
- Rose 2010.
- Jacobs 2009.
- Hughes 2011.
- Aaron 2013, pp. 51-54.
- Markesich 2012, p. 38.
- Eder (80s Nuggets series).
- Unterberger (Nuggets box set).
- Aaron 2013, p. 54.
- Legget (Uptight).
- Arkeny (Girls in Garage).
- Unterberger (Girls With Guitars); Unterberger (Destroy); Sendra (Rebel Kind).
- Erlewine (UK Nuggets).
- Bruno (UK Nuggets).
- Marks and McIntyre 2010, p. 7.
- Paterson (Aust. Nuggets); Unterberger (Ugly Things comp.).
- Unterberger (Trans World).
- Lymangrover (Los Nuggetz).
- Spear (Los Nuggets box).
- Unterberger (GS 1).
- Unterberger (GS 2).
- Unterberger (GS 1) Unterberger (GS 2).
- Unterberger (Simla Beat).
- Aaron, Peter (2013). If You Like the Ramones. Backbeat Books (an imprint of Hal Leonard Corporation). ISBN 978-1-61713-457-9.
- Abbey, Eric James (2006). Garage Rock and Its Roots: Musical Rebels and the Drive for Individuality. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0786425648.
- Adams, Deanna R. (2002). Rock 'n' Roll and the Cleveland Connection: Music of the Great Lakes. Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0873386913.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Girls in the Garage, Vol. 1-6". AllMuisc. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Little Boy Blues". Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Ankeny, Jason. "The Pleasure Seekers". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 15, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Richard and the Young Lions". Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Aswell, Tom (2010). Louisiana Rocks!: The True Genesis of Rock and Roll (1st ed.). Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-58980-677-1.
- Austen, J. (2005). TV-a-go-go: Rock on TV from American Bandstand to American Idol. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1556525728.
- Avant-Mier, Roberto (December 2008). "Latinos in the Garage: A Genealogical Examination of the Latino/a Presence and Influence in Garage Rock (and Rock and Pop Music)" (PDF). Popular Music and Society. 31 (5): 555–574. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Avant-Mier, Roberto (2010). Rock the Nation: Latin/o Identities and the Latin Rock Diaspora. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-6797-2.
- Bangs, Lester (2003). Marcus, Greil, ed. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung (1st ed.). New York: Anchor Books (a division of Random House). ISBN 0-679-72045-6.
- Bangs, Lester (1981). "Protopunk: The Garage Bands". In Miller, Jim. The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll. Picador Books. ISBN 0-330-26568-7.
- Bartlett, Duncan (December 8, 2008). "Japan keeps Lennon's memory alive". BBC News. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- Berger, Jacob; Coston, Daniel (2014). There Was a Time: Rock & Roll in the 1960s in Charlotte and North Carolina (1st ed.). Charlotte: Fort Canoga Press. ISBN 9780615809403.
- Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). India Psychedelic: The Story of a Rocking Generation (1st ed.). Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4.
- Blackman, S. J. (2004). Chilling Out: The Cultural Politics of Substance Consumption, Youth and Drug Policy. McGraw-Hill International. ISBN 9780335200726.
- Blecha, Peter (2009). Sonic Boom: The History of Northwest Rock, from "Louie Louie" to "Smells Like Teen Spirit (1st ed.). New York: Backstreet Books (an imprint of Hal Leonard Corporation). ISBN 978-0-87930-946-6.
- Blecha, Peter (2007). Music in Washington, Seattle and Beyond (Images of America) (1st ed.). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7835-4818-0.
- Bogdanov, Vladamir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002). All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (3rd ed.). Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-627-0.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Bonnazzelli, Andrew (November–December 2001). "Review: The (International) Noise Conspiracy, A New Morning; Changing Weather". New Music Monthly. p. 69.
- Bruno, Paul. "Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Pop Matters. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to More than 1200 Artists and Bands (3rd ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-105-4.
- Campbell, Neil (2004). American Youth Cultures (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge by arrangement with Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-415-97197-7.
