Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly known as LSD (from German Lysergsäure-diethylamid), and known colloquially as acid or lucy, is a potent psychedelic drug.[12] Effects typically include intensified thoughts, emotions, and sensory perception.[13] At sufficiently high dosages, LSD manifests primarily mental, visual, and auditory hallucinations.[14][15] Dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, and increased body temperature are typical.[16]

Lysergic acid diethylamide
INN: Lysergide
Clinical data
Pronunciation/daɪ eθəl ˈæmaɪd/, /æmɪd/, or /eɪmaɪd/[1][2][3]
Trade namesDelysid
Other namesLSD, LSD-25, LAD, acid, lucy, among others
  • C
Routes of
By mouth, under the tongue
Drug classHallucinogen (psychedelic)
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein bindingUnknown[7]
MetabolismLiver (CYP450)[6]
Onset of action30–40 minutes[8]
Elimination half-life3.6 hours[6][9]
Duration of action8–20 hours[10]
  • (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.000.031 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass323.440 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point80 to 85 °C (176 to 185 °F)
Solubility in water67.02[11] mg/mL (20 °C)
  • CCN(CC)C(=O)[C@H]1CN([C@@H]2Cc3c[nH]c4c3c(ccc4)C2=C1)C
  • InChI=1S/C20H25N3O/c1-4-23(5-2)20(24)14-9-16-15-7-6-8-17-19(15)13(11-21-17)10-18(16)22(3)12-14/h6-9,11,14,18,21H,4-5,10,12H2,1-3H3/t14-,18-/m1/s1 checkY

Effects typically begin within half an hour and can last for up to 20 hours (although on average, experiences last 8–12 hours).[16][17] LSD is also capable of causing mystical experiences and ego dissolution.[15][18] It is used mainly as a recreational drug or for spiritual reasons.[16][19] LSD is both the prototypical psychedelic and one of the "classical" psychedelics, being the psychedelic with the greatest scientific and cultural significance.[12] LSD is synthesized as a solid compound, typically in the form of a powder or a crystalline material. This solid LSD is then dissolved in a liquid solvent, such as ethanol or distilled water, to create a solution. The liquid serves as a carrier for the LSD, allowing for accurate dosage and administration onto small pieces of blotter paper called tabs. LSD is typically either swallowed or held under the tongue.[13] In pure form, LSD is clear or white in color, has no smell, and is crystalline.[13] It breaks down with exposure to ultraviolet light.[16]

LSD is pharmacologically considered to be non-addictive with a low potential for abuse. Adverse psychological reactions are possible, such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions.[7] In rare cases, LSD can induce "flashbacks", known as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, in which a person experiences apparent lasting or persistent visual hallucinations or perceptual distortions, such as visual snow and palinopsia.[20][21]

LSD is structurally related to substituted tryptamines, a class of compounds that includes psilocybin, the active compound found in psychedelic mushrooms. Thus, LSD shares some mechanisms of action and psychedelic effects with psilocybin and other tryptamines.[22][23][24]

The effects of LSD are thought to stem primarily from it being an agonist at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. While exactly how LSD exerts its effects by agonism at this receptor is not fully understood, corresponding increased glutamatergic neurotransmission and reduced default mode network activity are thought to be key mechanisms of action.[7][12][25][26][27] LSD also binds to dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, which is thought to contribute to reports of LSD being more stimulating than compounds such as psilocybin.[28][29]

Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann first synthesized LSD in 1938 from lysergic acid, a chemical derived from the hydrolysis of ergotamine, an alkaloid found in ergot, a fungus that infects grain.[16][20] LSD was the 25th of various lysergamides Hofmann synthesized from lysergic acid while trying to develop a new analeptic, hence the alternate name LSD-25. Hofmann discovered its effects in humans in 1943, after unintentionally ingesting an unknown amount, possibly absorbing it through his skin.[30][31][32] LSD was subject to exceptional interest within the field of psychiatry in the 1950s and early 1960s, with Sandoz distributing LSD to researchers under the trademark name Delysid in an attempt to find a marketable use for it.[31]

LSD-assisted psychotherapy was used in the 1950s and early 1960s by psychiatrists such as Humphry Osmond, who pioneered the application of LSD to the treatment of alcoholism, with promising results.[31][33][34][35] Osmond coined the term "psychedelic" (lit. mind manifesting) as a term for LSD and related hallucinogens, superseding the previously held "psychotomimetic" model in which LSD was believed to mimic schizophrenia. In contrast to schizophrenia, LSD can induce transcendent experiences, or mental states that transcend the experience of everyday consciousness, with lasting psychological benefit.[12][31] During this time, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) began using LSD in the research project Project MKUltra, which used psychoactive substances to aid interrogation. The CIA administered LSD to unwitting test subjects in order to observe how they would react, the most well-known example of this being Operation Midnight Climax.[31] LSD was one of several psychoactive substances evaluated by the U.S. Army Chemical Corps as possible non-lethal incapacitants in the Edgewood Arsenal human experiments.[31]

In the 1960s, LSD and other psychedelics were adopted by, and became synonymous with, the counterculture movement due to their perceived ability to expand consciousness. This resulted in LSD being viewed as a cultural threat to American values and the Vietnam war effort, and it was designated as a Schedule I (illegal for medical as well as recreational use) substance in 1968.[36] It was listed as a Schedule 1 controlled substance by the United Nations in 1971 and currently has no approved medical uses.[16] As of 2017, about 10% of people in the United States have used LSD at some point in their lives, while 0.7% have used it in the last year.[37] It was most popular in the 1960s to 1980s.[16] The use of LSD among US adults increased 56.4% from 2015 to 2018.[38]





LSD is commonly used as a recreational drug.[39]



LSD can catalyze intense spiritual experiences and is thus considered an entheogen. Some users have reported out of body experiences. In 1966, Timothy Leary established the League for Spiritual Discovery with LSD as its sacrament.[40][41] Stanislav Grof has written that religious and mystical experiences observed during LSD sessions appear to be phenomenologically indistinguishable from similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of the great religions of the world and the texts of ancient civilizations.[42]



LSD currently has no approved uses in medicine.[43][44] A meta analysis concluded that a single dose was shown to be effective at reducing alcohol consumption in people suffering from alcoholism.[35] LSD has also been studied in depression, anxiety,[45][46] and drug dependence, with positive preliminary results.[47][48]



LSD is exceptionally potent, with as little as 20 μg capable of producing a noticeable effect.[16]


Some symptoms reported for LSD[49][50]
Patient with mydriasis (pupil dilation) due to usage of LSD

LSD can induce physical effects such as pupil dilation, decreased appetite, increased sweating, and wakefulness. The physical reactions to LSD vary greatly and some may be a result of its psychological effects. Commonly observed symptoms include increased body temperature, blood sugar, and heart rate, as well as goose bumps, jaw clenching, dry mouth, and hyperreflexia. In cases of adverse reactions, users may experience numbness, weakness, nausea, and tremors.[16]



The primary immediate psychological effects of LSD are visual hallucinations and illusions, often referred to as "trips". These effects typically begin within 20–30 minutes of oral ingestion, peak three to four hours after ingestion, and can last up to 20 hours, particularly with higher doses. An "afterglow" effect, characterized by an improved mood or perceived mental state, may persist for days or weeks following ingestion.[51] Positive experiences, or "good trips", are described as intensely pleasurable and can include feelings of joy, euphoria, an increased appreciation for life, decreased anxiety, a sense of spiritual enlightenment, and a feeling of interconnectedness with the universe.[52][53]

Conversely, negative experiences, known as "bad trips," can induce feelings of fear, anxiety, panic, paranoia, and even suicidal ideation.[54] While the occurrence of a bad trip is unpredictable, factors such as mood, surroundings, sleep, hydration, and social setting, collectively referred to as "set and setting", can influence the risk and are considered important in minimizing the likelihood of a negative experience.[55][56]



LSD induces an animated sensory experience affecting senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness, lasting from 6 to 20 hours, with the duration dependent on dosage and individual tolerance. Effects typically commence within 30 to 90 minutes post-ingestion, ranging from subtle perceptual changes to profound cognitive shifts. Alterations in auditory and visual perception are common.[57][58]

Users may experience enhanced visual phenomena, such as vibrant colors, objects appearing to morph, ripple or move, and geometric patterns on various surfaces. Changes in the perception of food's texture and taste are also noted, sometimes leading to aversion towards certain foods.[57][59]

There are reports of inanimate objects appearing animated, with static objects seeming to move in additional spatial dimensions.[60] The auditory effects of LSD may include echo-like distortions of sounds. Basic visual effects often resemble phosphenes and can be influenced by concentration, thoughts, emotions, or music.[61] Auditory effects may include echo-like distortions and an intensified experience of music. Higher doses can lead to more intense sensory perception alterations, including synesthesia, perception of additional dimensions, and temporary dissociation.

Adverse effects

Table from the 2010 ISCD study ranking various drugs (legal and illegal) based on statements by drug-harm experts. LSD was found to be the 18th overall most dangerous drug.[62]
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. LSD was ranked 14th in dependence, 15th in physical harm, and 13th in social harm.[63]

LSD, a classical psychedelic, is deemed physiologically safe at standard dosages (50–200 μg) and its primary risks lie in psychological effects rather than physiological harm.[25][64] A 2010 study by David Nutt ranked LSD as significantly less harmful than alcohol, placing it near the bottom of a list assessing the harm of 20 drugs.[65]

Psychological effects


Mental disorders


LSD can induce panic attacks or extreme anxiety, colloquially termed a "bad trip". Despite lower rates of depression and substance abuse found in psychedelic drug users compared to controls, LSD presents heightened risks for individuals with severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia.[66][67] These hallucinogens can catalyze psychiatric disorders in predisposed individuals, although they do not tend to induce illness in emotionally healthy people.[25] Several behavioral-related fatalities and suicides have been associated with LSD.[68]



While research from the 1960s indicated increased suggestibility under the influence of LSD among both mentally ill and healthy individuals, recent documents suggest that the CIA and Department of Defense have discontinued research into LSD as a means of mind control.[69][70][71][non-primary source needed]



Flashbacks are psychological episodes where individuals re-experience some of LSD's subjective effects after the drug has worn off, persisting for days or months post-hallucinogen use.[72][73] These experiences are associated with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, where flashbacks occur intermittently or chronically, causing distress or functional impairment.[21]

The etiology of flashbacks is varied. Some cases are attributed to somatic symptom disorder, where individuals fixate on normal somatic experiences previously unnoticed prior to drug consumption.[74] Other instances are linked to associative reactions to contextual cues, similar to responses observed in individuals with past trauma or emotional experiences.[75] The risk factors for flashbacks remain unclear, but pre-existing psychopathologies may be significant contributors.[76]

Estimating the prevalence of HPPD is challenging. It is considered rare, with occurrences ranging from 1 in 20 users experiencing the transient and less severe type 1 HPPD, to 1 in 50,000 for the more concerning type 2 HPPD.[21] Contrary to internet rumors, LSD is not stored long-term in the spinal cord or other body parts. Pharmacological evidence indicates LSD has a half-life of 175 minutes and is metabolized into water-soluble compounds like 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, eliminated through urine without evidence of long-term storage.[7] Clinical evidence also suggests that chronic use of SSRIs can potentiate LSD-induced flashbacks, even months after stopping LSD use.[77]: 145 



Several psychedelics, including LSD, are metabolized by CYP2D6. Concurrent use of SSRIs, potent inhibitors of CYP2D6, with LSD may heighten the risk of serotonin syndrome.[77]: 145  Chronic usage of SSRIs, TCAs, and MAOIs is believed to diminish the subjective effects of psychedelics, likely due to SSRI-induced 5-HT2A receptor downregulation and MAOI-induced 5-HT2A receptor desensitization.[7][77]: 145  Interactions between psychedelics and antipsychotics or anticonvulsants are not well-documented; however, co-use with mood stabilizers like lithium may induce seizures and dissociative effects, particularly in individuals with bipolar disorder.[77]: 146 [78][79] Lithium notably intensifies LSD reactions, potentially leading to acute comatose states when combined.[7]

Fatal dose


Lethal oral dose of LSD in humans is estimated at 100 mg, based on LD50 and lethal blood concentrations observed in rodent studies.[64]



