Psychedelic experience

A psychedelic experience (known colloquially as a trip) is a temporary altered state of consciousness induced by the consumption of psychedelic drugs like mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT. For example, an acid trip is a psychedelic experience brought on by the use of LSD, while a mushroom trip is a psychedelic experience brought on by the use of psilocybin. Psychedelic experiences are interpreted in exploratory, learning, recreational, religious/mystical and therapeutic contexts.

EtymologyEdit

The term psychedelic was coined by the psychiatrist Humphrey Osmond during written correspondence with author Aldous Huxley and presented to the New York Academy of Sciences by Osmond in 1957.[1] It is derived from the Greek words ψυχή (psyche, "soul, mind") and δηλείν (delein, "to manifest"), thus meaning "mind manifesting," the implication being that psychedelics can develop unused potentials of the human mind.[2] The term trip was first coined by US Army scientists during the 1950s when they were experimenting with LSD.[3]

PhenomenologyEdit

Although, starting in the 19th and 20th centuries, several attempts have been made to define common phenomenological structures of the effects produced by classic psychedelics, a universally accepted taxonomy does not yet exist.[4][5]

Visual alterationEdit

A prominent element of psychedelic experiences is visual alteration.[4] Psychedelic visual alteration often includes spontaneous formation of complex flowing geometric visual patterning in the visual field.[5] When the eyes are open, the visual alteration is overlaid onto the objects and spaces in the physical environment; when the eyes are closed the visual alteration is seen in the "inner world" behind the eyelids.[5] These visual effects increase in complexity with higher dosages, and also when the eyes are closed.[5] The visual alteration does not normally constitute hallucinations, because the person undergoing the experience can still distinguish between real and imagined visual phenomena, though in some cases, true hallucinations are present.[4] More rarely, psychedelic experiences can include complex hallucinations of objects, animals, people, or even whole landscapes.[4]

Mystical experiencesEdit

A number of scientific studies by Roland R. Griffiths and other researchers have concluded that high doses of psilocybin and other classic psychedelics trigger mystical experiences in most research subjects.[6][7][8][9][10][11] A 2011 study from Johns Hopkins University identified mystical experiences by means of psychometric questionnaires, including the States of Consciousness Questionnaire (using only a relevant subset of items), the Mysticism Scale, and the APZ questionnaire.[7] The researchers observed that psilocybin "occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values."[7]

Research has found similarities between psychedelic experiences and non-ordinary forms of consciousness experienced in meditation[12] and near-death experiences.[13] The phenomenon of ego dissolution is often described as a key feature of the psychedelic experience.[12][13][14]

Individuals who have psychedelic experiences often describe what they experienced as "more real" than ordinary experience. For example, the psychologist Benny Shanon observed from ayahuasca trip refers to "the assessment, very common with ayahuasca, that what is seen and thought during the course of intoxication defines the real, whereas the world that is ordinarily perceived is actually an illusion."[15] Similarly, the psychiatrist Stanislav Grof described the LSD experience as "complex revelatory insights into the nature of existence… typically accompanied by a sense of certainty that this knowledge is ultimately more relevant and 'real' than the perceptions and beliefs we share in everyday life."[16]

Bad tripEdit

A "bad trip" is a highly unpleasant psychedelic experience.[4][17] A bad trip on psilocybin, for instance, often features intense anxiety, confusion, and agitation, or even psychotic episodes.[18] Bad trips can be connected to the anxious ego-dissolution (AED) dimension of the APZ questionnaire used in research on psychedelic experiences.[4] As of 2011, exact data on the frequency of bad trips are not available.[18] In clinical research settings, precautions including the screening and preparation of participants, the training of the session monitors who will be present during the experience, and the selection of appropriate physical setting can minimize the likelihood of psychological distress.[19] In most cases in which anxiety arises during a supervised psychedelic experience, reassurance from the session monitor is adequate to resolve it; however, if distress becomes intense it can be treated pharmacologically, for example with the benzodiazepine diazepam.[19]

Bad trips are more common at high doses, where the psychedelic effect is more intense, and in unfamiliar environments, where anxiety and paranoia are more likely to arise. Bad trips can also be exacerbated by the inexperience or irresponsibility of the user or the lack of proper preparation and environment for the trip (known as "set and setting"). At the extreme, the occurrence of bad trips without proper preparation can result in a tripper committing self-harm or harming others, suicide attempts and contact with law enforcement. For this reason, a person who plans on taking a psychedelic is often accompanied by a trip sitter.[citation needed]