- Christgau, Robert (October 14, 1971). "Consumer Guide (20)". Village Voice. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Coerver, Don; Pasztor, Suzanne; Huffington, Robert (August 2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-132-4.
- Dale, Pete (2016). Anyone Can Do It: Empowerment, Tradition and the Punk Underground. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-18025-8.
- Davidson, Eric (2010). We Never Learn: The Gunk Punk Undergut, 1988–2001. Backbeat Books (Hal Leonard Performing Arts Publishing). ISBN 978-0-87930-972-5.
- Dean, Bill (February 9, 2014). "50 Years Ago Today, The Beatles Taught a Young America to Play". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
- Deming, Mark. "Iggy Pop - Party". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2007). Staring at Sound: The True Story of Oklahoma's Fabulous Flaming Lips. Crown/Archetype. ISBN 978-0-307-41931-6.
- Dimery, Robert (2010). 1,000 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die. Quintessence Publishing. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7893-2089-6.
- Dominic, Serene (October 8, 2003). "Alice doesn't live here anymore. But he can't forget the Motor City". Metro Times. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Music Machine". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Eder, Bruce. "Nuggets: A Classic Collection From the Psychedelic Sixties". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Edmondson, Jacqueline (April 2009). Jerry Garcia: A Biography. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Biographies. ISBN 978-0-313-35121-1.
- Else, D. (2007). Great Britain. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-565-7.
- Fensterstock, Alison (October 2, 2013). "New Orleans Garage-Rock Teen Stars the Gaunga Dyns Reunite at 11th Ponderosa Stomp". The Times-Picayune. NOLA Media Group. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Fitzpatrick, Rob (January 22, 2014). "The 101 strangest records on Spotify: Rockin' Ramrods – She Lied". The Guardian. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Flanagan, Mike (May 22, 2014). "When did they start calling it 'garage' rock?". Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- "Rock & Roll/Roots » Frat Rock". Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Frith, S., ed. (2004). Popular Music: Music and Identity. Routledge. ISBN 9780415299053.
- "Garage Rock". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Garage Rock Revival". Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Gendron, Bernard (2002). Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (1st ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-28735-1.
- Gibron, Bill (October 24, 2011). "Riot on Sunset Strip: Review". Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Gilmore, Mikal (August 23, 1990). "Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Rock of the Sixties". Rolling Stone. No. 585. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Gordon, Robert (August 16, 2013). "Memphis: Where to Find the Blues". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Gray, Marcus (2004). The Clash: Return of the Last Gang in Town. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-08240-X.
- Gress, Jesse (January 30, 2014). "Play Like Dick Dale". Guitar Player. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- Greene, Andy. "Flashback: Standells Perform Boston Anthem 'Dirty Water' on 'Mike Douglas'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Grubbs, David (2014). Records Ruin the Landscape: John Cage, the Sixties, and Sound Recording (1st ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5576-2.
- Hall, Mitchell (2014). The Emergence of Rock and Roll: Music and the Rise of American Youth Culture (1st ed.). Routlage: Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-83312-7.
- Hall, Ron (2001). Playing for a Piece of the Door: A History of Garage & Frat Bands in Memphis 1960–1975 (1st ed.). Memphis: Sharngri-La Projects. ISBN 0-9668575-1-8.
- Hall, Oliver (July 17, 2015). "'Riot on Sunset Strip': Watch the Standells and Chocolate Watchband in this exploitation classic". Dangerous Minds. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Harvilla, Rob (December 2, 2011). "The Black Keys: El Camino". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on December 4, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Heller, Jason (March 30, 2015). "Where to Start with the Primal Sound of Garage Rock". A.V. Club. Archived from the original on April 1, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Hemingway, Wayne (July 9, 2011). "The 10 Best British Youth Cultures". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Hicks, Michael (1999). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06915-3.
- Hughes, Josiah (March 2, 2011). "Ty Segall Signs to Drag City for New Studio Album". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Hoffmann, Frank (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93835-X.
