Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. It was written primarily by John Lennon and credited to the Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership. Lennon's son Julian allegedly inspired the song with a nursery school drawing that he called "Lucy – in the sky with diamonds". Shortly before the album's release, speculation arose that the first letter of each of the title nouns intentionally spelled "LSD", the acronym commonly used for the hallucinogenic drug Lysergic acid diethylamide. As a result, the song was the subject of a BBC radio ban. Lennon repeatedly denied that he had intended it as a drug song, although he got the inspiration from an LSD trip. He attributed the song's fantastical imagery to his reading of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland books.
|"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"|
Cover of the US sheet music for the song
|Song by the Beatles|
|from the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band|
|Released||26 May 1967|
|Recorded||1–2 March 1967|
|Studio||EMI Studios, London|
|Genre||Psychedelia, psychedelic rock|
The Beatles recorded "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" in March 1967. Adding to the song's ethereal qualities, the musical arrangement includes a Lowrey organ part heavily treated with studio effects, and drone provided by an Indian tambura. The song has been recognised as a key work in the psychedelic genre. Among its many cover versions, a 1974 recording by Elton John, with a guest appearance by Lennon, was a number 1 hit in the US and Canada.
Background and inspirationEdit
John Lennon said that his inspiration for the song came when his three-year-old son Julian showed him a nursery school drawing that he called "Lucy – in the Sky with Diamonds", depicting his classmate Lucy O'Donnell. Julian later recalled: "I don't know why I called it that or why it stood out from all my other drawings, but I obviously had an affection for Lucy at that age. I used to show Dad everything I'd built or painted at school, and this one sparked off the idea." Ringo Starr witnessed the moment and said that Julian first uttered the song's title on returning home from nursery school. Lennon later said, "I thought that beautiful. I immediately wrote a song about it."
According to Lennon, the lyrics were largely derived from the literary style of Lewis Carroll's novel Alice in Wonderland. Lennon had read and admired Carroll's works, and the title of Julian's drawing reminded him of the "Which Dreamed It?" chapter of Through the Looking Glass, in which Alice floats in a "boat beneath a sunny sky". Lennon recalled in a 1980 interview:
It was Alice in the boat. She is buying an egg and it turns into Humpty-Dumpty. The woman serving in the shop turns into a sheep and the next minute they are rowing in a rowing boat somewhere and I was visualizing that.
Paul McCartney remembered of the song's composition, "We did the whole thing like an Alice in Wonderland idea, being in a boat on the river ... Every so often it broke off and you saw Lucy in the sky with diamonds all over the sky. This Lucy was God, the Big Figure, the White Rabbit." He later recalled helping Lennon finish the song at Lennon's Kenwood home, specifically claiming he contributed the "newspaper taxis" and "cellophane flowers" lyrics. Lennon's 1968 interview with Rolling Stone magazine confirmed McCartney's contribution.
Most of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" is in simple triple metre (3
4 time), but the chorus is in 4
4 time. In the original mono mix of the song, the song modulates between musical keys, using the key of G# major for verses, A major for the pre-chorus, and F# major for the chorus. The original stereo mix of the song speeds the song up so the pitch is raised by one half-step. It is sung by Lennon over an increasingly complicated underlying arrangement which features a tambura, played by George Harrison, lead electric guitar put through a Leslie speaker, played by Harrison, and a counter melody on Lowrey organ played by McCartney and taped with a special organ stop sounding "not unlike a celeste". Session tapes from the initial 1 March 1967 recording of this song reveal Lennon originally sang the line "Cellophane flowers of yellow and green" as a broken phrase, but McCartney suggested that he sing it more fluidly to improve the song.
The recording of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" began with rehearsals in Studio 2 at Abbey Road on 28 February 1967. The instrumental backing was finished the following evening. On the first take, track one of the four-track tape contained acoustic guitar and piano, track two McCartney's Lowrey organ, track three Ringo Starr's drums, and track four a guide vocal by Lennon during the verses. Take eight replaced the guide vocal with Harrison's tamboura. The four tracks of this take were then mixed together and recorded on the first track of a second four-track tape. On 2 March, Lennon's double-tracked vocals, accompanied by McCartney on the choruses, were recorded to tracks two and three. McCartney's bass and Harrison's lead guitar occupied track four. The lead guitar part varies between sections of the song: over the bridges, Harrison duplicates Lennon's melody and intonation in the style of a sarangi accompanying an Indian khyal vocalist; over the choruses, he plays an ascending riff on his Fender Stratocaster (mirrored by McCartney's bass), with heavy Leslie treatment given to the part. Eleven mono mixes of the song were made at the 2 March session, but they were rejected in favour of the final mono mix created on 3 March. A stereo mix was made on 7 April.
