Concord (/ˈkɒŋkərd/ KON-kerd)[10] is the most populous city in Contra Costa County, California, United States. According to an estimate completed by the United States Census Bureau, the city had a population of 129,295 in 2019,[11] making it the eighth largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area.[12][13] Founded in 1869 as Todos Santos by don Salvio Pacheco II, a noted Californio ranchero, the name was later changed to Concord. The city is a major regional suburban East Bay center within the San Francisco Bay Area, and is 29 miles (47 kilometers) east of San Francisco.

Concord, California
Todos Santos
Salvio Pacheco Square facing Todos Santos Plaza – downtown
Salvio Pacheco Square facing Todos Santos Plaza – downtown
Flag of Concord, California
Location of Concord in Contra Costa County
Location of Concord in Contra Costa County
Concord is located in the United States
Concord
Concord
Location within the United States
Concord is located in California
Concord
Concord
Location within California
Coordinates: 37°58′41″N 122°01′52″W / 37.97806°N 122.03111°W / 37.97806; -122.03111
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyContra Costa
IncorporatedFebruary 8, 1905[1]
Government
 • TypeCity Council/City Manager[2]
 • MayorEdi Birsan[3]
 • State SenatorSteve Glazer (D)[4]
 • State AssemblyTim Grayson (D)[5]
 • U.S. CongressMark DeSaulnier (D)[6]
Area
 • City30.55 sq mi (79.13 km2)
 • Land30.55 sq mi (79.13 km2)
 • Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)  0%
Elevation75 ft (23 m)
Population
 • City125,410
 • Rank
  • 1st in Contra Costa County
  • 50th in California
  • 227th in the U.S.
 • Density4,104.67/sq mi (1,584.85/km2)
 • Urban
538,583
 • Urban density3,064.3/sq mi (1,183.1/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
94518–94521
Area code925
FIPS code06-16000
GNIS feature IDs1658308, 2410214
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata

The United States Census Bureau defines an urban area in the East Bay which is separated from the San Francisco–Oakland urban area and with Concord as the principal city: the Concord–Walnut Creek, CA urban area had a population of 538,583 as of the 2020 census, making it the 80th largest in the United States.[9]

History edit

 
Concord was founded as "Todos Santos" in 1869 by don Salvio Pacheco, a noted Californio ranchero.

The valleys north of Mount Diablo were inhabited by the Miwok people, who hunted elk and fished in the numerous streams flowing from the mountain into the San Francisco Bay. It is important to note Miwok and other indigenous people still live within city limits. In 1772, Spanish explorers began to cross the area but did not settle there. In 1834, the Mexican land grant Rancho Monte del Diablo at the base of Mount Diablo was granted to Salvio Pacheco (for whom the nearby town of Pacheco is named).

Concord was founded under the name of Todos Santos ("all saints"; a name still borne by the central city plaza and park between Willow Pass Road and Salvio Street), on the initiative of Pacheco in 1869. It achieved prominence in the 19th century, when most residents of Pacheco relocated to Concord to avoid the devastation of fire and flood which crippled Pacheco's formerly booming economy. Concord was incorporated on February 5, 1905.[14]

The area around Concord in the surrounding Ygnacio and Clayton Valleys was a large agricultural area. Crops that were grown included grapes, walnuts, almonds, wheat, hay, and even tomatoes. The area to the east (now the site of the Concord Naval Weapons Station) was the site of a few enormous wheat ranches over 5,000 acres (20 km2), and was almost a sea of wheat all the way to the marshes bordering Suisun Bay. During Prohibition, many vineyards were removed and replaced with walnut orchards. The town of Cowell, now incorporated into Concord, produced cement.

The first Concord post office opened in 1872.[15]

Port Chicago disaster edit

The munitions on board a Navy cargo ship exploded while being loaded during World War II, resulting in the largest number of casualties among African Americans in any one incident during that war. On the evening of July 17, 1944, a massive explosion instantly killed 320 sailors, merchant seamen, and civilians working at the pier. The blast was felt 30 miles (48 km) away. A subsequent refusal by 258 black sailors to load any more ammunition was the beginning of the Navy's largest-ever mutiny trial, in which 50 men were found guilty. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall sat in on most of the proceedings and declared that he saw a prejudiced court.[16]

Geography edit

 
Todos Santos Plaza is downtown.

Concord is located at 37°58′41″N 122°01′52″W / 37.97806°N 122.03111°W / 37.97806; -122.03111.[10] It is 29 miles (47 km) northeast of San Francisco, 22 miles (35 km) northeast from Oakland, 65 miles (105 km) southwest of Sacramento, and 51 miles (82 km) north of San Jose.[17]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.5 square miles (79 km2), all of it land.