- Jacobs, Justin (November 11, 2009). "The Strange Boys Sign to Rough Trade, Tour With Julian Casablancas, Prep New Album for 2010". Paste. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Jarema, Jeff (1991). Oh Yeah! The Best of Dunwich Records (Media notes). Sundazed Music. SC11010.
- Janovitz, Bill. "Them - 'Gloria'". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Joynson, Vernon (1997). Fuzz, Acid and Flowers: Comprehensive Guide to American Garage, Psychedelic and Hippie Rock (1964-75). Borderline. ISBN 978-1-899855-06-3.
- Jurek, Thom. "...For the Whole World to See". AllMusic. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Kauppila, Paul (October 2006). "The Sound of the Suburbs: A Case Study of Three Garage Bands in San Jose, California during the 1960s". San Jose State University SJSU Scholar Works. San Jose, California: 7–8, 10–11. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Kaye, Lenny (1972). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (Media notes). Electra Records. 7E-2006.
- Kent, Nick (2006). "Punk Rock Year Zero". In Wolter, Debra. Punk: The Whole Story (First ed.). Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 978-0-7566-2359-3.
- Kharas, Kev (December 19, 2007). "Red Rag: Jay Reatard Signs with Matador". Drowned in Sound. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Kitts, Thomas M. (November 28, 2007). Ray Davies: Not Like Everybody Else. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-97769-2.
- Kristiansen, Lars J. (2010). Screaming for Change: Articulating a Unifying Philosophy of Punk Rock. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. ISBN 978-0-7391-4274-5.
- Kot, Gregory (April 23, 2015). "The Sonics Put Nasty into Every Note". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Laing, Dave (2015). One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock. PM Press. ISBN 978-1-62963-057-1.
- Lee, Joseph (March 18, 1985). "Dearly Beloved: The Faces of the 60s". Entertainment Magazine. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
- Leggett, Steve. "Blues Magoos". Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Leggett, Steve. "Uptight Tonight: Ultimate 60's Garage Collection". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Lemlich, Jeffrey M. (1992). Savage Lost: Florida Garage Bands: The '60s and Beyond (1st ed.). Miami, Florida: Distinctive Punishing Corp. ISBN 978-0-942963.
- Lister, Kat (March 2, 2017). "Anarchy in the UK: A brief history of punk fashion". Marie Claire. Archived from the original on September 26, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Longhurst, Brian (2007). Popular Music and Society (2nd ed.). Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-3162-2.
- Lymangrover, Jason Lymangrover. "Los Nuggetz: Volume Uno (review)". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- MacLeod, Sean (2015). Leaders of the Pack: Girl Groups of the 1960s and Their Influence on Popular Culture in Britain and America (First ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-5201-1.
- Markesich, Mike (2012). Teenbeat Mayhem (1st ed.). Branford, Connecticut: Priceless Info Press. ISBN 978-0-985-64825-1.
- Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand (1st ed.). Verse Chorus Press. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
- Mazzarone, Mike (February 14, 2013). "Mudhoney's Mark Arm on Being Influenced by the Sonics & the Wailers". Alternative Nation. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Medina, Cuahtémoc (Autumn 2005). Francesco Pellizzi, ed. "Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics, 48: Autumn 2005: Permanent/Impermanent - Henry Flynt": 187. ISBN 978-0873657662. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Monger, James Christopher. "Death: Biography". AllMusic. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Morrison, Craig (2005). Komara, Edward, ed. Encyclopedia of the Blues. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-92699-8.
- Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
- Nobles, Mark (2012). Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots (Images of America series) (1st ed.). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738584997.
- Palao, Alec (September 15, 1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set) – Get Me to the World On Time: How the Sound of Nuggets Engulfed the Globe (liner notes). ISBN 1-56826-804-1. R2756466.
- Pareles, Jon (January 25, 1997). "Richard Berry, Songwriter of 'Louie Louie', Dies at 61". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Paterson, Beverly (November 27, 2013). "The Bee Gees, Easybeats, others – Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts (1965-67)". Something Else!. Archived from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Philo, Simon (2015). British Invasion: The Crosscurrents of Musical Influence (1st ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-8626-1.