LSD shows significant tachyphylaxis, with tolerance developing 24 hours after administration. The progression of tolerance at intervals shorter than 24 hours remains largely unknown.[80] Tolerance typically resets to baseline after 3–4 days of abstinence.[81][82] Cross-tolerance occurs between LSD, mescaline, psilocybin,[83][84] and to some degree DMT.[a] Tolerance to LSD also builds up with consistent use,[87] and is believed to result from serotonin 5-HT2A receptor downregulation.[81] Researchers believe that tolerance returns to baseline after two weeks of not using psychedelics.[88]

Addiction and dependence liability


The NIH states that LSD is addictive,[20] while most other sources state it is not.[64][89] A 2009 textbook states that it "rarely produce[s] compulsive use."[5] A 2006 review states it is readily abused, but does not result in addiction.[89] There are no recorded successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSD in laboratory settings.[25] A study reports that although tolerance to LSD builds up rapidly, a withdrawal syndrome does not appear, suggesting that a potential syndrome does not necessarily relate to the possibility of acquiring rapid tolerance to a substance.[90] A report examining substance use disorder for DSM-IV noted that almost no hallucinogens produced dependence, unlike psychoactive drugs of other classes such as stimulants and depressants.[91][92]

Cancer and pregnancy


The mutagenic potential of LSD is unclear. Overall, the evidence seems to point to limited or no effect at commonly used doses.[93] Studies showed no evidence of teratogenic or mutagenic effects.[7]



There have been no documented fatal human overdoses from LSD,[7][94] although there has been no "comprehensive review since the 1950s" and "almost no legal clinical research since the 1970s".[7] Eight individuals who had accidentally consumed an exceedingly high amount of LSD, mistaking it for cocaine, had plasma levels of 1000–7000 μg per 100 mL blood plasma had suffered from comatose states, vomiting, respiratory problems, hyperthermia, and light gastrointestinal bleeding; however, all of them survived without residual effects upon hospital intervention.[7]

Individuals experiencing a bad trip after LSD intoxication may be presented with severe anxiety, tachycardia, often accompanied by phases of psychotic agitation and varying degrees of delusions.[64] Cases of death on a bad trip have been reported due to prone maximal restraint (PMR) and positional asphyxia when the individuals were held restraint by law enforcement personnel.[64]

Massive doses are largely managed by symptomatic treatments, and agitation can be addressed with benzodiazepines.[95][96] Reassurance in a calm, safe environment is beneficial.[97] Antipsychotic agents such as neuroleptics and haloperidol are not recommended as they may have adverse psychotomimetic effects.[95] Gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal is of little use due to the rapid absorption of LSD, unless done within 30–60 minutes of ingesting exceedingly huge amounts.[95] Administration of anticoagulants, vasodilators, and sympatholytics may be useful for treating ergotism.[95]

Designer drug overdose


Many novel psychoactive substances of 25-NB (NBOMe) series, such as 25I-NBOMe and 25B-NBOMe, are regularly sold as LSD in blotter papers.[98][99] NBOMe compounds are often associated with life-threatening toxicity and death.[98][100] Fatalities involved in NBOMe intoxication suggest that a significant number of individuals ingested the substance which they believed was LSD,[101] and researchers report that "users familiar with LSD may have a false sense of security when ingesting NBOMe inadvertently".[94] Researchers state that the alleged physiological toxicity of LSD is likely due to psychoactive substances other than LSD.[64] NBOMe compounds are reported to have a bitter taste,[94] and are not active orally,[b] and are usually taken sublingually.[103] When NBOMes are administered sublingually, numbness of the tongue and mouth followed by a metallic chemical taste was observed, and researchers describe this physical side effect as one of the main discriminants between NBOMe compounds and LSD.[104][105][106] Despite high potency, recreational doses of LSD have only produced low incidents of acute toxicity, but NBOMe compounds have extremely different safety profiles.[94][100] Ehrlich's reagent can be used to test for the presence of LSD.[107]




Binding affinities of LSD for various receptors. The lower the dissociation constant (Ki), the more strongly LSD binds to that receptor (i.e. with higher affinity). The horizontal line represents an approximate value for human plasma concentrations of LSD, and hence, receptor affinities that are above the line are unlikely to be involved in LSD's effect. Data averaged from data from the Ki Database
Binding affinity for various serotonin receptors
Receptor Ki (nM)
5-HT1A 1.1
5-HT2A 2.9
5-HT2B 4.9
5-HT2C 23
5-HT5A 9
5-HT6 2.3

Most serotonergic psychedelics are not significantly dopaminergic, and LSD is therefore atypical in this regard. The agonism of the D2 receptor by LSD may contribute to its psychoactive effects in humans.[29]

LSD binds to most serotonin receptor subtypes except for the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. However, most of these receptors are affected at too low affinity to be sufficiently activated by the brain concentration of approximately 10–20 nM.[25] In humans, recreational doses of LSD can affect 5-HT1A (Ki = 1.1 nM), 5-HT2A (Ki = 2.9 nM), 5-HT2B (Ki = 4.9 nM), 5-HT2C (Ki = 23 nM), 5-HT5A (Ki = 9 nM [in cloned rat tissues]), and 5-HT6 receptors (Ki = 2.3 nM).[108] Although not present in humans, 5-HT5B receptors found in rodents also have a high affinity for LSD.[109] The psychedelic effects of LSD are attributed to cross-activation of 5-HT2A receptor heteromers.[110] Many but not all 5-HT2A agonists are psychedelics and 5-HT2A antagonists block the psychedelic activity of LSD. LSD exhibits functional selectivity at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in that it activates the signal transduction enzyme phospholipase A2 instead of activating the enzyme phospholipase C as the endogenous ligand serotonin does.[111]

Exactly how LSD produces its effects is unknown, but it is thought that it works by increasing glutamate release in the cerebral cortex[25] and therefore excitation in this area, specifically in layer V.[112] LSD, like many other drugs of recreational use, has been shown to activate DARPP-32-related pathways.[113] The drug enhances dopamine D2 receptor protomer recognition and signaling of D2–5-HT2A receptor complexes,[28] which may contribute to its psychotropic effects.[28] LSD has been shown to have low affinity for H1 receptors, displaying antihistamine effects.[114][115]

LSD is a biased agonist that induces a conformation in serotonin receptors that preferentially recruits β-arrestin over activating G proteins.[116] LSD also has an exceptionally long residence time when bound to serotonin receptors lasting hours, consistent with the long lasting effects of LSD despite its relatively rapid clearance.[116] A crystal structure of 5-HT2B bound to LSD reveals an extracellular loop that forms a lid over the diethylamide end of the binding cavity which explains the slow rate of LSD unbinding from serotonin receptors.[117] The related lysergamide lysergic acid amide (LSA) that lacks the diethylamide moiety is far less hallucinogenic in comparison.[117]


Resting state fMRI BOLD-contrast imaging shows increased primary visual cortex (V1) cerebral blood flow (CBF) and increased V1 resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), which correlated more strongly with the visual hallucinatory aspect of the LSD experience. Increased V1 RSFC also correlated with visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of simple hallucinations and the magnitude of CBF observed in visual cortex correlated positively with ratings of complex imagery on the LSD-induced altered state of consciousness (ASC).[27]
Resting state fMRI BOLD-contrast imaging shows decreased bilateral parahippocampal (PH) resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), which correlated with the ego-dissolution aspect of the LSD experience. A significant relationship was also found between decreased posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) alpha power and default mode network (DMN) disintegration with ego-dissolution.[27]

The acute effects of LSD normally last between 6 and 10 hours depending on dosage, tolerance, and age.[118][119] Aghajanian and Bing (1964) found LSD had an elimination half-life of only 175 minutes (about 3 hours).[108] However, using more accurate techniques, Papac and Foltz (1990) reported that 1 μg/kg oral LSD given to a single male volunteer had an apparent plasma half-life of 5.1 hours, with a peak plasma concentration of 5 ng/mL at 3 hours post-dose.[120]

The pharmacokinetics of LSD were not properly determined until 2015, which is not surprising for a drug with the kind of low-μg potency that LSD possesses.[6][9] In a sample of 16 healthy subjects, a single mid-range 200 μg oral dose of LSD was found to produce mean maximal concentrations of 4.5 ng/mL at a median of 1.5 hours (range 0.5–4 hours) post-administration.[6][9] Concentrations of LSD decreased following first-order kinetics with a half-life of 3.6±0.9 hours and a terminal half-life of 8.9±5.9 hours.[6][9]

The effects of the dose of LSD given lasted for up to 12 hours and were closely correlated with the concentrations of LSD present in circulation over time, with no acute tolerance observed.[6][9] Only 1% of the drug was eliminated in urine unchanged, whereas 13% was eliminated as the major metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD) within 24 hours.[6][9] O-H-LSD is formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes, although the specific enzymes involved are unknown, and it does not appear to be known whether O-H-LSD is pharmacologically active or not.[6][9] The oral bioavailability of LSD was crudely estimated as approximately 71% using previous data on intravenous administration of LSD.[6][9] The sample was equally divided between male and female subjects and there were no significant sex differences observed in the pharmacokinetics of LSD.[6][9]

Mechanisms of action


Neuroimaging studies using resting state fMRI recently suggested that LSD changes the cortical functional architecture.[121] These modifications spatially overlap with the distribution of serotoninergic receptors. In particular, increased connectivity and activity were observed in regions with high expression of 5-HT2A receptor, while a decrease in activity and connectivity was observed in cortical areas that are dense with 5-HT1A receptor.[122] Experimental data suggest that subcortical structures, particularly the thalamus, play a synergistic role with the cerebral cortex in mediating the psychedelic experience. LSD, through its binding to cortical 5-HT2A receptor, may enhance excitatory neurotransmission along frontostriatal projections and, consequently, reduce thalamic filtering of sensory stimuli towards the cortex.[123] This phenomenon appears to selectively involve ventral, intralaminar, and pulvinar nuclei.[123]


The four possible stereoisomers of LSD. Only (+)-LSD is psychoactive.

LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist. LSD, also called (+)-d-LSD,[124] has the absolute configuration (5R,8R). 5S stereoisomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from d-lysergic acid. Retrosynthetically, the C-5 stereocenter could be analysed as having the same configuration of the alpha carbon of the naturally occurring amino acid L-tryptophan, the precursor to all biosynthetic ergoline compounds.

However, LSD and iso-LSD, the two C-8 isomers, rapidly interconvert in the presence of bases, as the alpha proton is acidic and can be deprotonated and reprotonated. Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be separated by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD.

Pure salts of LSD are triboluminescent, emitting small flashes of white light when shaken in the dark.[118] LSD is strongly fluorescent and will glow bluish-white under UV light.



LSD is an ergoline derivative. It is commonly synthesized by reacting diethylamine with an activated form of lysergic acid. Activating reagents include phosphoryl chloride[125] and peptide coupling reagents.[115] Lysergic acid is made by alkaline hydrolysis of lysergamides like ergotamine, a substance usually derived from the ergot fungus on agar plate; or, theoretically possible, but impractical and uncommon, from ergine (lysergic acid amide, LSA) extracted from morning glory seeds.[126] Lysergic acid can also be produced synthetically, although these processes are not used in clandestine manufacture due to their low yields and high complexity.[127][128]



The precursor for LSD, lysergic acid, has been produced by GMO baker's yeast.[129]


White on White blotters (WoW) for sublingual administration

A single dose of LSD may be between 40 and 500 micrograms—an amount roughly equal to one-tenth the mass of a grain of sand. Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 25 micrograms of LSD.[130][131] The practice of using sub-threshold doses is called microdosing.[132] Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (μg), or millionths of a gram.