Outtakes from the recording sessions have been officially released. The Beatles' Anthology 2, released in 1996, contained a composite remix, with ingredients from takes six, seven and eight, while the first take of the song was featured on the two-disc and six-disc versions of the 50th-anniversary edition of Sgt. Pepper in 2017. The six-disc collection also included take five and the last of the eleven mono mixes made on 2 March 1967.
Rumours of the connection between the title of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and the initialism "LSD" began circulating shortly after the release of the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band LP in June 1967. In May, the song was banned from the BBC for its alleged references to drugs. McCartney gave two interviews in June admitting to having taken the drug. Lennon later said he was surprised at the idea the title was a hidden reference to LSD, countering that the song "wasn't about that at all", and it "was purely unconscious that it came out to be LSD. Until someone pointed it out, I never even thought of it. I mean, who would ever bother to look at initials of a title? ... It's not an acid song."
When you write a song and you mean it one way, and someone comes up and says something about it that you didn't think of – you can't deny it. Like "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds," people came up and said, cunningly, "Right, I get it. L-S-D," and it was when [news]papers were talking about LSD, but we never thought about it.
In a 2004 interview with Uncut magazine, McCartney confirmed it was "pretty obvious" drugs did influence some of the group's compositions at that time, including "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", though he tempered this statement by adding, "[I]t's easy to overestimate the influence of drugs on the Beatles' music."
In 2017, the first take of the song was issued leading up to the release of the 50th anniversary special edition of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band; the story about Julian's painting was confirmed as the inspiration of the song, as opposed to the LSD reference. Lennon's original handwritten lyrics sold at auction in 2011 for $230,000.
Discussing the impact of the Sgt. Pepper album, author Nicholas Schaffner cited the song as an example of how the Beatles successfully captured the way "young people were trying to transcend, transform, or escape from straight society" in 1967. He said that just as Harrison's "Within You Without You" represented the exoticism of Herman Hesse's Siddartha, "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" was a "miniature pop version" of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings in terms of conveying the sense of wonder the book evoked. According to musicologist Walter Everett, the song's lyrics inspired "derivative texts" throughout the late 1960s, namely John Fred & His Playboy Band's "Judy in Disguise (With Glasses)", the Lemon Pipers' "Jelly Jungle (of Orange Marmalade)", Pink Floyd's "Let There Be More Light" and the Scaffold's "Jelly Covered Cloud".
Rolling Stone magazine described "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" as "Lennon's lavish daydream". In their respective reviews for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine identifies it as "one of the touchstones of British psychedelia" while Richie Unterberger views it as "one of the best songs on the Beatles' famous Sgt. Pepper album, and one of the classic songs of psychedelia as a whole". Unterberger adds: "There are few other songs that so successfully evoke a dream world, in both the sonic textures and words." In his book on the history of ambient music, Mark Prendergast highlights the track as one of the album's "three outstanding cuts", along with "A Day in the Life" and "Within You Without You". He describes it as "incredible" and "a gossamer-like evocation of childlike psychedelia".
In a review for the BBC Music website, Chris Jones described the track as "nursery rhyme surrealism" that contributed to Sgt. Pepper's "revolutionary ... sonic carpet that enveloped the ears and sent the listener spinning into other realms". Writing for Paste in 2015, Hilary Saunders called the song "a perfectly indulgent introduction to psych-rock". In 2013, Dave Swanson of Ultimate Classic Rock ranked "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" fourth on his list of the "Top 10 Beatles Psychedelic Songs" saying that, despite Lennon's insistence about the inspiration for its title, the track is "Three-and-a-half minutes of pure lysergic bliss, full of picturesque and surreal lyrics set to one of the Beatles' most trippy songs".
Harrison later identified "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" as one of the few songs he liked from Sgt. Pepper and expressed satisfaction with his Indian music-inspired contributions. For his part, Lennon expressed disappointment with the Beatles' arrangement of the recording, complaining that inadequate time was taken to fully develop his initial idea for the song. He also said he had not sung it very well. "I was so nervous I couldn't sing", he told journalist Ray Connolly, "but I like the lyrics." According to author Ian MacDonald, in a scenario similar to Lennon's disappointment with "Strawberry Fields Forever", Lennon most likely rued the loss of "sentimental gentleness" he had envisaged for the piece, and, overly passive to his songwriting partner's suggestions, allowed the arrangement to become dominated by McCartney's "glittering countermelody". MacDonald views the bridge portions as the "most effective" sections, through their subtle use of harmonised drone and "featherweight bass", and bemoans the reversion to "clodhopping ... three-chord 4/4 rock" over the choruses. He concludes by saying that the track "succeed[s] more as a glamorous production (voice and guitar through the Leslie cabinet; echo and varispeed on everything) than as an integrated song".