The focal point of downtown Concord is Todos Santos Plaza, which encompasses an entire city block and is known for its farmers market, free summer concerts, and large number of surrounding restaurants. Much of the area immediately around downtown has recently been redeveloped, with new high-density apartment and condominium projects to take advantage of the proximity to public transportation and to the area surrounding the park. Despite this, some crime and homelessness remain issues in the downtown area.[18][19]

To the north and east of downtown is the older residential area of Concord, with many homes dating back to before World War II. In the far northern edge of town is a primarily industrial area, dominated by the Tesoro Golden Eagle Refinery (which is actually not located within city limits). The southeastern area of the city, centered along Clayton Road, is primarily residential and was mostly developed in the 1960s and 1970s. In the southwest area of the city is the primarily Latino neighborhood known as Four Corners, centered around the intersection of Monument Boulevard and Oak Grove Road.

Concord is bordered on the west by Pleasant Hill and the unincorporated community of Pacheco, on the south by Walnut Creek, on the southeast by Clayton, on the northeast by Pittsburg and the unincorporated community of Bay Point, and on the north by the unincorporated community of Clyde. Although it shares no border with Concord, Martinez (the county seat) is located almost immediately adjacent to Concord on the northwest. The North Concord BART station is also known as Martinez BART.

Climate edit

Concord, California[20]
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
108
 
 
12
4
 
 
97
 
 
15
5
 
 
82
 
 
18
7
 
 
26
 
 
22
8
 
 
12
 
 
25
10
 
 
3
 
 
29
12
 
 
0.5
 
 
31
13
 
 
2
 
 
30
13
 
 
6.1
 
 
28
12
 
 
24
 
 
24
10
 
 
66
 
 
17
6
 
 
71
 
 
12
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.3
 
 
54
39
 
 
3.8
 
 
59
41
 
 
3.2
 
 
64
45
 
 
1
 
 
72
46
 
 
0.5
 
 
77
50
 
 
0.1
 
 
84
54
 
 
0
 
 
88
55
 
 
0.1
 
 
86
55
 
 
0.2
 
 
82
54
 
 
0.9
 
 
75
50
 
 
2.6
 
 
63
43
 
 
2.8
 
 
54
39
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Concord has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb), with warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

Official data from the National Weather Service cooperative station in Concord shows average January temperatures are a maximum of 57.2 °F (14.0 °C) and a minimum of 41.6 °F (5.3 °C). Average July temperatures are a maximum of 87.8 °F (31.0 °C) and a minimum of 58.2 °F (14.6 °C). There are an average of 45.0 days with highs of 90 °F (32.2 °C) or higher and 3.8 days with lows of 32 °F (0.0 °C) or lower. The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45.0 °C) on September 1, 2017. The lowest record temperature was 24 °F (−4.4 °C) on December 23, 1998.[21]

Average annual precipitation is 23.91 in (607 mm), falling on an average of 71 days annually. The wettest year was 1995, with 46.62 inches (1,184 mm) and the driest year was 2007, with 10.57 inches (268.5 mm). The most rainfall in one month was 12.79 inches (324.9 mm) in December 2005, which included the 24-hour maximum rainfall of 3.95 inches (100 mm) on December 31.[21]