In the mid-1960s, the most important black market LSD manufacturer (Owsley Stanley) distributed LSD at a standard concentration of 270 μg,[133] while street samples of the 1970s contained 30 to 300 μg. By the 1980s, the amount had reduced to between 100 and 125 μg, dropping more in the 1990s to the 20–80 μg range,[134] and even more in the 2000s (decade).[133][135]

Reactivity and degradation


"LSD," writes the chemist Alexander Shulgin, "is an unusually fragile molecule ... As a salt, in water, cold, and free from air and light exposure, it is stable indefinitely."[118]

LSD has two labile protons at the tertiary stereogenic C5 and C8 positions, rendering these centers prone to epimerisation. The C8 proton is more labile due to the electron-withdrawing carboxamide attachment, but removal of the chiral proton at the C5 position (which was once also an alpha proton of the parent molecule tryptophan) is assisted by the inductively withdrawing nitrogen and pi electron delocalisation with the indole ring.[citation needed]

LSD also has enamine-type reactivity because of the electron-donating effects of the indole ring. Because of this, chlorine destroys LSD molecules on contact; even though chlorinated tap water contains only a slight amount of chlorine, the small quantity of compound typical to an LSD solution will likely be eliminated when dissolved in tap water.[118] The double bond between the 8-position and the aromatic ring, being conjugated with the indole ring, is susceptible to nucleophilic attacks by water or alcohol, especially in the presence of UV or other kinds of light. LSD often converts to "lumi-LSD," which is inactive in human beings.[118]

A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of LSD in pooled urine samples.[136] The concentrations of LSD in urine samples were followed over time at various temperatures, in different types of storage containers, at various exposures to different wavelengths of light, and at varying pH values. These studies demonstrated no significant loss in LSD concentration at 25 °C for up to four weeks. After four weeks of incubation, a 30% loss in LSD concentration at 37 °C and up to a 40% at 45 °C were observed. Urine fortified with LSD and stored in amber glass or nontransparent polyethylene containers showed no change in concentration under any light conditions. Stability of LSD in transparent containers under light was dependent on the distance between the light source and the samples, the wavelength of light, exposure time, and the intensity of light. After prolonged exposure to heat in alkaline pH conditions, 10 to 15% of the parent LSD epimerized to iso-LSD. Under acidic conditions, less than 5% of the LSD was converted to iso-LSD. It was also demonstrated that trace amounts of metal ions in buffer or urine could catalyze the decomposition of LSD and that this process can be avoided by the addition of EDTA.


Ehrlich's reagent can be used to test for the presence of LSD in a sample, turning purple upon reaction.[107]

LSD can be detected in concentrations larger than approximately 10% in a sample using Ehrlich's reagent and Hofmann's reagent. However, detecting LSD in human tissues is more challenging due to its active dosage being significantly lower (in micrograms) compared to most other drugs (in milligrams).[137]

LSD may be quantified in urine for drug abuse testing programs, in plasma or serum to confirm poisoning in hospitalized victims, or in whole blood for forensic investigations. The parent drug and its major metabolite are unstable in biofluids when exposed to light, heat, or alkaline conditions, necessitating protection from light, low-temperature storage, and quick analysis to minimize losses.[138] Maximum plasma concentrations are typically observed 1.4 to 1.5 hours after oral administration of 100 μg and 200 μg, respectively, with a plasma half-life of approximately 2.6 hours (ranging from 2.2 to 3.4 hours among test subjects).[139]

Due to its potency in microgram quantities, LSD is often not included in standard pre-employment urine or hair analyses.[137][140] However, advanced liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry methods can detect LSD in biological samples even after a single use.[140]



... affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away.

—Albert Hofmann, on his first experience with LSD[141]: 15 

LSD was first synthesized on November 16, 1938[142] by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives. The abbreviation "LSD" is from the German "Lysergsäurediethylamid".[143]

Albert Hofmann in 2006

LSD's psychedelic properties were discovered 5 years later when Hofmann himself accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical.[144] The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943,[141] when Hofmann ingested 250 μg of LSD. He said this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated.[145] Sandoz Laboratories introduced LSD as a psychiatric drug in 1947 and marketed LSD as a psychiatric panacea, hailing it "as a cure for everything from schizophrenia to criminal behavior, 'sexual perversions', and alcoholism."[146] Sandoz would send the drug for free to researchers investigating its effects.[30]

'Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) on Troops Marching' – 16mm film produced by the United States military circa 1958

Beginning in the 1950s, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) began a research program code named Project MKUltra. The CIA introduced LSD to the United States, purchasing the entire world's supply for $240,000 and propagating the LSD through CIA front organizations to American hospitals, clinics, prisons and research centers.[147] Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions, usually without the subjects' knowledge. The project was revealed in the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report in 1975.

In 1963, the Sandoz patents on LSD expired[134] and the Czech company Spofa began to produce the substance.[30] Sandoz stopped the production and distribution in 1965.[30]

Several figures, including Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and Al Hubbard, had begun to advocate the consumption of LSD. LSD became central to the counterculture of the 1960s.[148] In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other hallucinogens was advocated by new proponents of consciousness expansion such as Leary, Huxley, Alan Watts and Arthur Koestler,[149][150] and according to L. R. Veysey they profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth.[151]

On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made illegal in the United States.[152] The last FDA approved study of LSD in patients ended in 1980, while a study in healthy volunteers was made in the late 1980s. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until 1993.[153]

In November 2020, Oregon became the first US state to decriminalize possession of small amounts of LSD after voters approved Ballot Measure 110.[154]

Society and culture




By the mid-1960s, the youth countercultures in California, particularly in San Francisco, had widely adopted the use of hallucinogenic drugs, including LSD. The first major underground LSD factory was established by Owsley Stanley.[155] Around this time, the Merry Pranksters, associated with novelist Ken Kesey, organized the Acid Tests, events in San Francisco involving LSD consumption, accompanied by light shows and improvised music.[156][157] Their activities, including cross-country trips in a psychedelically decorated bus and interactions with major figures of the beat movement, were later documented in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (1968).[158]

In San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury neighborhood, the Psychedelic Shop was opened in January 1966 by brothers Ron and Jay Thelin to promote safe use of LSD. This shop played a significant role in popularizing LSD in the area and establishing Haight-Ashbury as the epicenter of the hippie counterculture. The Thelins also organized the Love Pageant Rally in Golden Gate Park in October 1966, protesting against California's ban on LSD.[159][160]

A similar movement developed in London, led by British academic Michael Hollingshead, who first tried LSD in America in 1961. After experiencing LSD and interacting with notable figures such as Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and Richard Alpert, Hollingshead played a key role in the famous LSD research at Millbrook before moving to New York City for his own experiments. In 1965, he returned to the UK and founded the World Psychedelic Center in Chelsea, London.[161]

Music and Art

Psychedelic art for the cover of an issue of underground counterculture newspaper, Helix, 1967

The influence of LSD in the realms of music and art became pronounced in the 1960s, especially through the Acid Tests and related events involving bands like the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Big Brother and the Holding Company. San Francisco-based artists such as Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, and Wes Wilson contributed to this movement through their psychedelic poster and album art. The Grateful Dead, in particular, became central to the culture of "Deadheads," with their music heavily influenced by LSD.[162]

In the United Kingdom, Michael Hollingshead, reputed for introducing LSD to various artists and musicians like Storm Thorgerson, Donovan, Keith Richards, and members of the Beatles, played a significant role in the drug's proliferation in the British art and music scene. Despite LSD's illegal status from 1966, it was widely used by groups including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and the Moody Blues. Their experiences influenced works such as the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and Cream's Disraeli Gears, featuring psychedelic-themed music and artwork.[163]

Psychedelic music of the 1960s often sought to replicate the LSD experience, incorporating exotic instrumentation, electric guitars with effects pedals, and elaborate studio techniques. Artists and bands utilized instruments like sitars and tablas, and employed studio effects such as backwards tapes, panning, and phasing.[164][165] Songs such as John Prine's "Illegal Smile" and the Beatles' "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" have been associated with LSD, although the latter's authors denied such claims.[166][page needed][167]

Contemporary artists influenced by LSD include Keith Haring in the visual arts,[168] various electronic dance music creators,[169] and the jam band Phish.[170] The 2018 Leo Butler play All You Need is LSD is inspired by the author's interest in the history of LSD.[171]


The United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 mandates that signing parties, including the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and most of Europe, prohibit LSD. Enforcement of these laws varies by country. The convention allows medical and scientific research with LSD.[172]



In Australia, LSD is classified as a Schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standard (February 2017), indicating it may be abused or misused and its manufacture, possession, sale, or use should be prohibited except for approved research purposes.[173] In Western Australia, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1981 provides guidelines for possession and trafficking of substances like LSD.[174]



In Canada, LSD is listed under Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Unauthorized possession and trafficking of the substance can lead to significant legal penalties.[54]

United Kingdom


In the United Kingdom, LSD is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, making unauthorized possession and trafficking punishable by severe penalties. The Runciman Report and Transform Drug Policy Foundation have made recommendations and proposals regarding the legal regulation of LSD and other psychedelics.[175][176]

United States


In the United States, LSD is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, making its manufacture, possession, and distribution illegal without a DEA license. The law considers LSD to have a high potential for abuse, no legitimate medical use, and to be unsafe even under medical supervision. The US Supreme Court case Neal v. United States (1995) clarified the sentencing guidelines related to LSD possession.[177]

Oregon decriminalized personal possession of small amounts of drugs, including LSD, in February 2021, and California has seen legislative efforts to decriminalize psychedelics.[178]



Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of drugs, including LSD, for personal use in 2009. The law specifies possession limits and establishes that possession is not a crime within designated quantities.[179]

Czech Republic


In the Czech Republic, possession of "amount larger than small" of LSD is criminalized, while possession of smaller amounts is a misdemeanor. The definition of "amount larger than small" is determined by judicial practice and specific regulations.[180][181]




Glassware seized by the DEA

An active dose of LSD is very minute, allowing a large number of doses to be synthesized from a comparatively small amount of raw material. Twenty five kilograms of precursor ergotamine tartrate can produce 5–6 kg of pure crystalline LSD; this corresponds to around 50–60 million doses at 100 μg. Because the masses involved are so small, concealing and transporting illicit LSD is much easier than smuggling cocaine, cannabis, or other illegal drugs.[182]

Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry. It takes two to three days to produce 30 to 100 grams of pure compound. It is believed that LSD is not usually produced in large quantities, but rather in a series of small batches. This technique minimizes the loss of precursor chemicals in case a step does not work as expected.[182]

Five doses of LSD, often called a "five strip"

LSD is produced in crystalline form and is then mixed with excipients or redissolved for production in ingestible forms. Liquid solution is either distributed in small vials or, more commonly, sprayed onto or soaked into a distribution medium. Historically, LSD solutions were first sold on sugar cubes, but practical considerations forced a change to tablet form. Appearing in 1968 as an orange tablet measuring about 6 mm across, "Orange Sunshine" acid was the first largely available form of LSD after its possession was made illegal. Tim Scully, a prominent chemist, made some of these tablets, but said that most "Sunshine" in the USA came by way of Ronald Stark, who imported approximately thirty-five million doses from Europe.[183]

Over a period of time, tablet dimensions, weight, shape and concentration of LSD evolved from large (4.5–8.1 mm diameter), heavyweight (≥150 mg), round, high concentration (90–350 μg/tab) dosage units to small (2.0–3.5 mm diameter) lightweight (as low as 4.7 mg/tab), variously shaped, lower concentration (12–85 μg/tab, average range 30–40 μg/tab) dosage units. LSD tablet shapes have included cylinders, cones, stars, spacecraft, and heart shapes. The smallest tablets became known as "Microdots."[184]

After tablets came "computer acid" or "blotter paper LSD," typically made by dipping a preprinted sheet of blotting paper into an LSD/water/alcohol solution.[183][184] More than 200 types of LSD tablets have been encountered since 1969 and more than 350 blotter paper designs have been observed since 1975.[184] About the same time as blotter paper LSD came "Windowpane" (AKA "Clearlight"), which contained LSD inside a thin gelatin square a quarter of an inch (6 mm) across.[183] LSD has been sold under a wide variety of often short-lived and regionally restricted street names including Acid, Trips, Uncle Sid, Blotter, Lucy, Alice and doses, as well as names that reflect the designs on the sheets of blotter paper.[52][185] Authorities have encountered the drug in other forms—including powder or crystal, and capsule.[186]

Modern distribution

LSD manufacturers and traffickers in the United States can be categorized into two groups: A few large-scale producers, and an equally limited number of small, clandestine chemists, consisting of independent producers who, operating on a comparatively limited scale, can be found throughout the country.[187][188]