Lennon mentioned "Lucy in the Sky" in the Beatles' song "I Am the Walrus".
A 3.2-million-year-old, 40% complete fossil skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis specimen discovered in 1974 was named "Lucy" because the Beatles song was being played loudly and repeatedly on a tape recorder in the camp. The phrase "Lucy in the sky" became "Lucy in disguise" to the anthropologists, because they initially did not understand the impact of their discovery.
Elton John versionEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"|
US picture sleeve
|Single by Elton John|
|B-side||"One Day (At a Time)"|
|Released||18 November 1974|
|Elton John singles chronology|
In 1974, Elton John released a cover version as a single. Recorded at the Caribou Ranch, it featured backing vocals and guitar by John Lennon under the pseudonym Dr. Winston O'Boogie (Winston being Lennon's middle name). The single topped the US Billboard pop charts for two weeks in January 1975 as well as the Canadian RPM national singles chart for four weeks spanning January and February. The B-side of the single was also a John Lennon composition, "One Day (At a Time)", from Lennon's 1973 album Mind Games. As with the A-side, Lennon appears on the B-side, playing guitar.
Development and releaseEdit
In the US it was certified Gold on 29 January 1975 by the RIAA. During their collaboration, Elton John appeared on John Lennon's song "Whatever Gets You Thru the Night". Lennon promised to appear live with Elton at Madison Square Garden if "Whatever Gets You Thru the Night" became a #1 single. It did, and on Thanksgiving Night, 28 November 1974, Lennon kept his promise. They performed "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", "Whatever Gets You thru the Night", and "I Saw Her Standing There".
In introducing "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", Elton John said he believed it to be "one of the best songs ever written." The Lennon-sung "I Saw Her Standing There" (credited to the Elton John Band featuring John Lennon) was originally released in 1975 on the B-side of Elton John's "Philadelphia Freedom" single. In 1981, all three live songs were issued on 28th November 1974, an Elton John EP. In 1990, the three songs were made available on the Lennon box set. In 1996, they were also included on the remastered edition of Elton John's Here and There album. Elton John once stated that "'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' is a song that I never do in a set at a concert simply because it reminds me too much of John Lennon. This is the same with 'Empty Garden'." It was a part of his standard repertoire from 1974 until 1976, and sporadically until 1998. It also appeared in the 1976 musical documentary All This and World War II.
- Elton John – lead and backing vocals, piano, mellotron, harpsichord
- John Lennon (as Dr. Winston O'Boogie) – backing vocals, guitars
- Davey Johnstone – backing vocals, electric guitar, sitar
- Dee Murray – bass guitar, backing vocals
- Nigel Olsson – drums, backing vocals
- Ray Cooper – tambourine, tubular bells, gong, maracas, mark tree, congas
The Flaming Lips versionEdit
|"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"|
|Single by The Flaming Lips featuring Miley Cyrus and Moby|
|from the album With a Little Help from My Fwends|
|Released||18 May 2014|
|The Flaming Lips singles chronology|
|Miley Cyrus singles chronology|
|Moby singles chronology|
A cover version by the Flaming Lips was included on their album With a Little Help from My Fwends, released on Warner Bros. The song, featuring vocals from Miley Cyrus and Moby, was released as official single on 18 May 2014. All proceeds from record sales go to the Bella Foundation, an organisation in Oklahoma City that helps provide veterinary care to needy pet owners.
- In 1968, William Shatner on The Transformed Man
- In 1977, the London Symphony Orchestra on Classic Rock
- In 1978, Natalie Cole on the album Natalie Live!
- In 1978, Stargard in the movie Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
- In 1987, the Hooters as a B-side to "Johnny B."