Climate data for Concord, California, 2023 Buchanan Fields Airport ( KCCR)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
69
(21)
69
(21)
89
(32)
90
(32)
98
(37)
103
(39)
103
(39)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 57.4
(14.1)
58.1
(14.5)
58
(14)
70
(21)
71
(22)
77
(25)
89
(32)
62.6
(17.0)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 40.9
(4.9)
38
(3)
43
(6)
47
(8)
52
(11)
62
(17)
56
(13)
43.8
(6.6)
Record low °F (°C) 32
(0)
32
(0)
34
(1)
38
(3)
46
(8)
52
(11)
57
(14)
32
(0)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 7.30
(185)
2.41
(61)
5.91
(150)
0.04
(1.0)
0.46
(12)
0.00
(0.00)
0.00
(0.00)
16.15
(410)
Average precipitation days 11 11 17 3 5 0 0 45
Source: Western Regional Climate Center (1991–present)[21]
Climate data for Concord, California
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 76.0
(24.4)
78.0
(25.6)
86.0
(30.0)
96.0
(35.6)
99.0
(37.2)
105.0
(40.6)
104.0
(40.0)
109.0
(42.8)
115.0
(46.1)
99.0
(37.2)
84.0
(28.9)
74.0
(23.3)
106.0
(41.1)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 55.2
(12.9)
58.8
(14.9)
63.1
(17.3)
69.9
(21.1)
75.5
(24.2)
83.5
(28.6)
87.6
(30.9)
87.8
(31.0)
85.2
(29.6)
75.2
(24.0)
62.7
(17.1)
56.7
(13.7)
73.3
(22.9)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 37.2
(2.9)
39.8
(4.3)
46.4
(8.0)
48.6
(9.2)
53.1
(11.7)
55.6
(13.1)
55.0
(12.8)
54.4
(12.4)
57.2
(14.0)
52.9
(11.6)
45.8
(7.7)
41.3
(5.2)
50.3
(10.2)
Record low °F (°C) 21
(−6)
24
(−4)
29
(−2)
35
(2)
39
(4)
40
(4)
41
(5)
41
(5)
38
(3)
34
(1)
27
(−3)
22
(−6)
21
(−6)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.73
(120)
3.89
(99)
2.33
(59)
1.17
(30)
0.68
(17)
0.18
(4.6)
0
(0)
0.03
(0.76)
0.03
(0.76)
0.77
(20)
2.88
(73)
4.69
(119)
21.38
(543)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11 11 8 6 4 1 0 0 1 3 6 10 59
Source: Western Regional Climate Center (1991–present)[21]

Demographics edit

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1870400
1880399−0.2%
1890373−6.5%
190058657.1%
191070320.0%
192091229.7%
19301,12523.4%
19401,37322.0%
19506,953406.4%
196036,208420.8%
197085,164135.2%
1980103,25121.2%
1990111,3487.8%
2000121,7809.4%
2010122,0670.2%
2020125,4102.7%
2021 (est.)124,074−1.1%
Source:[22][23]

The 2010 United States Census[24] reported that Concord had a population of 122,067. The population density was 3,996.2 inhabitants per square mile (1,542.9/km2). The ethnic makeup of Concord was 78,767 (64.5%) White, 4,371 (3.6%) African American, 852 (0.7%) Native American, 13,538 (11.1%) Asian (4.4% Filipino, 2.4% Chinese, 1.3% Indian, 0.7% Vietnamese, 0.6% Japanese, 0.6% Korean), 816 (0.7%) Pacific Islander, 15,969 (13.1%) from other ethnicities, and 7,754 (6.4%) from two or more ethnicities. Hispanic or Latino of any ethnicity were 37,311 persons (30.6%).

The Census reported that 121,020 people (99.1% of the population) lived in households, 512 (0.4%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 535 (0.4%) were institutionalized.

There were 44,278 households, out of which 15,421 (34.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,725 (49.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 5,642 (12.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,707 (6.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,952 (6.7%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 512 (1.2%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,406 households (23.5%) were made up of individuals, and 3,625 (8.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73. There were 30,074 families (67.9% of all households); the average family size was 3.22.

The population was spread out, with 28,000 people (22.9%) under the age of 18, 10,946 people (9.0%) aged 18 to 24, 35,834 people (29.4%) aged 25 to 44, 32,903 people (27.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 14,384 people (11.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males.

There were 47,125 housing units at an average density of 1,542.8 per square mile (595.7 per square kilometer), of which 44,278 were occupied, of which 27,069 (61.1%) were owner-occupied, and 17,209 (38.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 7.0%. 71,004 people (58.2% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 50,016 people (41.0%) lived in rental housing units.

Demographic profile[25] 2010
Total population 122,067 – 100.0%
One Race 114,313 – 93.6%
Not Hispanic or Latino 84,756 – 69.4%
White alone 61,416 – 50.3%
Black or African American alone 3,991 – 3.3%
American Indian and Alaska Native alone 366 – 0.3%
Asian alone 13,219 – 10.8%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 744 – 0.6%
Some other race alone 325 – 0.3%
Two or more races alone 4,695 – 3.8%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 37,311 – 30.6%

Government edit

In the California State Legislature, Concord is in the 7th Senate District, represented by Democrat Steve Glazer, and in the 15th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Tim Grayson.[26]

Federally, Concord is in California's 10th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mark DeSaulnier.[6]

Politics edit

In 2017, Concord had 65,061 registered voters with 31,759 (48.8%) registered as Democrats, 14,447 (22.2%) registered as Republicans, and 15,623 (24%) no party preference voters.[27]

Economy edit

 
Sunvalley Shopping Center

Concord has been primarily a bedroom community for San Francisco and Oakland over the last forty years, but during the last decades, jobs within the city have increased.[28] BevMo! is headquartered in Concord. Concord also has a strong retail sector including the Sunvalley Shopping Center, which used to be one of the 50 largest malls in the United States,[29] auto dealerships, and Costco. Prior to its dissolution, Atrivo was headquartered in Concord.[30]