As a group, independent producers are of less concern to the Drug Enforcement Administration than the large-scale groups because their product reaches only local markets.[146]

Many LSD dealers and chemists describe a religious or humanitarian purpose that motivates their illicit activity. Nicholas Schou's book Orange Sunshine: The Brotherhood of Eternal Love and Its Quest to Spread Peace, Love, and Acid to the World describes one such group, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. The group was a major American LSD trafficking group in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[189]

In the second half of the 20th century, dealers and chemists loosely associated with the Grateful Dead like Owsley Stanley, Nicholas Sand, Karen Horning, Sarah Maltzer, "Dealer McDope," and Leonard Pickard played an essential role in distributing LSD.[162]

LSD blotter acid mimic actually containing DOC
Different blotters which could possibly be mimics

Since 2005, law enforcement in the United States and elsewhere has seized several chemicals and combinations of chemicals in blotter paper which were sold as LSD mimics, including DOB,[190][191] a mixture of DOC and DOI,[192] 25I-NBOMe,[193] and a mixture of DOC and DOB.[194] Many mimics are toxic in comparatively small doses, or have extremely different safety profiles. Many street users of LSD are often under the impression that blotter paper which is actively hallucinogenic can only be LSD because that is the only chemical with low enough doses to fit on a small square of blotter paper. While it is true that LSD requires lower doses than most other hallucinogens, blotter paper is capable of absorbing a much larger amount of material. The DEA performed a chromatographic analysis of blotter paper containing 2C-C which showed that the paper contained a much greater concentration of the active chemical than typical LSD doses, although the exact quantity was not determined.[195] Blotter LSD mimics can have relatively small dose squares; a sample of blotter paper containing DOC seized by Concord, California police had dose markings approximately 6 mm apart.[196] Several deaths have been attributed to 25I-NBOMe.[197][198][199][200]



In the United States the earliest research began in the 1950s. Albert Kurland and his colleagues published research on LSD's therapeutic potential to treat schizophrenia. In Canada, Humphry Osmond and Abram Hoffer completed LSD studies as early as 1952.[201] By the 1960s, controversies surrounding "hippie" counterculture began to deplete institutional support for continued studies.

Currently, a number of organizations—including the Beckley Foundation, MAPS, Heffter Research Institute and the Albert Hofmann Foundation—exist to fund, encourage and coordinate research into the medicinal and spiritual uses of LSD and related psychedelics.[202] New clinical LSD experiments in humans started in 2009 for the first time in 35 years.[203] As it is illegal in many areas of the world, potential medical uses are difficult to study.[43]

In 2001 the United States Drug Enforcement Administration stated that LSD "produces no aphrodisiac effects, does not increase creativity, has no lasting positive effect in treating alcoholics or criminals, does not produce a "model psychosis", and does not generate immediate personality change."[146] More recently, experimental uses of LSD have included the treatment of alcoholism,[204] pain and cluster headache relief,[7][205][206] and prospective studies on depression.[207]

A 2020 meta-review indicated possible positive effects of LSD in reducing psychiatric symptoms, mainly in cases of alcoholism.[208] There is evidence that psychedelics induce molecular and cellular adaptations related to neuroplasticity and that these could potentially underlie therapeutic benefits.[209][210]

Psychedelic therapy


In the 1950s and 1960s, LSD was used in psychiatry to enhance psychotherapy, known as psychedelic therapy. Some psychiatrists, such as Ronald A. Sandison, who pioneered its use at Powick Hospital in England, believed LSD was especially useful at helping patients to "unblock" repressed subconscious material through other psychotherapeutic methods,[211] and also for treating alcoholism.[212][213] One study concluded, "The root of the therapeutic value of the LSD experience is its potential for producing self-acceptance and self-surrender,"[34] presumably by forcing the user to face issues and problems in that individual's psyche.

Two recent reviews concluded that conclusions drawn from most of these early trials are unreliable due to serious methodological flaws. These include the absence of adequate control groups, lack of followup, and vague criteria for therapeutic outcome. In many cases studies failed to convincingly demonstrate whether the drug or the therapeutic interaction was responsible for any beneficial effects.[214][215]

In recent years, organizations like the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies have renewed clinical research of LSD.[203]

It has been proposed that LSD be studied for use in the therapeutic setting, particularly in anxiety.[45][46][216][217] In 2024, the FDA designated a form of LSD as a breakthrough therapy to treat generalized anxiety disorder.[218]

Other uses


In the 1950s and 1960s, some psychiatrists (e.g. Oscar Janiger) explored the potential effect of LSD on creativity. Experimental studies attempted to measure the effect of LSD on creative activity and aesthetic appreciation.[53][219][220][221] In 1966 Dr. James Fadiman conducted a study with the central question "How can psychedelics be used to facilitate problem solving?" This study attempted to solve 44 different problems and had 40 satisfactory solutions when the FDA banned all research into psychedelics. LSD was a key component of this study.[222][223]

Since 2008 there has been ongoing research into using LSD to alleviate anxiety for terminally ill cancer patients coping with their impending deaths.[45][203][224]

A 2012 meta-analysis found evidence that a single dose of LSD in conjunction with various alcoholism treatment programs was associated with a decrease in alcohol abuse, lasting for several months, but no effect was seen at one year. Adverse events included seizure, moderate confusion and agitation, nausea, vomiting, and acting in a bizarre fashion.[35]

LSD has been used as a treatment for cluster headaches with positive results in some small studies.[7]

Recently, researchers discovered that LSD is a potent psychoplastogen, a compound capable of promoting rapid and sustained neural plasticity that may have wide-ranging therapeutic benefit.[225] LSD has been shown to increase markers of neuroplasticity in human brain organoids and improve memory performance in human subjects.[226]

LSD may have analgesic properties related to pain in terminally ill patients and phantom pain and may be useful for treating inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis.[227]

Notable individuals


Some notable individuals have commented publicly on their experiences with LSD.[228][229] Some of these comments date from the era when it was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment in the 1950s and 1960s. Still others describe experiences with illegal LSD, obtained for philosophic, artistic, therapeutic, spiritual, or recreational purposes.

  • W. H. Auden, the poet, said, "I myself have taken mescaline once and L.S.D. once. Aside from a slight schizophrenic dissociation of the I from the Not-I, including my body, nothing happened at all."[230] He also said, "LSD was a complete frost. … What it does seem to destroy is the power of communication. I have listened to tapes done by highly articulate people under LSD, for example, and they talk absolute drivel. They may have seen something interesting, but they certainly lose either the power or the wish to communicate."[231] He also said, "Nothing much happened but I did get the distinct impression that some birds were trying to communicate with me."[232]
  • Daniel Ellsberg, an American peace activist, says he has had several hundred experiences with psychedelics.[233]
  • Richard Feynman, a notable physicist at California Institute of Technology, tried LSD during his professorship at Caltech. Feynman largely sidestepped the issue when dictating his anecdotes; he mentions it in passing in the "O Americano, Outra Vez" section.[234][235]
  • Jerry Garcia stated in a July 3, 1989 interview for Relix Magazine, in response to the question "Have your feelings about LSD changed over the years?," "They haven't changed much. My feelings about LSD are mixed. It's something that I both fear and that I love at the same time. I never take any psychedelic, have a psychedelic experience, without having that feeling of, "I don't know what's going to happen." In that sense, it's still fundamentally an enigma and a mystery."[236]
  • Bill Gates implied in an interview with Playboy that he tried LSD during his youth.[237]
  • Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World, became a user of psychedelics after moving to Hollywood. He was at the forefront of the counterculture's use of psychedelic drugs, which led to his 1954 work The Doors of Perception. Dying from cancer, he asked his wife on 22 November 1963 to inject him with 100 μg of LSD. He died later that day.[238]
  • Steve Jobs, co-founder and former CEO of Apple Inc., said, "Taking LSD was a profound experience, one of the most important things in my life."[239]
  • Ernst Jünger, German writer and philosopher, throughout his life had experimented with drugs such as ether, cocaine, and hashish; and later in life he used mescaline and LSD. These experiments were recorded comprehensively in Annäherungen (1970, Approaches). The novel Besuch auf Godenholm (1952, Visit to Godenholm) is clearly influenced by his early experiments with mescaline and LSD. He met with LSD inventor Albert Hofmann and they took LSD together several times. Hofmann's memoir LSD, My Problem Child describes some of these meetings.[240]
  • In a 2004 interview, Paul McCartney said that The Beatles' songs "Day Tripper" and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" were inspired by LSD trips.[166]: 182  Nonetheless, John Lennon consistently stated over the course of many years that the fact that the initials of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" spelled out L-S-D was a coincidence (he stated that the title came from a picture drawn by his son Julian) and that the band members did not notice until after the song had been released, and Paul McCartney corroborated that story.[241] John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr also used the drug, although McCartney cautioned that "it's easy to overestimate the influence of drugs on the Beatles' music."[242]
  • Michel Foucault had an LSD experience with Simeon Wade in Death Valley and later wrote "it was the greatest experience of his life, and that it profoundly changed his life and his work."[243][244] According to Wade, as soon as he came back to Paris, Foucault scrapped the second History of Sexuality's manuscript, and totally rethought the whole project.[245]
  • Kary Mullis is reported to credit LSD with helping him develop DNA amplification technology, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993.[246]
  • Carlo Rovelli, an Italian theoretical physicist and writer, has credited his use of LSD with sparking his interest in theoretical physics.[247]
  • Oliver Sacks, a neurologist famous for writing best-selling case histories about his patients' disorders and unusual experiences, talks about his own experiences with LSD and other perception altering chemicals, in his book, Hallucinations.[248]
  • Matt Stone and Trey Parker, creators of the TV series South Park, claimed to have shown up at the 72nd Academy Awards, at which they were nominated for Best Original Song, under the influence of LSD.[249]

See also



  1. ^ Although cross-tolerance to DMT is noted as negligible,[85] some reports suggest that LSD-tolerant individuals showed undiminished responses to DMT.[86]
  2. ^ The potency of N-benzylphenethylamines via buccal, sublingual, or nasal absorption is 50–100 greater (by weight) than oral route compared to the parent 2C-x compounds.[102] Researches hypothesize the low oral metabolic stability of N-benzylphenethylamines is likely causing the low bioavailability on the oral route, although the metabolic profile of this compounds remains unpredictable; therefore researches state that the fatalities linked to these substances may partly be explained by differences in the metabolism between individuals.[102]


