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Addiction and dependence glossary[1][2][3][4]
addiction – a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences
addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing
addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing
dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake)
drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
drug withdrawal – symptoms that occur upon cessation of repeated drug use
physical dependence – dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens)
psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)
reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them
rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive and desirable or as something to be approached
sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it
substance use disorder - a condition in which the use of substances leads to clinically and functionally significant impairment or distress
tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
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Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use. Increasing its dosage may re-amplify the drug's effects, however this may accelerate tolerance, further reducing the drug's effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not necessarily associated with drug dependence or addiction.[5] The process of tolerance development is reversible (e.g., through a drug holiday[6]) and can involve both physiological factors and psychological factors.[7]

One may also develop drug tolerance to side effects,[8] in which case tolerance is a desirable characteristic. A medical intervention that has for objective to increase tolerance (e.g., allergen immunotherapy, in which people are exposed to larger and larger amounts of allergen to decrease his allergic reactions) is called drug desensitization.[9]

The opposite concept to drug tolerance is drug reverse tolerance (or drug sensitization), in which case the subject's reaction or effect will increase following its repeated use. The two notions are not incompatible and tolerance may sometimes lead to reverse tolerance. For example, heavy drinkers initially develop tolerance to alcohol (requiring them to drink larger amounts to achieve a similar effect) but excessive drinking can cause liver damage, which then puts them at risk of intoxication when drinking even very small amounts of alcohol.[10]

Drug tolerance should not be confused with drug tolerability, which refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.

Contents

TachyphylaxisEdit

Tachyphylaxis is a subcategory of drug tolerance. It refers to cases of sudden, short-term onset of tolerance following the administration of a drug.[11]

Pharmacodynamic toleranceEdit

Pharmacodynamic tolerance begins when the cellular response to a substance is reduced with repeated use. A common cause of pharmacodynamic tolerance is high concentrations of a substance constantly binding with the receptor, desensitizing it through constant interaction.[12] Other possibilities include a reduction in receptor density (usually associated with receptor agonists), or other mechanisms leading to changes in action potential firing rate.[13] Pharmacodynamic tolerance to a receptor antagonist involves the reverse, i.e., increased receptor firing rate, an increase in receptor density, or other mechanisms.

While most occurrences of pharmacodynamic tolerance occur after sustained exposure to a drug, instances of acute or instant tolerance can occur.[14]

Pharmacokinetic (metabolic) toleranceEdit

Pharmacokinetics refers to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. All psychoactive drugs are first absorbed into the bloodstream, carried in the blood to various parts of the body including the site of action (distribution), broken down in some fashion (metabolism), and ultimately removed from the body (excretion). All of these factors are very important determinants of crucial pharmacological properties of a drug, including its potency, side effects, and duration of action.

Pharmacokinetic tolerance (dispositional tolerance) occurs because of a decreased quantity of the substance reaching the site it affects. This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. CYP450 enzymes. This is most commonly seen with substances such as ethanol.

This type of tolerance is most evident with oral ingestion, because other routes of drug administration bypass first-pass metabolism. Enzyme induction is partly responsible for the phenomenon of tolerance, in which repeated use of a drug leads to a reduction of the drug’s effect. However, it is only one of several mechanisms of tolerance

Behavioral toleranceEdit

Behavioral tolerance occurs with the use of certain psychoactive drugs, where tolerance to a behavioral effect of a drug, such as increased motor activity by methamphetamine, occurs with repeated use; it may occur through drug-independent learning or as a form of pharmaco-dynamics tolerance in the brain; the latter mechanism of behavioral tolerance occurs when people learn how to actively overcome drug-induced impairments through practice. Behavioral tolerance is often context dependent, meaning tolerance depends on the environment in which the drug is administered, and not the drug itself.[15] Behavioral sensitization describes the opposite phenomenon.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274. 
  2. ^ Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681 . PMID 24459410. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement ... Another ΔFosB target is cFos: as ΔFosB accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is selectively induced in the chronic drug-treated state.41. ... Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict. 
  3. ^ "Glossary of Terms". Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (4): 363–371. PMID 26816013. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
    Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.
     
  5. ^ Miller, NS; Dackis, CA; Gold, MS. "The relationship of addiction, tolerance, and dependence to alcohol and drugs: a neurochemical approach.". J Subst Abuse Treat. 4 (3-4): 197–207. PMID 3325655. 
  6. ^ Weiner, WJ; Koller, WC; Perlik, S; Nausieda, PA; Klawans, HL. "Drug holiday and management of Parkinson disease.". Neurology. 30 (12): 1257–61. PMID 7192805. 
  7. ^ "Tolerance and Desensitization". 
  8. ^ Swift, CG; Swift, MR; Hamley, J; Stevenson, IH; Crooks, J. "Side-effect 'tolerance' in elderly long-term recipients of benzodiazepine hypnotics.". Age Ageing. 13 (6): 335–43. PMID 6440434. 
  9. ^ "Rapid Drug Desensitization for Hypersensitivity Reactions to Chemotherapy and Monoclonal Antibodies in the 21st Century" (PDF). 
  10. ^ "What Is Reverse Tolerance?". 
  11. ^ Bunnel, Craig A. Intensive Review of Internal Medicine, Harvard Medical School 2009.[page needed]
  12. ^ Bespalov, Anton; Müller, Reinhold; Relo, Ana-Lucia; Hudzik, Thomas (2016-05-01). "Drug Tolerance: A Known Unknown in Translational Neuroscience". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 37 (5): 364–378. ISSN 1873-3735. PMID 26935643. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2016.01.008. 
  13. ^ Klaassen, Curtis D. (2001-07-27). Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 17. ISBN 0-07-134721-6. 
  14. ^ Swanson, James; Gupta, Suneel; Guinta, Diane; Flynn, Daniel; Agler, Dave; Lerner, Marc; Williams, Lillie; Shoulson, Ira; Wigal, Sharon (1999-10-01). "Acute tolerance to methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children*". Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics. 66 (3): 295–305. ISSN 0009-9236. PMID 10511066. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(99)70038-X. 
  15. ^ Wolgin, D. L (2000-05-01). "Contingent tolerance to amphetamine hypophagia: new insights into the role of environmental context in the expression of stereotypy". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 24 (3): 279–294. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(99)00070-6.