Stanislav Grof, a psychiatrist who has written extensively on psychedelic therapy, writes that unpleasant experiences are not necessarily unhealthy or undesirable, arguing that they may have potential for psychological healing and lead to breakthrough and resolution of unresolved psychic issues.[20][page needed]

Interpretive frameworksEdit

Link R. Swanson divides scientific frameworks for understanding psychedelic experiences into two waves. In the first wave he includes model psychosis theory (the psychotomimetic paradigm), filtration theory, and psychoanalytic theory.[5] Aldous Huxley was a proponent of filtration theory. In his book The Doors of Perception, he presents the idea of a mental reducing valve in order to explain the significance of the psychedelic experience. According to Huxley, the central nervous system's main function is to shut out the majority of what we perceive;[21] the brain filters those perceptions which are useful for survival. Society aids in this filtering by creating a symbolic system which structures our reality and which reduces our awareness.[21] Huxley postulated that psychedelics lessened the strength of the mind's reducing valve, allowing for a broader spectrum of one's overall experience to enter into conscious experience.

In the second wave of theories, Swanson includes entropic brain theory, integrated information theory, and predictive processing.[5]

Czech psychiatrist Stanislav Grof characterised psychedelic experiencing as "non-specific amplification of unconscious mental processes", and he analysed the phenomenology of the LSD experience (particularly the experience of psychospiritual death and rebirth) in terms of Otto Rank's theory of the unresolved memory of the primal birth trauma.[22]

In religious and spiritual contextsEdit

Alan Watts likened psychedelic experiencing to the transformations of consciousness that are undertaken in Taoism and Zen, which he says is, "more like the correction of faulty perception or the curing of a disease… not an acquisitive process of learning more and more facts or greater and greater skills, but rather an unlearning of wrong habits and opinions."[23] Watts further described the LSD experience as, "revelations of the secret workings of the brain, of the associative and patterning processes, the ordering systems which carry out all our sensing and thinking."[24]

According to Luis Luna, psychedelic experiences have a distinctly gnosis-like quality; it is a learning experience that elevates consciousness and makes a profound contribution to personal development. For this reason, the plant sources of some psychedelic drugs such as ayahuasca and mescaline-containing cacti are sometimes referred to as "plant teachers" by those using those drugs.[25]