  1. ^ "Definition of "amide"". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
  2. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary Entry: amide". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
  3. ^ "amide – definition of amide in English from the Oxford Dictionary". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
  4. ^ Halpern JH, Suzuki J, Huertas PE, Passie T (June 7, 2014). "Hallucinogen Abuse and Dependence". In Price LH, Stolerman IP (eds.). Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology A Springer Live Reference. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27772-6_43-2. ISBN 978-3-642-27772-6. Hallucinogen abuse and dependence are known complications resulting from ... LSD and psilocybin. Users do not experience withdrawal symptoms, but the general criteria for substance abuse and dependence otherwise apply. Dependence is estimated in approximately 2 % of recent-onset users
  5. ^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375. ISBN 9780071481274. Archived from the original on August 28, 2023. Retrieved June 12, 2023. Several other classes of drugs are categorized as drugs of abuse but rarely produce compulsive use. These include psychedelic agents, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dolder PC, Schmid Y, Haschke M, Rentsch KM, Liechti ME (June 2015). "Pharmacokinetics and Concentration-Effect Relationship of Oral LSD in Humans". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 19 (1): pyv072. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyv072. PMC 4772267. PMID 26108222.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A (2008). "The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review". CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 14 (4): 295–314. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x. PMC 6494066. PMID 19040555.
  8. ^ Neinstein LS (2008). Adolescent Health Care: A Practical Guide. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 931. ISBN 9780781792561. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mucke HA (July 2016). "From Psychiatry to Flower Power and Back Again: The Amazing Story of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide". Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 14 (5): 276–281. doi:10.1089/adt.2016.747. PMID 27392130.
  10. ^ Kranzler HR, Ciraulo DA (April 2, 2007). Clinical Manual of Addiction Psychopharmacology. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 216. ISBN 9781585626632. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  11. ^ "Lysergide". Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  12. ^ a b c d Nichols DE (April 2016). Barker EL (ed.). "Psychedelics". Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478. PMC 4813425. PMID 26841800.
  13. ^ a b c "What are hallucinogens?". National Institute of Drug Abuse. January 2016. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  14. ^ Leptourgos P, Fortier-Davy M, Carhart-Harris R, Corlett PR, Dupuis D, Halberstadt AL, et al. (December 2020). "Hallucinations Under Psychedelics and in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: An Interdisciplinary and Multiscale Comparison". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 46 (6): 1396–1408. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbaa117. PMC 7707069. PMID 32944778. Thalamocortical connectivity was found altered in psychedelic states. Specifically, LSD was found to selectively increase effective connectivity from the thalamus to certain DMN areas, while other connections are attenuated. Furthermore, increased thalamic connectivity with the right fusiform gyrus and the anterior insula correlated with visual and auditory hallucinations (AH), respectively.
  15. ^ a b Holze F, Vizeli P, Ley L, Müller F, Dolder P, Stocker M, et al. (February 2021). "Acute dose-dependent effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects". Neuropsychopharmacology. 46 (3): 537–544. doi:10.1038/s41386-020-00883-6. PMC 8027607. PMID 33059356.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LSD profile (chemistry, effects, other names, synthesis, mode of use, pharmacology, medical use, control status)". EMCDDA. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  17. ^ Sloat S (January 27, 2017). "This is Why You Can't Escape an Hours-Long Acid Trip". Inverse. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  18. ^ Liechti ME, Dolder PC, Schmid Y (May 2017). "Alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences after acute LSD in humans". Psychopharmacology. 234 (9–10): 1499–1510. doi:10.1007/s00213-016-4453-0. PMC 5420386. PMID 27714429.
  19. ^ Gershon L (July 19, 2016). "How LSD Went From Research to Religion". JSTOR Daily. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  20. ^ a b c "Commonly Abused Drugs Charts". National Institute on Drug Abuse. July 2, 2018. Archived from the original on March 1, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  21. ^ a b c Halpern JH, Lerner AG, Passie T (2018). A Review of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) and an Exploratory Study of Subjects Claiming Symptoms of HPPD. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Vol. 36. pp. 333–360. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_457. ISBN 978-3-662-55878-2. PMID 27822679.
  22. ^ Wong S, Yu AY, Fabiano N, Finkelstein O, Pasricha A, Jones BDM, et al. (August 2023). "Beyond Psilocybin: Reviewing the Therapeutic Potential of Other Serotonergic Psychedelics in Mental and Substance Use Disorders". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs: 1–17. doi:10.1080/02791072.2023.2251133. PMID 37615379. S2CID 261098164.
  23. ^ Walker SR, Pullella GA, Piggott MJ, Duggan PJ (July 2023). "Introduction to the chemistry and pharmacology of psychedelic drugs". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 76 (5): 236–257. doi:10.1071/CH23050.
  24. ^ Mallaroni P, Mason NL, Vinckenbosch FRJ, Ramaekers JG (April 2022). "The use patterns of novel psychedelics: experiential fingerprints of substituted phenethylamines, tryptamines and lysergamides". Psychopharmacology. 239 (6): 1783–1796. doi:10.1007/s00213-022-06142-4. PMC 9166850. PMID 35487983.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Nichols DE (February 2004). "Hallucinogens". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101 (2): 131–181. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.11.002. ISSN 1879-016X. PMID 14761703.
  26. ^ Girn M, Roseman L, Bernhardt B, Smallwood J, Carhart-Harris R, Spreng RN (May 3, 2020). "Serotonergic psychedelic drugs LSD and psilocybin reduce the hierarchical differentiation of unimodal and transmodal cortex". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.072314. S2CID 233346402.
  27. ^ a b c Carhart-Harris RL, Muthukumaraswamy S, Roseman L, Kaelen M, Droog W, Murphy K, et al. (April 11, 2016). "Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (17): 4853–4858. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.4853C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518377113. PMC 4855588. PMID 27071089.
  28. ^ a b c Borroto-Escuela DO, Romero-Fernandez W, Narvaez M, Oflijan J, Agnati LF, Fuxe K (January 2014). "Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 443 (1): 278–84. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.11.104. PMID 24309097.
  29. ^ a b Marona-Lewicka D, Thisted RA, Nichols DE (July 2005). "Distinct temporal phases in the behavioral pharmacology of LSD: dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects in the rat and implications for psychosis". Psychopharmacology. 180 (3): 427–35. doi:10.1007/s00213-005-2183-9. PMID 15723230. S2CID 23565306.
  30. ^ a b c d Hofmann A (2009). LSD, my problem child: reflections on sacred drugs, mysticism, and science (4th ed.). Santa Cruz, CA: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. ISBN 978-0-9798622-2-9. OCLC 610059315.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Lee MA, Shlain B (1992). Acid dreams: the complete social history of LSD: the CIA, the Sixties, and beyond. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 0-8021-3062-3. OCLC 25281992.
  32. ^ Ettinger RH (2017). Psychopharmacology. Psychology Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-351-97870-5. Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  33. ^ "Psychiatric Research with Hallucinogens". Archived from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  34. ^ a b Chwelos N, Blewett DB, Smith CM, Hoffer A (September 1959). "Use of d-lysergic acid diethylamide in the treatment of alcoholism". Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 20 (3): 577–590. doi:10.15288/qjsa.1959.20.577. PMID 13810249.
  35. ^ a b c Krebs TS, Johansen PØ (July 2012). "Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (7): 994–1002. doi:10.1177/0269881112439253. PMID 22406913. S2CID 10677273.
  36. ^ United States Congress House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce Subcommittee on Public Health and Welfare (1968). Increased Controls Over Hallucinogens and Other Dangerous Drugs. U.S. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on July 13, 2020. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  37. ^ National Institute on Drug Abuse. "Hallucinogens". Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  38. ^ Yockey RA, Vidourek RA, King KA (July 2020). "Trends in LSD use among US adults: 2015–2018". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 212: 108071. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108071. PMID 32450479. S2CID 218893155.
  39. ^ "DrugFacts: Hallucinogens – LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP". National Institute on Drug Abuse. December 2014. Archived from the original on February 16, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
  40. ^ Fahey D, Miller JS (eds.). Alcohol and Drugs in North America: A Historical Encyclopedia. p. 375. ISBN 978-1-59884-478-8.
  41. ^ San Francisco Chronicle September 20, 1966 Page One
  42. ^ Grof S, Grof JH (1979). Realms of the Human Unconscious (Observations from LSD Research). London: Souvenir Press (E & A) Ltd. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-285-64882-1. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2007.
  43. ^ a b Nutt DJ, King LA, Nichols DE (August 2013). "Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 14 (8): 577–585. doi:10.1038/nrn3530. PMID 23756634. S2CID 1956833.
  44. ^ Campbell D (July 23, 2016). "Scientists study possible health benefits of LSD and ecstasy | Science". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  45. ^ a b c Lustberg D (October 14, 2022). "Acid for Anxiety: Fast and Lasting Anxiolytic Effects of LSD". Psychedelic Science Review. Archived from the original on December 1, 2022. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  46. ^ a b Holze F, Gasser P, Müller F, Dolder PC, Liechti ME (September 2022). "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Assisted Therapy in Patients With Anxiety With and Without a Life-Threatening Illness: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Study". Biological Psychiatry. 93 (3): 215–223. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.08.025. PMID 36266118. S2CID 252095586.
  47. ^ Dos Santos RG, Osório FL, Crippa JA, Riba J, Zuardi AW, Hallak JE (June 2016). "Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive effects of ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a systematic review of clinical trials published in the last 25 years". Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 6 (3): 193–213. doi:10.1177/2045125316638008. PMC 4910400. PMID 27354908.
  48. ^ "History of LSD Therapy". Archived from the original on November 7, 2022. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  49. ^ "Hallucinogens – LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP". NIDA InfoFacts. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). June 2009. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009.
  50. ^ Schiff PL (October 2006). "Ergot and its alkaloids". American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 70 (5): 98. doi:10.5688/aj700598. PMC 1637017. PMID 17149427.
  51. ^ Majić T, Schmidt TT, Gallinat J (March 2015). "Peak experiences and the afterglow phenomenon: when and how do therapeutic effects of hallucinogens depend on psychedelic experiences?". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 29 (3): 241–253. doi:10.1177/0269881114568040. PMID 25670401. S2CID 16483172.
  52. ^ a b Honig D. "Frequently Asked Questions". Erowid. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016.
  53. ^ a b McGlothlin W, Cohen S, McGlothlin MS (November 1967). "Long lasting effects of LSD on normals" (PDF). Archives of General Psychiatry. 17 (5): 521–532. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730290009002. PMID 6054248. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2011.
  54. ^ a b Canadian government (1996). "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act". Justice Laws. Canadian Department of Justice. Archived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  55. ^ Rogge T (May 21, 2014), Substance use – LSD, MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, archived from the original on July 28, 2016, retrieved July 14, 2016
  56. ^ CESAR (October 29, 2013), LSD, Center for Substance Abuse Research, University of Maryland, archived from the original on July 15, 2016, retrieved July 14, 2016
  57. ^ a b Linton HR, Langs RJ (May 1962). "Subjective Reactions to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)". Archives of General Psychiatry. 6 (5): 352–368. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1962.01710230020003.
  58. ^ Katz MM, Waskow IE, Olsson J (February 1968). "Characterizing the psychological state produced by LSD". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 73 (1): 1–14. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/h0020114. PMID 5639999.
  59. ^ Parker LA (June 1996). "LSD produces place preference and flavor avoidance but does not produce flavor aversion in rats". Behavioral Neuroscience. 110 (3): 503–508. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.110.3.503. PMID 8888996.
  60. ^ Oster G (1966). "Moiré patterns and visual hallucinations" (PDF). Psychedelic Review. 7: 33–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 19, 2017.