- Planer, Lindsay. "The Frantics: The Complete Frantics on Dolton". Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Planer, Lindsay. "The Syndicate of Sound - Little Girl". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 14, 2017. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- Popova, Maria (February 21, 2012). "How 1970s New York Shaped Music for Decades to Come". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Prevost, Greg; Stax, Mike (January 8, 2014). "The Sons Of Adam | UglyThings Magazine". Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- "Punk Blues". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 7, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
- Puterbaugh, Parke (July 14, 1988). Wenner, Jann, ed. "The British Invasion: From the Beatles to the Stones, The Sixties Belonged to Britain". Rolling Stone. No. 530. Retrieved July 10, 2005.
- Rawlings-Way, Charles, ed. (2008). New Zealand. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-816-2.
- Revolting, Colin (December 21, 2016). "The People and Politics of Punk". Red Wedge. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- "Ritchie Valens Biography". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- Robb, John (2012). Punk Rock: An Oral Biography (First ed.). Oakland, CA: PM Press. ISBN 978-1-60486-005-4.
- Rogan, Johnny (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
- Roller, Peter (2013). Milwaukee Garage Bands: Generations of Grassroots Rock (1st ed.). Charleston, London: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-625-8.
- Rose, Steve (January 2010). "In the Red Records' Larry Hardy – Interview – January 2010". Rockfeedback.com. Archived from the original on February 16, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Rosenberg, Stuart (2008). Rock and Roll and the American Landscape: The Birth of an Industry and the Expansion of the Popular Culture, 1955–1969. iUniverse. ISBN 1440164584.
- Rowthorn, C. (2003). Japan (8th ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1740591621.
- Rubin, R.; Melnick, J. P. (2007). Immigration and American Popular Culture: an Introduction. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7552-7.
- Rubin, Mike (March 12, 2009). "This Band Was Punk Before Punk Was Punk". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
- Rutter, Alan (September 5, 2006). "Bluffer's Guide: Garage Punk". Time Out. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- Sabin, Roger (1999). Punk rock: so what?: the cultural legacy of punk (first ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-17030-3. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017.
- Schwartz, R. F. (2007). How Britain Got the Blues: the Transmission and Reception of American Blues Style in the United Kingdom. Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-5580-6.
- Schinder, S.; Schwartz, A. (2008). Icons of Rock. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-33846-5.
- Sclafani, Tony. "The kids are all right! And they love the ’60s". Today. Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Sendra, Tim. "The Rebel Kind: Girls with Guitars, Vol. 3". AllMuisc. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Shapiro, Fred R. (2006). The Yale Book of Quotations (First ed.). New Haven, London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2.
- Shaw, Greg (January 4, 1973). "Punk Rock: The Arrogant Underbelly of Sixties Pop (review of Nuggets)". Rolling Stone.
- Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set) – Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s (liner notes). ISBN 1-56826-804-1. R2756466.
- Shaw, Lisa; Dennison, Stephanie (January 2005). Pop Culture Latin America!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-504-7.
- Shepherd, John (2012). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume 8: Genres: North America. New York: The Continuum Publishing Group. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1441160782.
- Shuker, Roy (2005). Popular Music: The Key Concepts (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415598668.
- Simmons, Rick (January 1, 2015). "One and Done: 1965's Top 10 Songs by 'One-Hit Wonders'". Rebeat. Archived from the original on January 9, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Skelly, Richard. "The Syndicate of Sound". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Smith, Chris (2009). 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537371-4.
- Smitz, P.; Bain, C.; Bao, S.; Farfor, S. (2005). Australia (14th ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-740-0.
- Spitz, Bob (2013). Koepp, Stephen, ed. "The Beatles Invasion (Time Magazine special issue)" (newsstand special issue). New York: Time Books. pp. 55–59.