Furthermore, psychedelic drugs have a history of religious use across the world that extends back for hundreds or perhaps thousands of years.[26] They are often called entheogens because of the kinds of experiences they can induce.[27] Some small contemporary religious movements base their religious activities and beliefs around psychedelic experiences, such as Santo Daime[28] and the Native American Church.[29] In this context, the psychedelic experience is interpreted as a way of communicating with the realm of spirits or ancestors.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Tanne, Janice Hopkins (2004). "Humphrey Osmond". BMJ. 328 (7441): 713. PMC 381240.
  2. ^ A. Weil, W. Rosen. (1993), From Chocolate To Morphine: Everything You Need To Know About Mind-Altering Drugs. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 93
  3. ^ Lee, Martin A. (1985). Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, The Sixties, and Beyond. Grove Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-802-13062-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Preller, Katrin H.; Vollenweider, Franz X. (2016). "Phenomenology, Structure, and Dynamic of Psychedelic States". In Adam L. Halberstadt; Franz X. Vollenweider; David E. Nichols (eds.). Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 36. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 221–256. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_459. ISBN 978-3-662-55878-2. PMID 28025814.
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  6. ^ R. R. Griffiths; W. A. Richards; U. McCann; R. Jesse (7 July 2006). "Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance". Psychopharmacology. 187 (3): 268–283. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5. PMID 16826400.
  7. ^ a b c MacLean, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R. (2011). "Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 25 (11): 1453–1461. doi:10.1177/0269881111420188. PMC 3537171. PMID 21956378.
  8. ^ Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R.; Johnson, Matthew W. (2014). "Psilocybin-occasioned Mystical Experiences in the Treatment of Tobacco Addiction". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 7 (3): 157–164. PMC 4342293. PMID 25563443.
  9. ^ Barrett, Frederick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R. (2015). "Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in experimental sessions with psilocybin". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 29 (11): 1182–1190. doi:10.1177/0269881115609019. PMC 5203697. PMID 26442957.
  10. ^ Barsuglia, Joseph; Davis, Alan K.; Palmer, Robert; Lancelotta, Rafael; Windham-Herman, Austin-Marley; Peterson, Kristel; Polanco, Martin; Grant, Robert; Griffiths, Roland R. (2018). "Intensity of Mystical Experiences Occasioned by 5-MeO-DMT and Comparison With a Prior Psilocybin Study". Frontiers in Psychology. 9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02459. PMC 6292276. PMID 30574112.
  11. ^ Johnson, Matthew W.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Barrett, Frederick S.; Griffiths, Roland R. (2019). "Classic psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 197: 83–102. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.11.010.
  12. ^ a b Millière, Raphaël; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Roseman, Leor; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva (2018). "Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness". Frontiers in Psychology. 9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01475. PMC 6137697. PMID 30245648.
  13. ^ a b Timmermann, Christopher; Roseman, Leor; Williams, Luke; Erritzoe, David; Martial, Charlotte; Cassol, Héléna; Laureys, Steven; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2018). "DMT Models the Near-Death Experience". Frontiers in Psychology. 9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01424. PMC 6107838. PMID 30174629.
  14. ^ Letheby, Chris; Gerrans, Philip (2017). "Self unbound: ego dissolution in psychedelic experience". Neuroscience of Consciousness. 3 (1). doi:10.1093/nc/nix016. PMC 6007152. PMID 30042848.
  15. ^ Shanon, Benny (2002). The antipodes of the mind : charting the phenomenology of the Ayahuasca experience (Reprinted ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-19-925292-3.
  16. ^ Bennett, Stanislav Grof with Hal Zina (2006). The holotropic mind : the three levels of human consciousness and how they shape our lives (1st paperback ed., [Nachdr.] ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: HarperSanFrancisco. p. 38. ISBN 9780062506597.
  17. ^ Roberts, Carl A.; Osborne-Miller, Isaac; Cole, Jon; Gage, Suzanne H.; Christiansen, Paul (2020). "Perceived harm, motivations for use and subjective experiences of recreational psychedelic 'magic' mushroom use". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 34 (9). doi:10.1177/0269881120936508.
  18. ^ a b van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim (2011). "Harm potential of magic mushroom use: A review". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 59 (3). doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.01.006.
  19. ^ a b Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Griffiths, Roland R. (2008). "Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (6): 603–620. doi:10.1177/0269881108093587. PMC 3056407. PMID 18593734.
  20. ^ Stanislav Grof, LSD Psychotherapy
  21. ^ a b Huxley, Aldous (1954) The Doors of Perception. Reissue published by HarperCollins: 2004. p. 22-25 ISBN 0-06-059518-3
  22. ^ Grof, Stanislav (1976). Realms of the human unconscious : observations from LSD research. New York: Dutton. p. 98. ISBN 0-525-47438-2.
  23. ^ Watts, Alan W. (2013). The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness (Second ed.). p. 15. ISBN 9781608682041.
  24. ^ Watts, Alan W. (2013). The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness (Second ed.). p. 44. ISBN 9781608682041.
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  26. ^ Griffiths, R. R.; Richards, W. A.; Johnson, M. W.; McCann, U. D.; Jesse, R. (2008). "Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (6): 621–632. doi:10.1177/0269881108094300. ISSN 0269-8811. PMC 3050654. PMID 18593735.
  27. ^ Rätsch, Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hofmann, Christian (2001). Plants of the gods : their sacred, healing, and hallucinogenic powers (Rev. and expanded ed.). Rochester, Vt.: Healing Arts Press. ISBN 0892819790.
  28. ^ Santos, R. G.; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; Strassman, R. J.; Motta, V.; Cruz, A. P. M. (2007). "Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 112 (3): 507–513. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.04.012.
  29. ^ Calabrese, Joseph D. (1997). "Spiritual healing and human development in the Native American church: Toward a cultural psychiatry of peyote". Psychoanalytic Review. 84 (2): 237–255.

Further readingEdit

  • Grinspoon, Lester, & Bakalar, James. B. (Eds.). Psychedelic Reflections. (1983). New York: Human Sciences Press. p. 13-14 ISBN 0-89885-129-7