  61. ^ Kaelen M, Roseman L, Kahan J, Santos-Ribeiro A, Orban C, Lorenz R, et al. (July 2016). "LSD modulates music-induced imagery via changes in parahippocampal connectivity". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 26 (7): 1099–1109. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.03.018. PMID 27084302. S2CID 24037275.
  62. ^ Nutt DJ, King LA, Phillips LD (November 2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis". Lancet. 376 (9752): 1558–1565. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. S2CID 5667719.
  63. ^ Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C (March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831. S2CID 5903121.
  64. ^ a b c d e f Nichols DE, Grob CS (March 2018). "Is LSD Toxic?". Forensic Science International. 284: 141–145. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.01.006. PMID 29408722.
  65. ^ Nutt DJ, King LA, Phillips LD (November 2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis". Lancet. 376 (9752): 1558–65. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. S2CID 5667719.
  66. ^ Krebs TS, Johansen PØ (August 19, 2013). Lu L (ed.). "Psychedelics and mental health: a population study". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e63972. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...863972K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063972. PMC 3747247. PMID 23976938.
  67. ^ Murray RM, Paparelli A, Morrison PD, Marconi A, Di Forti M (October 2013), "What can we learn about schizophrenia from studying the human model, drug-induced psychosis?", American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B, Special Issue: Identifying the Origins of Mental Illness: A Festschrift in Honor of Ming T. Tsuang, 162 (7): 661–670, doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32177, PMID 24132898, S2CID 205326399
  68. ^ "LSD". TOXNET – Toxicology Data Network – HSDB Database. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  69. ^ Rockefeller IV JD (December 8, 1994). "Is Military Research Hazardous to Veterans Health? Lessons Spanning Half A Century, part F. HALLUCINOGENS". West Virginia: 103rd Congress, 2nd Session-S. Prt. 103-97; Staff Report prepared for the committee on veterans' affairs. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  70. ^ Middlefell R (March 1967). "The effects of LSD on body sway suggestibility in a group of hospital patients" (PDF). The British Journal of Psychiatry. 113 (496): 277–280. doi:10.1192/bjp.113.496.277. PMID 6029626. S2CID 19439549. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2011.
  71. ^ Sjoberg BM, Hollister LE (November 1965). "The effects of psychotomimetic drugs on primary suggestibility". Psychopharmacologia. 8 (4): 251–262. doi:10.1007/BF00407857. PMID 5885648. S2CID 15249061.
  72. ^ Halpern JH, Pope HG (March 2003). "Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder: what do we know after 50 years?". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 69 (2): 109–19. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00306-X. PMID 12609692.
  73. ^ Müller F, Kraus E, Holze F, Becker A, Ley L, Schmid Y, et al. (January 2022). "Flashback phenomena after administration of LSD and psilocybin in controlled studies with healthy participants". Psychopharmacology. 239 (6): 1933–1943. doi:10.1007/s00213-022-06066-z. PMC 9166883. PMID 35076721. S2CID 246276633.
  74. ^ Johansen PØ, Krebs TS (March 2015). "Psychedelics not linked to mental health problems or suicidal behavior: a population study". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 29 (3): 270–279. doi:10.1177/0269881114568039. PMID 25744618. S2CID 2025731.
  75. ^ Holland D, Passie T (2011). Flashback-Phänomene als Nachwirkung von Halluzinogeneinnahme. Bewusstsein – Kognition – Erleben (in German). Vol. 2. VWB Report. ISBN 978-3-86135-207-5. Archived from the original on June 9, 2023. Retrieved June 9, 2023.
  76. ^ Abraham HD, Duffy FH (October 1996). "Stable quantitative EEG difference in post-LSD visual disorder by split-half analysis: evidence for disinhibition". Psychiatry Research. 67 (3): 173–87. doi:10.1016/0925-4927(96)02833-8. PMID 8912957. S2CID 7587687.
  77. ^ a b c d Nutt DJ, Castle D (March 7, 2023). "Drug-interaction with psychotropic drugs". Psychedelics as Psychiatric Medications. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192678522. Archived from the original on May 21, 2023. Retrieved May 21, 2023.
  78. ^ Simonsson O, Goldberg SB, Chambers R, Osika W, Long DM, Hendricks PS (October 1, 2022). "Prevalence and associations of classic psychedelic-related seizures in a population-based sample". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 239. 109586. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109586. PMC 9627432. PMID 35981469.
  79. ^ Fisher D, Ungerleider J (1967). "Grand mal seizures following ingestion of LSD". Western Journal of Medicine. 106 (3): 201–211. PMC 1502729. PMID 4962683.
  80. ^ Buchborn T, Grecksch G, Dieterich D, Hollt V (2016). "Chapter 79 - Tolerance to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Overview, Correlates, and Clinical Implications". Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse. Vol. 2. Academic Press. pp. 848–849. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800212-4.00079-0. ISBN 978-0-12-800212-4.
  81. ^ a b Dolder DS, Grünblatt E, Müller F, Borgwardt SJ, Liechti ME (June 28, 2017). "A Single Dose of LSD Does Not Alter Gene Expression of the Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene (HTR2A) or Early Growth Response Genes (EGR1-3) in Healthy Subjects". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 8: 423. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00423. PMC 5487530. PMID 28701958.
  82. ^ Kooijman NI, Willegers T, Reuser A, Mulleners WM, Kramers C, Vissers KCP, et al. (January 4, 2023). "Are psychedelics the answer to chronic pain: A review of current literature". Pain Practice. 23 (4): 455. doi:10.1111/papr.13203. hdl:2066/291903. ISSN 1533-2500. PMID 36597700. S2CID 255470638.
  83. ^ Wolbach AB, Isbell H, Miner EJ (March 1962). "Cross tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25, with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions". Psychopharmacologia. 3: 1–14. doi:10.1007/BF00413101. PMID 14007904. S2CID 23803624. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  84. ^ Isbell H, Wolbach AB, Wikler A, Miner EJ (1961). "Cross tolerance between LSD and psilocybin". Psychopharmacologia. 2 (3): 147–159. doi:10.1007/BF00407974. PMID 13717955. S2CID 7746880. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  85. ^ Rosenberg D, Isbell H, Miner E, Logan C (August 7, 1963). "The effect of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in human subjects tolerant to lysergic acid diethylamide". Psychopharmacologia. 5 (3): 223–224. doi:10.1007/BF00413244. PMID 14138757. S2CID 32950588.
  86. ^ Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Berg LM (May 1, 1996). "Differential tolerance to biological and subjective effects of four closely spaced doses of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans". Biological Psychiatry. 39 (9): 784–785. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(95)00200-6. PMID 8731519. S2CID 3220559. Archived from the original on May 4, 2023. Retrieved May 4, 2023.
  87. ^ Jonas S, Downer JD (October 1964). "Gross behavioural changes in monkeys following administration of LSD-25, and development of tolerance to LSD-25". Psychopharmacologia. 6 (4): 303–386. doi:10.1007/BF00413161. PMID 4953438. S2CID 11768927.
  88. ^ Schlemmer RF, Nawara C, Heinze WJ, Davis JM, Advokat C (March 1986). "Influence of environmental context on tolerance to LSD-induced behavior in primates". Biological Psychiatry. 21 (3): 314–317. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(86)90053-3. PMID 3947713. S2CID 35508993.
  89. ^ a b Lüscher C, Ungless MA (November 2006). "The mechanistic classification of addictive drugs". PLOS Medicine. 3 (11): e437. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437. PMC 1635740. PMID 17105338.
  90. ^ Balestrieri A, Fontanari D (September 1959). "Acquired and crossed tolerance to mescaline, LSD-25, and BOL-148". Addiction Medicine Physicians and Medicinal Cannabinoids. 1 (3): 279–282. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1959.03590030063008. PMID 13796178.
  91. ^ Hamill J, Hallak J, Dursun SD, Baker G (2019). "Ayahuasca: Psychological and Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology and Potential Uses in Addiction and Mental Illness". Current Neuropharmacology. 17 (2): 1–15. doi:10.2174/1570159X16666180125095902. ISSN 1875-6190. PMC 6343205. PMID 29366418.
  92. ^ Morgenstern J, Langenbucher J, Labouvie E (September 1994). "The generalizability of the dependence syndrome across substances: an examination of some properties of the proposed DSM-IV dependence criteria". Addiction. 89 (9). Society for the Study of Addiction: 1105–1113. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb02787.x. PMID 7987187.
  93. ^ Li JH, Lin LF (November 1998). "Genetic toxicology of abused drugs: a brief review". Mutagenesis. 13 (6): 557–65. doi:10.1093/mutage/13.6.557. PMID 9862186.
  94. ^ a b c d Lipow M, Kaleem SZ, Espiridion E (March 2022). "NBOMe Toxicity and Fatalities: A Review of the Literature". Transformative Medicine. 1 (1): 12–18. doi:10.54299/tmed/msot8578. ISSN 2831-8978. S2CID 247888583.
  95. ^ a b c d LSD Toxicity Treatment & Management~treatment at eMedicine
  96. ^ Zawilska JB, Kacela M, Adamowicz P (February 26, 2020). "NBOMes–Highly Potent and Toxic Alternatives of LSD". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 14: 78. doi:10.3389/fnins.2020.00078. PMC 7054380. PMID 32174803.
  97. ^ Hartogsohn I (2017). "Constructing drug effects: A history of set and setting". Drug Science, Policy and Law. 3: 205032451668332. doi:10.1177/2050324516683325. ISSN 2050-3245. S2CID 53373205.
  98. ^ a b Eshleman AJ, Wolfrum KM, Reed JF, Kim SO, Johnson RA, Janowsky A (December 2018). "Neurochemical pharmacology of psychoactive substituted N-benzylphenethylamines: High potency agonists at 5-HT2A receptors". Biochemical Pharmacology. 158: 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2018.09.024. PMC 6298744. PMID 30261175.
  99. ^ Poklis JL, Raso SA, Alford KN, Poklis A, Peace MR (October 2015). "Analysis of 25I-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe and Other Dimethoxyphenyl-N-[(2-Methoxyphenyl) Methyl]Ethanamine Derivatives on Blotter Paper". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 39 (8): 617–623. doi:10.1093/jat/bkv073. PMC 4570937. PMID 26378135.
  100. ^ a b Ivory ST, Rotella J, Schumann J, Greene SL (March 28, 2022). "A cluster of 25B-NBOH poisonings following exposure to powder sold as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)". Clinical Toxicology. 60 (8): 966–969. doi:10.1080/15563650.2022.2053150. PMID 35343858. S2CID 247764056.
  101. ^ Miliano C, Marti M, Pintori N, Castelli MP, Tirri M, Arfè R, et al. (December 12, 2019). "Neurochemical and Behavioral Profiling in Male and Female Rats of the Psychedelic Agent 25I-NBOMe". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 10: 1406. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.01406. PMC 6921684. PMID 31915427.
  102. ^ a b Leth-Petersen S, Bundgaard C, Hansen M, Carnerup MA, Kehler J, Kristensen JL (February 14, 2014). "Correlating the Metabolic Stability of Psychedelic 5-HT2A Agonists with Anecdotal Reports of Human Oral Bioavailability". Neurochemical Research. 39 (10): 2018–2023. doi:10.1007/s11064-014-1253-y. PMID 24519542. S2CID 254857910.
  103. ^ Halberstadt AL (January 18, 2017). "Pharmacology and Toxicology of N-Benzylphenethylamine ("NBOMe") Hallucinogens". Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Vol. 32. Springer. pp. 283–311. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_64. ISBN 978-3-319-52444-3. PMID 28097528.
  104. ^ Duffau B, Camargo C, Kogan M, Fuentes E, Kennedy Cassels B (August 2016). "Analysis of 25 C NBOMe in Seized Blotters by HPTLC and GC–MS". Journal of Chromatographic Science. 54 (7): 1153–1158. doi:10.1093/chromsci/bmw095. PMC 4941995. PMID 27406128.
  105. ^ Francesco SB, Ornella C, Gabriella A, Giuseppe V, Rita S, Flaminia BP, et al. (July 3, 2014). "25C-NBOMe: preliminary data on pharmacology, psychoactive effects, and toxicity of a new potent and dangerous hallucinogenic drug". BioMed Research International. 2014: 734749. doi:10.1155/2014/734749. PMC 4106087. PMID 25105138.
  106. ^ Potts AJ, Thomas SHL, Hill SL (September 2021). "Pharmacology and toxicology of N-Benzyl-phenylethylamines (25X-NBOMe) hallucinogens". In Dargan P, Wood D (eds.). Novel Psychoactive Substances: Classification, Pharmacology and Toxicology (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 279–300. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-818788-3.00008-5. ISBN 978-0-12-818788-3. S2CID 240583877.
  107. ^ a b "Lysergide (LSD) drug profile". European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Archived from the original on February 2, 2023. Retrieved May 15, 2023.
  108. ^ a b Aghajanian GK, Bing OH (1964). "Persistence of lysergic acid diethylamide in the plasma of human subjects" (PDF). Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5 (5): 611–614. doi:10.1002/cpt196455611. PMID 14209776. S2CID 29438767. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009.
  109. ^ Nelson DL (February 2004). "5-HT5 receptors". Current Drug Targets. CNS and Neurological Disorders. 3 (1): 53–58. doi:10.2174/1568007043482606. PMID 14965244.
  110. ^ Moreno JL, Holloway T, Albizu L, Sealfon SC, González-Maeso J (April 2011). "Metabotropic glutamate mGlu2 receptor is necessary for the pharmacological and behavioral effects induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A receptor agonists". Neuroscience Letters. 493 (3): 76–79. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.046. PMC 3064746. PMID 21276828.
  111. ^ Urban JD, Clarke WP, von Zastrow M, Nichols DE, Kobilka B, Weinstein H, et al. (January 2007). "Functional selectivity and classical concepts of quantitative pharmacology". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 320 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.104463. PMID 16803859. S2CID 447937. Archived from the original on June 11, 2023. Retrieved June 11, 2023.
  112. ^ Aghajanian GK, Marek GJ (August 1999). "Serotonin and hallucinogens". Neuropsychopharmacology. 21 (2 Suppl): 16S–23S. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00135-3. PMID 10432484.
  113. ^ Svenningsson P, Nairn AC, Greengard P (October 2005). "DARPP-32 mediates the actions of multiple drugs of abuse". The AAPS Journal. 7 (2): E353-60. doi:10.1208/aapsj070235. PMC 2750972. PMID 16353915.