Top employers edit

According to the city's 2019 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[31] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Mt. Diablo Unified School District 4,320
2 John Muir Medical Center 1,100
3 The Conco Companies 549
4 Safeway Inc. 460
5 Adecco Employment Services 400
6 Macy's Concord 400

Naval Weapons Station edit

 
Aerial view of the Concord Naval Weapons Station

To the north of the city of Concord is the Concord Naval Weapons Station (CNWS), which was established in 1942. The station functioned as a World War II armament storage depot, supplying ships at Port Chicago. The CNWS supported war efforts during the Vietnam War and through the end of the Gulf War, processing and shipping out thousands of tons of material to Southeast Asia and the Middle East.[32]

The station consists of two areas: the inland area (5,170 acres [2,092 hectares]) which is within the Concord city limits, and tidal area (7,630 acres [3,088 ha]).[33] Because of changes in military operations, parts of the inland area began to be mothballed and by 1999, the CNWS had only a minimal contingent of military personnel. In 2007, the U.S. Federal Government announced that the inland portion of the CNWS will be closed. The tidal area of the base is not scheduled for closure.[32] The tidal area was transferred to the U.S. Army Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) and is now known as Military Ocean Terminal Concord (MOTCO).[34][35] The city is working on a reuse plan that may include developing the land while keeping a large portion for open-space and parks projects. The city has had many meetings on this subject and any plan for reuse is subject to approval by the Navy.[33][36]

Transportation edit

Until 1995, the city was the eastern terminus of the Concord line of Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) commuter train system; the line has since been extended eastward to Pittsburg/Bay Point in 1996 and Antioch in 2018. The County Connection provides limited public transportation in the city and to other points in the county. Buses run from the North Concord BART station to Martinez, the county seat.

 
Overlooking the North Concord BART Station

Main thoroughfares include Willow Pass Road, Concord Avenue, Concord Boulevard, Clayton Road, Monument Boulevard, Ygnacio Valley Road, Oak Grove Road and Treat Boulevard.[37] The city is also served by Interstate 680, and state highways 4 and 242.

Buchanan Field Airport is a public county-owned airfield in the City of Concord. It is served by JSX, and previously served by American Eagle, WestAir Commuter Airlines, Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) and later by PSA successor USAir with the latter two airlines operating nonstop jet service between the airfield and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).

Media edit

News edit

The city of Concord is served by the daily newspaper the East Bay Times (formerly the Contra Costa Times) published by Bay Area News Group-East Bay (part of the Media News Group, Denver, Colorado), with offices in Walnut Creek. The paper was originally run and owned by the Lesher family. Since the death of Dean Lesher in 1993, the paper has had several owners. The publisher also issues a weekly paper, the Concord Transcript for Concord and nearby Clayton.

The city is also served by Concord Patch, a local news website covering community news and events, and by a news and talk blog called Claycord.com. Patch Media is owned by AOL Inc.

Radio edit

Concord falls within the catchment area of many high-power San Francisco Bay Area radio stations although some stations from Sacramento are also available.

KVHS FM 90.5 also known as "The Edge" is a Concord-based student run radio station. It is run from the campus of Clayton Valley Charter High School.

Concord and the neighboring cities of Pleasant Hill and Walnut Creek are also served by 92.1 FM which plays a country and western format.

From 1963 to 1993, Concord had a local radio station, KWUN AM 1480, also known as Contra Costa's K-15.

Television edit

Concord is served by major television stations broadcasting primarily out of San Francisco, Sacramento, and San Jose. The region's Fox affiliate, KTVU, is based in (and licensed to) Oakland at Jack London Square along with co-owned independent station KICU-TV (licensed to San Jose).

Over-the-air reception is difficult in many parts of the city due to hills on either side of the valley.

The sole Concord-licensed TV station, KTNC, gave up its broadcast frequency as part of the FCC reverse spectrum auction in 2017. It had broadcast on channel 42 from the top of Mount Diablo, but is now available on virtual channel 42 via a subchannel of KCNS channel 39.

Education edit

Concord is served by the Mount Diablo Unified School District (MDUSD). Among the MDUSD schools is Mt. Diablo High School, opened in 1901 and currently home to four academies, including the Digital Safari Academy, a three-year program involving the integration of multimedia with the core curriculum through integrated, project-based learning.

