Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily from the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. For instrumentation, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.
By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, and jazz rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, which was influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene. New genres that emerged included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements, glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style, and the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and eventually alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals in the early 2000s. The late 2000s and 2010s saw a slow decline in rock music's mainstream popularity and cultural relevancy, with hip hop surpassing it as the most popular genre in the United States.
Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the goth, punk, and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
are an Irish rock
band from Dublin, formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono
(lead vocals and rhythm guitar), the Edge
(lead guitar, keyboards, and backing vocals), Adam Clayton
(bass guitar), and Larry Mullen Jr.
(drums and percussion). Initially rooted in post-punk
, U2's musical style has evolved throughout their career, yet has maintained an anthemic quality built on Bono's expressive vocals and the Edge's effects
-based guitar textures
. Their lyrics, often embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal and sociopolitical themes. Popular for their live performances, the group have staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career.
The band formed as teenagers while attending Mount Temple Comprehensive School, when they had limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they signed with Island Records and released their debut album, Boy (1980). Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album, War (1983), and the singles "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Pride (In the Name of Love)" helped establish U2's reputation as a politically and socially conscious group. By the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985. The group's fifth album, The Joshua Tree (1987), made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US to date: "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For".
Facing creative stagnation and a backlash following their documentary/double album, Rattle and Hum (1988), U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. Beginning with their acclaimed seventh album, Achtung Baby (1991), and the multimedia-intensive Zoo TV Tour, the band integrated influences from alternative rock, electronic dance music, and industrial music into their sound, and embraced a more ironic, flippant image. This experimentation continued through their ninth album, Pop (1997), and the PopMart Tour, which were mixed successes. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Can't Leave Behind (2000) and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb (2004), which established a more conventional, mainstream sound for the group. Their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 set records for the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. The group most recently released the companion albums Songs of Innocence (2014) and Songs of Experience (2017), the former of which received criticism for its pervasive, no-cost release through the iTunes Store.
U2 have released 14 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists, having sold an estimated 150–170 million records worldwide. They have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, and in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, and Music Rising.
Randolph Peter Best
; 24 November 1941) is an English musician known as the Beatles
' drummer before the band achieved worldwide fame. After he was dismissed from the group in 1962, he started his own band, the Pete Best Four, and later joined many other bands over the years. He is one of several people who have been referred to as the Fifth Beatle
Best's mother, Mona Best (1924–1988), opened the Casbah Coffee Club in the cellar of the Bests' house in Liverpool. The Beatles (at the time known as the Quarrymen) played some of their first concerts at the club. The Beatles invited Best to join the band on 12 August 1960, on the eve of the group's first Hamburg season of club dates. Ringo Starr eventually replaced Best on 16 August 1962, when the group's manager, Brian Epstein, fired Best at the request of John Lennon, Paul McCartney and George Harrison following the band's first recording session. Over 30 years later, Best received a major monetary payout for his work with the Beatles after the release of their 1995 compilation of their early recordings on Anthology 1; Best played the drums on a number of the album's tracks, including the Decca auditions.
After working in a number of commercially unsuccessful groups, Best gave up the music industry to work as a civil servant for 20 years before starting the Pete Best Band.
Casting Crowns is the first studio album by American Christian rock band Casting Crowns. Produced by Mark A. Miller and Steven Curtis Chapman, the album was released on October 7, 2003, by Beach Street Records. It incorporates a pop rock and rock sound, with the main instruments used in the album being guitar, keyboard and violin. Casting Crowns received positive reviews from music critics, many of whom praised the album's lyrics and production quality. It was nominated for Pop/Contemporary Album of the Year at the 35th GMA Dove Awards, while its singles were nominated for and received various awards.
Preceded by a lead single, "If We Are the Body", which peaked at number one on the Radio & Records Christian AC and Christian CHR charts in the US, Casting Crowns debuted at number 198 on the Billboard 200. The album eventually peaked at number 59 on that chart, also peaking at number 2 on the Billboard Christian Albums chart and at number 1 on the Billboard Heatseekers Albums chart. Two other singles, "Who Am I" and "Voice of Truth", also went to number 1. The album ranked as one of the best-selling Christian albums of 2004 and 2005 in the United States and was the 11th best-selling Christian album of the 2000s in the United States. Casting Crowns has sold more than 1.9 million copies since its release and has been certified 2× Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), one of 8 Christian albums to reach that milestone.
"Could've Been You" is a rock song first performed by American rock singer Bob Halligan and later popularized by American singer-actress Cher. The song was written by Halligan and Arnie Roman for Halligan's 1991 album, Window In The Wall. Cher's cover version was produced by Peter Asher and released exclusively for the European market in early 1992 as the fourth single from Cher's twenty-first studio album, Love Hurts. Lyrically, "Could've Been You" is a message from the song's protagonist to his or her ex.
Cher's version of "Could've Been You" received positive reviews from critics and peaked at number thirty-one on the UK Singles Chart. Cher promoted the song through appearances at Top of the Pops and Aspel and Company.
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