  114. ^ Green JP, Johnson CL, Weinstein H, Maayani S (December 1977). "Antagonism of histamine-activated adenylate cyclase in brain by D-lysergic acid diethylamide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 74 (12): 5697–701. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74.5697G. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.12.5697. PMC 431860. PMID 23536.
  115. ^ a b Nichols DE, Frescas S, Marona-Lewicka D, Kurrasch-Orbaugh DM (September 2002). "Lysergamides of isomeric 2,4-dimethylazetidines map the binding orientation of the diethylamide moiety in the potent hallucinogenic agent N,N-diethyllysergamide (LSD)". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (19): 4344–9. doi:10.1021/jm020153s. PMID 12213075.
  116. ^ a b Chen Q, Tesmer JJ (January 2017). "A Receptor on Acid". Cell. 168 (3): 339–341. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.012. PMC 5520807. PMID 28129534.
  117. ^ a b Wacker D, Wang S, McCorvy JD, Betz RM, Venkatakrishnan AJ, Levit A, et al. (January 2017). "Crystal Structure of an LSD-Bound Human Serotonin Receptor". Cell. 168 (3): 377–389.e12. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.033. PMC 5289311. PMID 28129538.
  118. ^ a b c d e Shulgin A, Shulgin A (1997). "LSD". TiHKAL. Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008.
  119. ^ Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A (November 11, 2008). "The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review". CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 14 (4): 295–314. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x. PMC 6494066. PMID 19040555.
  120. ^ Papac DI, Foltz RL (May–June 1990). "Measurement of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry" (PDF). Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 14 (3): 189–190. doi:10.1093/jat/14.3.189. PMID 2374410. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011.
  121. ^ Singleton SP, Luppi AI, Carhart-Harris RL, Cruzat J, Roseman L, Nutt DJ, et al. (October 2022). "Receptor-informed network control theory links LSD and psilocybin to a flattening of the brain's control energy landscape". Nat Commun. 13 (1): 5812. Bibcode:2022NatCo..13.5812S. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-33578-1. PMC 9530221. PMID 36192411.
  122. ^ Delli Pizzi S, Chiacchiaretta P, Sestieri C, Ferretti A, Onofrj M, Della Penna S, et al. (July 2023). "Spatial Correspondence of LSD-Induced Variations on Brain Functioning at Rest With Serotonin Receptor Expression". Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 8 (7): 768–776. doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2023.03.009. PMID 37003409. S2CID 257862535.
  123. ^ a b Delli Pizzi S, Chiacchiaretta P, Sestieri C, Ferretti A, Tullo MG, Della Penna S, et al. (December 2023). "LSD-induced changes in the functional connectivity of distinct thalamic nuclei". NeuroImage. 283: 120414. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2023.120414. PMID 37858906.
  124. ^ "LSD" (PDF). Handbook of Medical Hallucinogens. Guilford Publications. 2021. p. 160. ISBN 9781462545452. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 14, 2024. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  125. ^ Monte AP, Marona-Lewicka D, Kanthasamy A, Sanders-Bush E, Nichols DE (March 1995). "Stereoselective LSD-like activity in a series of d-lysergic acid amides of (R)- and (S)-2-aminoalkanes". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 38 (6): 958–66. doi:10.1021/jm00006a015. PMID 7699712.
  126. ^ "Extraction of LSA (Method #1)". Erowid. Archived from the original on September 26, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  127. ^ Kornfeld EC, Fornefeld EJ, Kline GB, Mann MJ, Morrison DE, Jones RG, et al. (1956). "The Total Synthesis of Lysergic Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 78 (13): 3087–3114. doi:10.1021/ja01594a039.
  128. ^ Inuki S, Oishi S, Fujii N, Ohno H (November 2008). "Total synthesis of (+/-)-lysergic acid, lysergol, and isolysergol by palladium-catalyzed domino cyclization of amino allenes bearing a bromoindolyl group". Organic Letters. 10 (22): 5239–42. doi:10.1021/ol8022648. PMID 18956869.
  129. ^ National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (February 10, 2022). "Harvesting baker's yeast for aging-related therapeutics". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on November 27, 2022. Retrieved May 4, 2023. Journal Reference: Wong G, Lim LR, Tan YQ, Go MK, Bell DJ, Freemont PS, et al. (February 2022). "Reconstituting the complete biosynthesis of D-lysergic acid in yeast". Nature Communications. 13 (1): 712. Bibcode:2022NatCo..13..712W. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28386-6. PMC 8821704. PMID 35132076.
  130. ^ Greiner T, Burch NR, Edelberg R (February 1958). "Psychopathology and psychophysiology of minimal LSD-25 dosage; a preliminary dosage-response spectrum". A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. 79 (2): 208–10. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340020088016. PMID 13497365.
  131. ^ Meyer MA (April 2003). "Neurologic complications of anthrax: a review of the literature". Archives of Neurology. 60 (4). Schweiz: 483–8. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.4.483. PMID 12707059.
  132. ^ Polito V, Stevenson RJ (February 6, 2019). "A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics". PLOS ONE. 14 (2): e0211023. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1411023P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211023. PMC 6364961. PMID 30726251.
  133. ^ a b Hidalgo E (2009). "LSD Samples Analysis". Erowid. Archived from the original on February 13, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  134. ^ a b Henderson LA, Glass WJ (1994). LSD: Still with us after all these years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0-7879-4379-0.
  135. ^ Fire & Earth Erowid (November 2003). "LSD Analysis – Do we know what's in street acid?". Erowid. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  136. ^ Li Z, McNally AJ, Wang H, Salamone SJ (October 1998). "Stability study of LSD under various storage conditions". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 22 (6): 520–5. doi:10.1093/jat/22.6.520. PMID 9788528.
  137. ^ a b Appel JB, Whitehead WE, Freedman DX (July 1968). "Motivation and the behavioral effects of LSD". Psychonomic Science. 12 (7): 305–306. doi:10.3758/BF03331322. ISSN 0033-3131. S2CID 144527673.
  138. ^ R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 12th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2020, pp. 1197–1199.
  139. ^ Dolder PC, Schmid Y, Steuer AE, Kraemer T, Rentsch KM, Hammann F, et al. (October 2017). "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 56 (10): 1219–1230. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0513-9. PMC 5591798. PMID 28197931.
  140. ^ a b Jiaming Z, Xin W, Jiali Z, Hang R, Yunli Z, Ping X (March 2023). "Concentrations of LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and iso-LSD in hair segments of 18 drug abusers". Forensic Science International. 344. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2023.111578. PMID 36753839. S2CID 256574276.
  141. ^ a b Hofmann A (1980). LSD—My Problem Child. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-029325-2. Archived from the original on December 15, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2010 – via The Psychedelic Library.
  142. ^ Hofmann A (Summer 1969). "LSD Ganz Persönlich" [LSD: Completely Personal]. MAPS (in German). 6 (69). Translated by Ott J. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013.
  143. ^ Nogrady T, Weaver DF (2005). Medicinal Chemistry: A Molecular and Biochemical Approach. Oxford University Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-19-028296-7. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  144. ^ Nichols D (May 24, 2003). "Hypothesis on Albert Hofmann's Famous 1943 "Bicycle Day"". Hofmann Foundation. Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
  145. ^ Hofmann A. "History Of LSD". Archived from the original on September 4, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
  146. ^ a b c "LSD: The Drug". LSD in the United States (Report). U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. October 1995. Archived from the original on April 27, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
  147. ^ "The CIA's Secret Quest For Mind Control: Torture, LSD And A 'Poisoner In Chief'". Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  148. ^ Brecher EM, et al. (Editors of Consumer Reports Magazine) (1972). "How LSD was popularized". Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  149. ^ Applebaum A (January 26, 2010). "Did The Death Of Communism Take Koestler And Other Literary Figures With It?". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011.
  150. ^ "Out-Of-Sight! SMiLE Timeline". Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
  151. ^ Veysey LR (1978). The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mystical Communities in Twentieth-Century America. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 437. ISBN 0-226-85458-2.
  152. ^ United States Congress (October 24, 1968). "Staggers-Dodd Bill, Public Law 90-639" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
  153. ^ Gasser P (1994). "Psycholytic Therapy with MDMA and LSD in Switzerland". Archived from the original on October 11, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
  154. ^ Feuer W (November 4, 2020). "Oregon becomes first state to legalize magic mushrooms as more states ease drug laws in 'psychedelic renaissance'". CNBC. Archived from the original on November 4, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  155. ^ DeRogatis J (2003). Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Milwaukie, Michigan: Hal Leonard. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-634-05548-8.
  156. ^ Gilliland J (1969). "Show 41 – The Acid Test: Psychedelics and a sub-culture emerge in San Francisco. [Part 1] : UNT Digital Library" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
  157. ^ Hicks M (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions Music in American Life. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 60. ISBN 0-252-06915-3.
  158. ^ Mann J (2009). Turn on and Tune in: Psychedelics, Narcotics and Euphoriants. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-84755-909-8.
  159. ^ Taylor M (March 22, 1996). "OBITUARY — Ron Thelin". SFGate. Archived from the original on August 28, 2021. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  160. ^ Davis JC (January 2015). "The business of getting high: head shops, countercultural capitalism, and the marijuana legalization movement". The Sixties. 8 (1): 27–49. doi:10.1080/17541328.2015.1058480. hdl:11603/7422. S2CID 142795620.
  161. ^ Conners P (2010). White Hand Society - The Psychedelic Partnership of Timothy Leary and Allen Ginsberg. City Lights Books. p. 148. ISBN 9780872865358.
  162. ^ a b Jarnow J (2016). Heads: A Biography of Psychedelic America. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306822551.
  163. ^ Gilmore M (August 25, 2016). "Beatles' Acid Test: How LSD Opened the Door to 'Revolver'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  164. ^ Rubin R, Melnick JP (2007). Immigration and American Popular Culture: an Introduction. New York, NY: New York University Press. pp. 162–4. ISBN 978-0-8147-7552-3.
  165. ^ Prown P, Newquist HP, Eiche JF (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: the Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. London: Hal Leonard Corporation, 1997. p. 48. ISBN 0-7935-4042-9.
  166. ^ a b Sheff D (2000). All We Are Saying: The Last Major Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-25464-3.
  167. ^ Thompson T (June 16, 1967). "The New Far-Out Beatles". Life. Chicago: Time Inc. p. 101. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  168. ^ Haring K (2006). Keith Haring: Journey of the Radiant Baby. Bunker Hill Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 1593730527. Archived from the original on October 2, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2023.
  169. ^ Daisy Jones (June 5, 2017). "Why Certain Drugs Make Specific Genres Sound So Good". Vice. Archived from the original on December 5, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2023.
  170. ^ Kendall Deflin (June 22, 2017). "Phishin' With Matisyahu: How LSD "Turned My Entire World Inside Out"". Archived from the original on September 30, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2023.
  171. ^ "How LSD influenced Western culture". Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  172. ^ "Final act of the United Nations Conference" (PDF). UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. 1971. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 15, 2012.
  173. ^ "Poisons Standard". Therapeutic Goods Administration. Australian Government Department of Health. July 2016. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017.
  174. ^ "Misuse of Drugs Act 1981" (PDF). Government of Western Australia. November 18, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2015.
  175. ^ "Drugs and the law: Report of the inquiry into the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971". Runciman Report. London: Police Foundation. 2000. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016.
  176. ^ "After the War on Drugs: Blueprint for Regulation". Transform Drug Policy Foundation. 2009. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013.
  177. ^ Neal v. United States, 516 U.S. 284 (1996), archived from the original., originating from U.S. v. Neal, 46 F.3d 1405 (7th Cir. 1995)
  178. ^ Jaeger K (June 29, 2021). "California Lawmakers Approve Bill To Legalize Psychedelics Possession In Committee". Marijuana Moment. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  179. ^ "Ley de Narcomenudeo". El Pensador (in Spanish). October 17, 2009. Archived from the original on November 30, 2010.
  180. ^ Explanatory Report to Act No. 112/1998 Coll., which amends the Act No. 140/1961 Coll., the Criminal Code, and the Act No. 200/1990 Coll., on misdemeanors (Report) (in Czech). Prague: Parliament of the Czech Republic. 1998.
  181. ^ Supreme Court of the Czech Republic (February 25, 2012), 6 Tdo 156/2010 [NS 7078/2010]