- Spear, Chelsea (August 14, 2013). "Music Review: Los Nuggetz: ’60s Garage and Psych From Latin America". Popshifter. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Stax, Mike (1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965–1968 (4-Cd Box Set) - 'Optical Sound: The Technicolor Tales Behind the Various Nuggets' (track-by-track liner notes). Rhino Entertainment Company. R2 75466.
- Steil, Mark (August 21, 2001). "Remembering the Continental Co-ets". Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on June 27, 2004. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- Stiernberg, Bonnie (August 27, 2014). "The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time". Paste. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Stuessy, J.; Lipscomb, S. D. (2006). Rock and Roll: Its History and Stylistic Development (5th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-193098-2.
- Swenson, John (2012). New Atlantis: Musicians Battle for the Survival of New Orleans. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199931712.
- Szatmary, David P. (2013). Rockin' in Time. New Jersey: Pearson. ISBN 978-0205936243.
- Thompson, Dave (September 1, 2002). The Music Lover's Guide to Record Collecting. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-713-4.
- Thorn, Steve (September 2013). "The Standells: From the Sunset Strip to Adams Avenue". San Diego Troubadour. San Diego, CA. Archived from the original on September 8, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- True, E. (2004). The White Stripes and the Sound of Mutant Blues. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0711998360.
- Tupica, Rich (January 4, 2013). "Back to the Garage". City Pulse. Madness, Money and Music: The Legacy of Lansing's 1960s Rock Scene. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Ace of Cups". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Barry & the Remains". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Beau Brummels". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Destroy That Boy! More Girls with Guitars". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Girls With Guitars". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You Too: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Mynah Birds". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 16, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Trans-World Punk Rave-Up, Vol. 1-2". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Trashmen". Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Unterberger, Richie. "She". AllMusic. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie Unterberger. "Ugly Things, Vol. 1-3". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 6, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie (1998). Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll:Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-Fi Mavericks & More. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 69. ISBN 0-87930-534-7.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Thee Midniters". Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965-1968 [Box Set]". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Rationals". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Kenny & the Kasuals". AllMusic. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Moving Sidewalks". AllMusic. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "We the People". Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Gants". Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Ugly Ducklings". The Ugly Ducklings. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Haunted". Retrieved July 26, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Savages". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Savages: Live 'n Wild (Review)". AllMusic. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Them". Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Wheels". Archived from the original on December 21, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Viglione, Joe. "The More I See You/Call Me". AllMusic. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- Viglione, Joe. "Victor Moulton". AllMusic. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Waksman, S. (2009). This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520257177.
- Ward, Ed (March 13, 2013). "The Moving Sidewalks: Where The British Invasion Met Texas Blues". NPR Muisc. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Wilonsky, Robert (June 3, 2011). "Journey Through Tyme, or: Finally a History of Dallas' Great Garage Rock Scene of the 1960s". Dallas Observer. Archived from the original on July 15, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits: Eighth Edition. Record Research. p. 499. ISBN 978-0823085545.
- Whiteside, Jonny (February 28, 2015). "Rockin' from the Golden Age". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- Wilentz, Sean (October 30, 2014). "The Halloween Concert That Reinvented Bob Dylan". New Republic. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Woods, Baynard (June 2, 2017). "Ed Sanders, Founder of the Fugs, led an Exorcism of the White House ... and it May Have Worked". Orlando Weekly. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- '60s Garage Bands – histories of local and regional bands of the 1960s
- Beyond the Beat Generation – interviews with former members of 1960s garage bands
- Everett True's Australian Garage Rock Primer – covers Australian garage rock bands of the 1960s and later
- G45 Central – website and blog which hosts discussions on various topics related to garage rock
- Garage Hangover – garage bands of the 1960s by state, province and country
- GS – covers the group sounds ("G.S.") garage/beat boom in Japan
- It's Psychedelic Baby - articles, interviews, and reviews of 1960s psychedelic and garage acts
- Start – Website devoted to covering as many as 1400 Dutch Nederbeat bands of the 1960s (in both Dutch and English)
- Ugly Things – magazine that provides information on garage rock and vintage music from the 1960s and other eras