- In 1987, Pianist/composer John Bayless on his Bach on Abbey Road album (entire song in 3/4 time, including choruses, as a Bachian minuet)
- In 1988, The Christians on the charity compilation album Sgt. Pepper Knew My Father
- In 1988, Frank Zappa parodied the song in live concerts as "Louisiana Hooker with Herpes", with lyrics about Jimmy Swaggart and his sex scandal
- In 1992, Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids parodied the song as "Luci in the Sky with Demons" on the cassette tape The Family Jams
- In 1996, American-born Mexican singer Betsy Pecanins on the album Solo Beatles
- In 2001, the Black Crowes on the soundtrack of the movie I Am Sam
- In 2001, Brazilian singer Rita Lee on Aqui, Ali, Em Qualquer Lugar album
- In 2003, Hyde on the single "Horizon"
- In 2004, Jan Linton (as Dr Jan Guru) on the album "Planet Japan" 
- In 2005, Katie Melua on Piece by Piece
- In 2006, PUFFY on the Hataraku Otoko single, for the anime series Hataraki Man
- In 2007, Bono and The Edge performed the song on the Across the Universe soundtrack
- In 2007, Athlete (band) recorded the song for BBC Radio 2's Sergeant Pepper 40th anniversary show at Abbey Road Studios. It was broadcast 2 June 2007. It was produced and mixed by Geoff Emerick with Richard Lush.
- In 2009, Easy Star's Lonely Hearts Dub Band
- In 2009, Cheap Trick released Sgt. Pepper Live, which included the song
- In 2012, Mac Miller released "Desperado", which samples the song in its outro
- In 2013, British-Brazilian artist Dan Torres released a version from theme of the telenovela Império.
- In 2016, Pink performs the song for the Netflix animated series Beat Bugs.
- In 2019, the Lucy in the Sky film trailer features an instrumental (keyboards) rendition of the music theme from the song.
- Everett 1999, p. 123. "In the United Kingdom, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band ... was rush-released six days ahead of its official date, June 1."
- Compton 2017, p. 180.
- Sheff 2000, p. 182.
- Lennon, John (8 September 1971). "The Dick Cavett Show" (Interview). Interviewed by Dick Cavett. New York: ABC.
- The Guardian 2009.
- Kral 2009.
- BBC Radio 2, Sounds of the 60s, 2 February 2008
- Beatles, The (2000). The Beatles Anthology. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 242. ISBN 0-8118-2684-8.
- Starr, Ringo (25 June 1983). "Ringo's Yellow Submarine" (Interview). Interviewed by Jim Ladd. Los Angeles: ABC Radio Network.
- Aldridge, Alan (14 January 1968). "Paul McCartney's Guide to the Beatles' Songbook". Los Angeles Times Magazine. Los Angeles. pp. 19–24.
- Everett 1999, p. 104.
- McCartney, Paul (12 October 1997). "Sunday Supplement" (Interview). Interviewed by Michael Parkinson. London: BBC Radio Two.
- Cott, Jonathan (23 November 1968). "John Lennon: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012.
- Hal Leonard 1993, pp. 646–650.
- Lewisohn 1998, pp. 100–101.
- Ryan & Kehew 2006.
- Lewisohn 1998, p. 100.
- Winn 2009, p. 91.
- Winn 2009, p. 92.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 180.
- Everett 2009, pp. 51–52.
- Howlett, Kevin (2017). Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band Super Deluxe Edition (booklet). The Beatles. London: Apple Records. p. 55.
- Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band Super Deluxe Edition (CD sleeve). The Beatles. London: Apple Records. 2017.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Davies, Hunter (1968). The Beatles. London: William Heinemann. p. 530. ISBN 0-393-33874-6.
- Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. p. 63.
- "The day the BBC banned The Beatles for saying 'knickers'". International Business Times UK. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- Dawson, Ashley (2013). The Routledge Concise History of Twentieth-century British Literature. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57245-3.
- Thompson, Thomas (16 June 1967). "The New Far-Out Beatles". Life. Chicago: Time Inc. p. 101. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- McCartney, Paul (19 June 1967). "Interview with Paul McCartney". ITV Evening News (Interview). London: Independent Television News.
- "McCartney: Of Course Those Songs Were About Drugs". Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Associated Press. 3 June 2004. p. C02.
- "The Beatles' First Take Of 'Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds'". NPR.org. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- Morgan, David. "Lennon's "Lucy in the Sky" lyrics sell for $230K". CBS News. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- Schaffner 1978, pp. 81–82.
- Everett 1999, p. 105.
- Rolling Stone 2003.
- Erlwine, Stephen Thomas. "The Beatles Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Beatles 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds'". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Prendergast 2003, pp. 193–94.