  182. ^ a b DEA (2007). "LSD Manufacture – Illegal LSD Production". LSD in the United States. U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration. Archived from the original on August 29, 2007.[dead link]
  183. ^ a b c Stafford P (1992). "Chapter 1 – The LSD Family". Psychedelics Encyclopaedia (3rd ed.). Ronin Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-914171-51-5.
  184. ^ a b c Laing RR, Beyerstein BL, Siegel JA (2003). "Chapter 2.2 – Forms of the Drug". Hallucinogens: A Forensic Drug Handbook. Academic Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-12-433951-4. Archived from the original on February 2, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  185. ^ "Street Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade". Office of National Drug Control Policy. April 5, 2005. Archived from the original on April 18, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2007.
  186. ^ DEA (2008). "Photo Library (page 2)". US Drug Enforcement Administration. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
  187. ^ MacLean JR, Macdonald DC, Ogden F, Wilby E (1967). "LSD-25 and mescaline as therapeutic adjuvants.". In Abramson H (ed.). The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism. New York: Bobbs-Merrill. pp. 407–426.
  188. ^ Ditman KS, Bailey JJ. "Evaluating LSD as a psychotherapeutic agent". In Hoffer A (ed.). A program for the treatment of alcoholism: LSD, malvaria, and nicotinic acid. pp. 353–402.
  189. ^ Schou N (2010). Orange Sunshine: The Brotherhood of Eternal Love and Its Quest to Spread Peace, Love, and Acid to the World. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 9780312551834.
  190. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Administration (October 2005). "LSD Blotter Acid Mimic Containing 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamine (DOB) Seized Near Burns, Oregon" (PDF). Microgram Bulletin. 38 (10). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  191. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Administration (November 2006). "Intelligence Alert – Blotter Acid Mimics (Containing 4-Bromo-2,5-Dimethoxy-Amphetamine (DOB)) in Concord, California" (PDF). Microgram Bulletin. 39 (11): 136. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  192. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Administration (March 2008). "Unusual "Rice Krispie Treat"-Like Balls Containing Psilocybe Mushroom Parts in Warren County, Missouri" (PDF). Microgram Bulletin. 41 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  193. ^ Iversen L (May 29, 2013). "Temporary Class Drug Order Report on 5-6APB and NBOMe compounds" (PDF). Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Gov.Uk. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  194. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Administration (March 2009). ""Spice" – Plant Material(s) Laced With Synthetic Cannabinoids or Cannabinoid Mimicking Compounds". Microgram Bulletin. 42 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 18, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  195. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Administration (November 2005). "Bulk Marijuana in Hazardous Packaging in Chicago, Illinois" (PDF). Microgram Bulletin. 38 (11). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  196. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Administration (December 2007). "SMALL HEROIN DISKS NEAR GREENSBORO, GEORGIA" (PDF). Microgram Bulletin. 40 (12). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  197. ^ Erowid. "25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe) Fatalities / Deaths". Erowid. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  198. ^ Hastings D (May 6, 2013). "New drug N-bomb hits the street, terrifying parents, troubling cops". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  199. ^ Feehan C (January 21, 2016). "Powerful N-Bomb drug – responsible for spate of deaths internationally – responsible for hospitalisation of six in Cork". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
  200. ^ Iversen L (May 29, 2013). "Temporary Class Drug Order Report on 5-6APB and NBOMe compounds" (PDF). Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Gov.Uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  201. ^ Dyck E (1965). "Flashback: Psychiatric Experimentation with LSD in Historical Perspective". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 50 (7).
  202. ^ "The Albert Hofmann Foundation". Hofmann Foundation. Archived from the original on July 19, 2019. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
  203. ^ a b c "LSD-Assisted Psychotherapy". MAPS. Archived from the original on May 11, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  204. ^ Bogenschutz MP (March 2013). "Studying the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism: rationale, methodology, and current research with psilocybin". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 6 (1): 17–29. doi:10.2174/15733998113099990002. PMID 23627783.
  205. ^ Jarow O (May 15, 2024). "Psychedelics could treat some of the worst chronic pain in the world". Vox. Archived from the original on May 25, 2024. Retrieved May 25, 2024.
  206. ^ "RFA-AG-25-004: Safety and Early Efficacy Studies of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy for Chronic Pain in Older Adults (UG3/UH3 Clinical Trial Required)". Archived from the original on May 25, 2024. Retrieved May 25, 2024.
  207. ^ "LSD Therapy for Persons Suffering From Major Depression - Full Text View". February 8, 2021. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  208. ^ Fuentes JJ, Fonseca F, Elices M, Farré M, Torrens M (January 2020). "Therapeutic Use of LSD in Psychiatry: A Systematic Review of Randomized-Controlled Clinical Trials". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 10: 943. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00943. PMC 6985449. PMID 32038315.
  209. ^ Calder AE, Hasler G (January 2023). "Towards an understanding of psychedelic-induced neuroplasticity". Neuropsychopharmacology. 48 (1): 104–112. doi:10.1038/s41386-022-01389-z. PMC 9700802. PMID 36123427.
  210. ^ Olson DE (February 2022). "Biochemical Mechanisms Underlying Psychedelic-Induced Neuroplasticity". Biochemistry. 61 (3): 127–136. doi:10.1021/acs.biochem.1c00812. PMC 9004607. PMID 35060714.
  211. ^ Cohen, S. (1959). "The therapeutic potential of LSD-25". A Pharmacologic Approach to the Study of the Mind, p. 251–258.
  212. ^ Chwelos N, Blewett DB, Smith CM, Hoffer A (1959). "Use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in the Treatment of Alcoholism". Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol. 20 (3): 577–590. doi:10.15288/qjsa.1959.20.577. PMID 13810249. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved June 20, 2012. Via "Abstract". Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  213. ^ Frood A (March 9, 2012). "LSD helps to treat alcoholism". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10200. S2CID 137367650. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2020.
  214. ^ Vollenweider FX, Kometer M (September 2010). "The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 11 (9): 642–51. doi:10.1038/nrn2884. PMID 20717121. S2CID 16588263.
  215. ^ Baumeister D, Barnes G, Giaroli G, Tracy D (August 2014). "Classical hallucinogens as antidepressants? A review of pharmacodynamics and putative clinical roles". Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 4 (4): 156–69. doi:10.1177/2045125314527985. PMC 4104707. PMID 25083275.
  216. ^ Liechti ME (October 2017). "Modern Clinical Research on LSD". Neuropsychopharmacology. 42 (11): 2114–2127. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.86. PMC 5603820. PMID 28447622.
  217. ^ Carhart-Harris R (April 20, 2021). "Psychedelics are transforming the way we understand depression and its treatment". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  218. ^ Terry K (March 26, 2024). "FDA Opens the Door to Clinical Use of LSD". WebMD. Archived from the original on May 25, 2024. Retrieved May 25, 2024.
  219. ^ Sessa B (November 2008). "Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity?". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (8): 821–827. doi:10.1177/0269881108091597. PMID 18562421. S2CID 1908638.
  220. ^ Janiger O, Dobkin de Rios M (1989). "LSD and creativity". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 21 (1): 129–134. doi:10.1080/02791072.1989.10472150. PMID 2723891. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009.
  221. ^ Stafford PG, Golightly BH (1967). LSD, the problem-solving psychedelic. Archived from the original on April 17, 2012.
  222. ^ "Scientific Problem Solving with Psychedelics – James Fadiman". YouTube. May 29, 2013. Archived from the original on September 8, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  223. ^ Fadiman J (2018). The psychedelic explorer's guide : safe, therapeutic, and sacred journeys. Tantor Media. ISBN 978-1-9773-7476-9. OCLC 1031461623.
  224. ^ "Psychiater Gasser bricht sein Schweigen". Basler Zeitung. July 28, 2009. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
  225. ^ Ly C, Greb AC, Cameron LP, Wong JM, Barragan EV, Wilson PC, et al. (2018). "Psychedelics promote structural and functional neural plasticity". Cell Reports. 23 (11): 3170–3182. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022. PMC 6082376. PMID 29898390.
  226. ^ Dolan EW (August 11, 2022). "Neuroscience research suggests LSD might enhance learning and memory by promoting brain plasticity". Psypost - Psychology News. Archived from the original on August 26, 2022. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
  227. ^ Whelan A, Johnson MI (May 2018). "Lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin for the management of patients with persistent pain: a potential role?" (PDF). Pain Management. 8 (3): 217–229. doi:10.2217/pmt-2017-0068. PMID 29722608. S2CID 19160293. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 8, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  228. ^ "Famous LSD users". The Good Drugs Guide. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
  229. ^ "People on psychedelics". Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  230. ^ Mason D (Autumn 2015). "Review: Awe for Auden". The Hudson Review. 68 (3). The Hudson Review, Inc.: 492–500.
  231. ^ Auden WH (November 15, 1971). "W. H. Auden at Swathmore; An hour of questions and answers with Auden". Exhibition notes from the W.H. Auden Collection. the Swarthmore College Library. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  232. ^ MacMonagle N (February 17, 2007). "A Master of Memorable speech". The Irish Times.
  233. ^ Meyer A (January 24, 2022). "Daniel Ellsberg Talks Psychedelics, Consciousness and World Peace". Lucid News. Archived from the original on January 29, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
  234. ^ Feynman RP (1985). Leighton R (ed.). Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!: Adventures of a Curious Character. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-01921-6. OCLC 10925248.
  235. ^ Gleick J (1992). Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-679-40836-9. OCLC 243743850.
  236. ^ Alderson J (April 20, 2010). "Q&A with Jerry Garcia: Portrait of an Artist as a Tripper". Relix Magazine. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  237. ^ "The Bill Gates Interview". Playboy. July 1994. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
  238. ^ Colman D (October 2011). "Aldous Huxley's LSD Death Trip". Open Culture. Archived from the original on November 12, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  239. ^ Bosker B (October 21, 2011). "The Steve Jobs Reading List: The Books And Artists That Made The Man". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on October 22, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  240. ^ "LSD, My Problem Child · Radiance from Ernst Junger". Archived from the original on May 12, 2021. Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  241. ^ "Is 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' Code for LSD?". February 15, 1998. Archived from the original on December 20, 2021. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  242. ^ Matus V (June 2004). "The Truth Behind "LSD"". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  243. ^ "When Michel Foucault Tripped on Acid in Death Valley and Called It "The Greatest Experience of My Life"". Open Culture. September 1975. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  244. ^ Penner J (June 17, 2019). "Blowing The Philosopher's Fuses: Michel Foucault's LSD Trip in The Valley of Death". Los Angeles Review of Books. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021. Wade: "We fell silent to listen to Stockhausen's Songs of Youth. Zabriskie Point was filled with the sound of a kindergarten playground overlaid with electric tonalities. Kontakte followed. Glissandos bounced off the stars, which glowed like incandescent pinballs. Foucault turned to Michael and said this is the first time he really understood what Stockhausen had achieved".
  245. ^ Wade S (2019). Foucault in California: [A True Story-–Wherein the Great French Philosopher Drops Acid in the Valley of Death]. Heyday Books. ISBN 9781597144636. In a letter to Wade, dated 16 September 1978, Foucault authorised the book's publication and added: "How could I not love you?"
  246. ^ Harrison A (January 16, 2006). "LSD: The Geek's Wonder Drug?". Wired. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2008. Like Herbert, many scientists and engineers also report heightened states of creativity while using LSD. During a press conference on Friday, Hofmann revealed that he was told by Nobel-prize-winning chemist Kary Mullis that LSD had helped him develop the polymerase chain reaction that helps amplify specific DNA sequences.
  247. ^ Higgins C (April 14, 2018). "'There is no such thing as past or future': physicist Carlo Rovelli on changing how we think about time". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  248. ^ Sacks O (2012). Hallucinations. Vintage Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-307-94743-7. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2018. On the West Coast in the early 1960s LSD and morning glory seeds were readily available, so I sampled those, too.
  249. ^ Bose SD (December 27, 2021). "When Trey Parker and Matt Stone went to the Oscars on LSD Swapnil Dhruv Bose". Archived from the original on January 20, 2022. Retrieved January 20, 2022.

Further reading