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The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).[5] It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is coupled to Gs and mediates excitatory neurotransmission.[5] HTR6 denotes the human gene encoding for the receptor.[6]

HTR6
Identifiers
AliasesHTR6, 5-HT6, 5-HT6R, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6
External IDsOMIM: 601109 MGI: 1196627 HomoloGene: 673 GeneCards: HTR6
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 1 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 1 (human)[1]
Chromosome 1 (human)
Genomic location for HTR6
Genomic location for HTR6
Band1p36.13Start19,664,875 bp[1]
End19,680,966 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE HTR6 206944 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_000871

NM_021358

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000862

NP_067333

Location (UCSC)Chr 1: 19.66 – 19.68 MbChr 4: 139.06 – 139.08 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

DistributionEdit

The 5HT6 receptor is expressed almost exclusively in the brain.[7] It is distributed in various areas including, but not limited to, the olfactory tubercle, cerebral cortex (frontal and entorhinal regions), nucleus accumbens, striatum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and the molecular layer of the cerebellum.[5][8][9] Based on its abundance in extrapyramidal, limbic, and cortical regions it can be suggested that the 5HT6 receptor plays a role in functions like motor control, emotionality, cognition, and memory.[7][9][10]

FunctionEdit

Blockade of central 5HT6 receptors has been shown to increase glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in various brain areas,[11][12][13][14] whereas activation enhances GABAergic signaling in a widespread manner.[15] Antagonism of 5HT6 receptors also facilitates dopamine and norepinephrine release in the frontal cortex,[14][16] while stimulation has the opposite effect.[15]

As a drug target for antagonistsEdit

Despite the 5HT6 receptor having a functionally excitatory action, it is largely co-localized with GABAergic neurons and therefore produces an overall inhibition of brain activity.[15] In parallel with this, 5HT6 antagonists are hypothesized to improve cognition, learning, and memory.[17] Agents such as latrepirdine, idalopirdine (Lu AE58054), and intepirdine (SB-742,457/RVT-101) were evaluated as novel treatments for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.[14][18][19] However, phase III trials of latrepirdine, idalopirdine, and intepirdine have failed to demonstrate efficacy.

5HT6 antagonists have also been shown to reduce appetite and produce weight loss, and as a result, PRX-07034, BVT-5,182, and BVT-74,316 are being investigated for the treatment of obesity.[20][21]

As a drug target for agonistsEdit

Recently, the 5HT6 agonists WAY-181,187 and WAY-208,466 have been demonstrated to be active in rodent models of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and such agents may be useful treatments for these conditions.[15][22] Additionally, indirect 5HT6 activation may play a role in the therapeutic benefits of serotonergic antidepressants like the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).[citation needed]

LigandsEdit

A large number of selective 5HT6 ligands have now been developed.[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

AgonistsEdit

Full agonistsEdit

Partial agonistsEdit

Antagonists and inverse agonistsEdit

GeneticsEdit

Polymorphisms in the HTR6 gene are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. For example, an association between the C267T (rs1805054) polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease has been shown.[45] Others have studied the polymorphism in relation to Parkinson's disease.[46]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028747 - Ensembl, May 2017
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  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: HTR6 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 6".
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Further readingEdit

  • Hoyer D, Hannon JP, Martin GR (April 2002). "Molecular, pharmacological and functional diversity of 5-HT receptors". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 71 (4): 533–54. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(01)00746-8. PMID 11888546.
  • Raymond JR, Mukhin YV, Gelasco A, Turner J, Collinsworth G, Gettys TW, Grewal JS, Garnovskaya MN (2002). "Multiplicity of mechanisms of serotonin receptor signal transduction". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 92 (2–3): 179–212. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(01)00169-3. PMID 11916537.
  • Van Oekelen D, Luyten WH, Leysen JE (April 2003). "5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors and their atypical regulation properties". Life Sciences. 72 (22): 2429–49. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00141-3. PMID 12650852.
  • Dubertret C, Hanoun N, Adès J, Hamon M, Gorwood P (April 2004). "Family-based association study of the serotonin-6 receptor gene (C267T polymorphism) in schizophrenia". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B. 126B (1): 10–5. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.20120. PMID 15048641.
  • Ullmer C, Schmuck K, Kalkman HO, Lübbert H (August 1995). "Expression of serotonin receptor mRNAs in blood vessels". FEBS Letters. 370 (3): 215–21. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00828-W. PMID 7656980.
  • Kohen R, Metcalf MA, Khan N, Druck T, Huebner K, Lachowicz JE, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR, Roth BL, Hamblin MW (January 1996). "Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor". Journal of Neurochemistry. 66 (1): 47–56. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66010047.x. PMID 8522988.
  • Orlacchio A, Kawarai T, Paciotti E, Stefani A, Orlacchio A, Sorbi S, St George-Hyslop PH, Bernardi G (May 2002). "Association study of the 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) receptor gene in Alzheimer's disease". Neuroscience Letters. 325 (1): 13–6. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00221-5. PMID 12023056.
  • Ham BJ, Kim YH, Choi MJ, Cha JH, Choi YK, Lee MS (January 2004). "Serotonergic genes and personality traits in the Korean population". Neuroscience Letters. 354 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00753-5. PMID 14698468.
  • Bernotas R, Lenicek S, Antane S, Zhang GM, Smith D, Coupet J, Harrison B, Schechter LE (November 2004). "1-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-(arylsulfonyl)-1H-indoles as novel 5-HT6 receptor ligands". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 14 (22): 5499–502. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.09.003. PMID 15482912.
  • Kang H, Lee WK, Choi YH, Vukoti KM, Bang WG, Yu YG (April 2005). "Molecular analysis of the interaction between the intracellular loops of the human serotonin receptor type 6 (5-HT6) and the alpha subunit of GS protein". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 329 (2): 684–92. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.040. PMID 15737640.
  • Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L, Aebersold R (August 2005). "Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry". Nature Methods. 2 (8): 591–8. doi:10.1038/nmeth776. PMID 16094384.
  • Lorke DE, Lu G, Cho E, Yew DT (2006). "Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT6 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of Alzheimer and normal aging patients". BMC Neuroscience. 7: 36. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-7-36. PMC 1523198. PMID 16640790.
  • Yun HM, Kim S, Kim HJ, Kostenis E, Kim JI, Seong JY, Baik JH, Rhim H (February 2007). "The novel cellular mechanism of human 5-HT6 receptor through an interaction with Fyn". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (8): 5496–505. doi:10.1074/jbc.M606215200. PMID 17189269.

External linksEdit

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.