- Jones, Chris (2007). "Review of The Beatles Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band". BBC Music. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
- Saunders, Hilary (28 August 2015). "The 50 Best Beatles Songs". Paste. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Swanson, Dave (30 March 2013). "Top 10 Beatles Psychedelic Songs". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- Clerk, Carol (February 2002). "George Harrison 1943–2001". Uncut. p. 46. Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
- Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 179–80.
- "Lucy In The Sky with Diamonds Songfacts".
- MacDonald 1998, pp. 212–13.
- MacDonald 1998, p. 213.
- Winn 2009, pp. 91–92.
- "Ultimate Classic Rock". Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- Johanson & Edey 1981, p. 22.
- "RIAA – Searchable Database: Elton John". Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- Sheff 2000, p. 31.
- "Elton John Band Featuring John Lennon And Muscle Shoals Horns, The* - 28th November, 1974 at Discogs". Discogs.com. 28 November 1974. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (doc)
|url=(help). Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Lucy in the sky with diamonds in Canadian Top Singles Chart". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Musicline.de – Elton John Single-Chartverfolgung" (in German). Media Control Charts. PhonoNet GmbH.
- "Charts.nz – Elton John – Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds". Top 40 Singles.
- "1974 Top 40 Official UK Singles Archive - 14 December 1974". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Item Display - RPM - Library and Archives Canada". collectionscanada.gc.ca.
- "The Flaming Lips Announce Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band Tribute Album Release Date". Pitchfork. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "Flaming Lips' 'Sgt. Peppers' Tribute Album Out this Fall". Rolling Stone. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "First Listen: The Flaming Lips, 'With A Little Help From My Fwends'". NPR.org. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "HMV Planet Japan: Dr Jan Guru".
- Flávio Ricco (15 July 2014). "Globo escala The Beatles para tema de abertura de "Império"". UOL.
- G1 (21 July 2014). "Dan Torres canta 'Lucy in the sky with diamonds' na abertura de 'Império'". G1 - Música.
- "Pink Sings the Beatles Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds".
- "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". AllMusic. January 2010.
- The Beatles - Complete Scores. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation. 1993. ISBN 0-7935-1832-6.
- "Beatles song 'inspiration' dies". BBC News. 28 September 2009.
- "The Beatles' Lucy in the Sky dies, aged 46". The Guardian. London. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- The Beatles (2000). The Beatles Anthology. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-2684-8.
- Brooks, Richard (7 June 2009). "Julian Lennon comforts ailing Lucy in the sky". The Times. London.
- Compton, Todd (2017). Who Wrote the Beatle Songs? A History of Lennon-McCartney. San Jose: Pahreah Press. ISBN 978-0-9988997-0-1.
- Everett, Walter (1999). The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver Through the Anthology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512941-0.
- Everett, Walter (2009). The Foundations of Rock: From "Blue Suede Shoes" to "Suite: Judy Blue Eyes"'. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-531024-5.
- Hoyle, Ben (28 September 2009). "Real-life 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' dies at 46". The Times. London.
- Johanson, Donald Carl; Edey, Maitland (1981). Lucy, the Beginnings of Humankind. St Albans: Granada. ISBN 0-586-08437-1.
- Shriver, Jerry (23 November 2009). "Julian Lennon, Decade Later, Back in Music Biz With 'Lucy'". USA Today. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- Kral, Georgia (9 June 2009). "Julian Lennon Aids Real-Life 'Lucy'". Spinner.
- Kung, Michelle (28 September 2009). "Lucy Vodden, of "Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds" Song Fame, Dies". The Wall Street Journal.
- Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York, NY: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.
- Lewisohn, Mark (1988). The Beatles Recording Sessions. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-57066-1.
- MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (Second Revised ed.). London: Pimlico (Rand). ISBN 1-84413-828-3.
- Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-5249-6.
- Prendergast, Mark (2003). The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Moby – The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. ISBN 1-58234-323-3.
- Ryan, Kevin; Kehew, Brian (2006). Recording The Beatles. Curvebender Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9785200-0-7.
- Schaffner, Nicholas (1978). The Beatles Forever. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-055087-5.
- Sheff, David (2000). All We Are Saying: The Last Major Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-25464-4.
- Sherwin, Adam (1 June 2007). "Housewife Lucy, formerly in the sky with diamonds". The Australian. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2007.
- "Sir Paul Reveals Beatles' Drug Use". BBC News. 2 June 2004.
- Winn, John C. (2009). That Magic Feeling: The Beatles' Recorded Legacy, Volume Two, 1966–1970. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-307-45239-9.