Beyond MDUSD schools, Clayton Valley Charter High School is also home to several acclaimed academies. Catholic schools De La Salle High School for boys and Carondelet High School for girls are also located here. De La Salle's football team holds the U.S. record winning streak of 151 games, set between 1992 and 2004. During that span, De La Salle won 12 California North Coast sectional championships and was named national champion five different times (once by ESPN, four times by USA Today). In August 2014, a Hollywood film titled When the Game Stands Tall was released with the plot line based on their 151-game winning streak.

California State University, East Bay has a campus in Concord.

Concord High School won the 2010 Northern California Boys Division II Football Championship, coached by Brian Hamilton. Ygnacio Valley High School won the 1987 Northern California Boys Division I Basketball Championship, coached by Jim Grace.

Public libraries edit

The Concord Library of the Contra Costa County Library is located in Concord.[38] The library is adjacent to the Concord Civic Center.[39]

Arts and culture edit

 
The Pacheco Adobe, built 1835 on Rancho Monte del Diablo

Concord is the home of the annual Concord Jazz Festival and was the home of the Concord Records jazz record label until it was bought in 1999. Jazz musician Dave Brubeck was born in Concord[40] and in 2006 a park adjacent to Concord High School on Concord Boulevard was renamed in his honor.

Concord is also home to the 21-time World Champion Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps. The corps is made up of talented musicians from around the world. The Concord Blue Devils are the most decorated drum and bugle corps in the history of Drum Corps International.[41]

The Concord Pavilion, a 12,500-seat outdoor amphitheater designed by Frank Gehry, hosts concerts and community events, beginning with the Concord Jazz Festival in 1975.[42]

The Public-access television channel is operated through TelVue Virtual Television Networks.

The headquarters of the Kabul Soccer Club is located in Concord.[43]

Matteo's Dream edit

Matteo's Dream is an all-abilities playground in an urban park in Concord. It opened on May 16, 2007. Matteo Henderson was a boy with serious disabilities including blindness, cerebral palsy, and cognitive development. He used a wheelchair for transportation. The playground was built with US$770,000 of donated materials and with the labor of 1600 volunteers. Matteo, and many other children of all abilities have enjoyed the playground. Persons with disabilities are able to drive their wheelchairs directly onto the structure. Features of the playground are specially engineered to accommodate people with various disabilities.[44] Matteo died on March 16, 2011, at the age of 11.[45] In January 2014, a Matteo's Dream themed Rose Parade float was featured in the 125th Rose Parade in Pasadena, California.[46]

Points of interest edit

 
West Wind Solano Drive-In theatre sign at night time

Sister city edit

 
Artwork produced by Japanese and American citizens to celebrate the sister city relationship between Concord and Kitakami, located at the civic center

In 1974, Concord became a sister city with Kitakami, Iwate, in Japan. The city established a small Japanese-style park in the city, and placed half of a sculpture, The Communion Bridge, in it. The matching half of the bridge is in Kitakami.[52]

Every five years, a delegation from Concord visits Kitakami and operates a student exchange program.[53]

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
  2. ^ "City Government Overview". Concord CA. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
  3. ^ "View Meeting - OnBase Agenda Online". Archived from the original on December 8, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "Senators". State of California. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  5. ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. Archived from the original on January 8, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2023.
  6. ^ a b "California's 11th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  7. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  8. ^ "Concord". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  9. ^ a b United States Census Bureau (December 29, 2022). "2020 Census Qualifying Urban Areas and Final Criteria Clarifications". Federal Register. Archived from the original on December 30, 2022. Retrieved January 2, 2023.
  10. ^ a b "Concord". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Concord city, California". www.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  12. ^ "Bay Area Census -- City Rankings, 1960–2000". ca.gov. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  13. ^ "Concord, CA | About | Demographics in the City of Concord". Ci.concord.ca.us. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  14. ^ Harris, Joel A. (2009). Images of America: Concord. San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-6913-0.
  15. ^ Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 618. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
  16. ^ Allen, Robert L. (2006). The Port Chicago Mutiny. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-59714-028-7. OCLC 63179024. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  17. ^ "City of Concord City Profile". Archived from the original on November 4, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  18. ^ "Concord City News: Summer 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
  19. ^ "Loaves and Fishes should not be relocated in downtown Concord". Halfwaytoconcord.com. November 6, 2007. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  20. ^ Weather. "MSN Weather". Weather.uk.msn.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  21. ^ a b c d "General Climate Summary Tables – Concord Wastewater Plan, California". Western Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
  22. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 26.
  23. ^ "Subcounty population estimates: California 2000–2007". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 18, 2009. Archived from the original (CSV) on September 26, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
  24. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – Concord city". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
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