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Emo /ˈm/ is a genre of rock music characterized by an emphasis on emotional expression, sometimes through confessional lyrics. It emerged as a style of post-hardcore from the mid-1980s hardcore punk movement of Washington, D.C., where it was known as emotional hardcore or emocore and pioneered by Washington, D.C. hardcore bands such as Rites of Spring and Embrace. However, as the genre was taken up by a new generation of musicians in the early 1990s, its sound and meaning shifted and changed and it was reinvented as a style of indie rock and pop punk by bands such as Jawbreaker, Sunny Day Real Estate, Weezer, and Jimmy Eat World. By the mid-1990s, numerous emo acts such as Braid, The Promise Ring, and the Get Up Kids emerged in the Midwestern and Central United States, and several independent record labels began to specialize in the genre. Meanwhile, a more aggressive style of emo, screamo, had also emerged, pioneered by the San Diego bands Heroin and Antioch Arrow.

Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the sales success of Jimmy Eat World and Dashboard Confessional. In the wake of this success, many emo bands were signed to major record labels and the style became a marketable product. During the mid–late 2000s, emo continued to be popular with bands such as My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy, and the Red Jumpsuit Apparatus. In the early 2010s, the popularity of emo began to decrease. Some bands moved away from the emo genre and some bands disbanded. A mainly underground "emo revival" emerged in the 2010s, with bands such as Modern Baseball and Empire! Empire! (I Was a Lonely Estate) drawing on the sounds and aesthetics of emo of the 1990s and early 2000s.

In addition to music, emo is often seen as a subculture is often used more generally to signify a particular relationship between fans and artists, and to describe related aspects of fashion, culture, and behavior. The emo subculture has been associated with fans of emo music who have an appearance that consists of features such as skinny jeans, tight, usually short-sleeved t-shirts which often bear the names of emo bands, studded belts, and flat, straight, and usually jet black hair with long bangs. Emo has been associated with a stereotype that includes being particularly emotional, sensitive, misanthropic, shy, introverted, or angst-ridden. It has also been associated with stereotypes like depression, self-harm, and suicide.



While emo originated in hardcore punk[3][4] and has been considered a subgenre of post-hardcore,[5] it has also been associated with indie rock[6][7] and pop punk.[6][8] The fusion of emo with pop punk is known as emo pop. According to AllMusic, "some emo leans toward the progressive side, full of complex guitar work, unorthodox song structures, arty noise, and extreme dynamic shifts; some emo is much closer to punk-pop, though it's a bit more intricate".[3] Lyrics, which are a key focus in the genre, are typically emotional and often personal, dealing with topics such as failed romance;[9] AllMusic described emo lyrics as "usually either free-associative poetry or intimate confessionals".[3] According to AllMusic, early emo bands were hardcore punk bands that "favored expressive vocals over the typical barking rants" of regular hardcore punk and most 1990s emo bands "borrowed from some combination of Fugazi, Sunny Day Real Estate, and Weezer".[3] The New York Times described as emo as "emotional punk or post-hardcore or pop-punk. That is, punk that wears its heart on its sleeve and tries a little tenderness to leaven its sonic attack. If it helps, imagine Ricky Nelson singing in the Sex Pistols."[10] Author Matt Diehl described emo as a "more sensitive interpolation of punk's mission".[9] Dean Kuipers of the Los Angeles Times described emo as "guitar dynamics that explored both the softs and louds of punk in the same song with--most important--brutally confessional and even self-loathing lyrics".[11] Kuipers also wrote:

Emo songs are mostly about pain. As a body, they are like middle-of-the-night journal entries exposing insecurity and suicidal thoughts. Or wanting the girl and even getting the girl, then going down under a swarm of conflicts and self-inflicted wounds and losing the girl to mopey confusion.[11]



Hardcore punk band Minor Threat performing at the Wilson Center in Washington, D.C. in 1981

The 1966 album Pet Sounds by the American rock band the Beach Boys has been characterized as "the first emo album" by Treblezine's Ernest Simpson[12] and Wild Nothing's Jack Tatum.[13] Writer Sean Cureton believes: "With several singles lending themselves to an underlying tension bordering on agoraphobic paranoia, Pet Sounds is an intensely melancholic recording disguised as a pop album. In some ways, one could find trace elements of [the album] in early emo albums of the 2000s."[14]

In the 1980s, the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene swelled in size with the formation of many hardcore punk and post-hardcore bands. Post-hardcore itself is a more experimental offshoot of hardcore punk that is inspired by post-punk.[15] Hardcore punk bands and post-hardcore bands that were influential on many early emo bands include Minor Threat,[16] The Faith,[17] Black Flag, and Hüsker Dü.[18]

1984–1991: Origins

Emo originated as an outgrowth of the hardcore punk[3] scene of early 1980s Washington, D.C., both as a reaction to the increased violence within the scene and as an extension of the personal politics espoused by Ian MacKaye of Minor Threat, who had turned the focus of the music from the community back towards the individual.[19][20] Minor Threat fan Guy Picciotto formed Rites of Spring in 1984, breaking free of hardcore punk's self-imposed boundaries in favor of melodic guitars, varied rhythms, and deeply personal, impassioned lyrics.[21] Many of the band's themes would become familiar tropes in later generations of emo music, including nostalgia, romantic bitterness, and poetic desperation.[22] Their performances became public emotional purges where audience members would sometimes weep.[23] MacKaye became a huge Rites of Spring fan, recording their only album and serving as their roadie, and soon formed a new band of his own called Embrace which explored similar themes of self-searching and emotional release.[24]

Guy Picciotto, the vocalist and guitarist of Rites of Spring, seen here performing with Fugazi. The sound of Rites of Spring was considered a huge change in style from previous hardcore punk acts at the time.

Similar bands soon followed in connection with the "Revolution Summer" of 1985, a deliberate attempt by members of the Washington, D.C. scene to break from the rigid constraints of hardcore punk in favor of a renewed spirit of creativity.[20] Bands such as Gray Matter, Beefeater, Fire Party, Dag Nasty, Soulside, and Kingface were connected to this movement.[20][24]

The exact origins of the term "emo" are uncertain, but date back to at least 1985. According to Andy Greenwald, author of Nothing Feels Good: Punk Rock, Teenagers, and Emo, "The origins of the term 'emo' are shrouded in mystery ... but it first came into common practice in 1985. If Minor Threat was hardcore, then Rites of Spring, with its altered focus, was emotional hardcore or emocore."[24] Michael Azerrad, author of Our Band Could Be Your Life, also traces the word's origins to this time: "The style was soon dubbed 'emo-core,' a term everyone involved bitterly detested, although the term and the approach thrived for at least another fifteen years, spawning countless bands."[25] MacKaye also traces it to 1985, attributing it to an article in Thrasher magazine referring to Embrace and other Washington, D.C. bands as "emo-core", which he called "the stupidest fucking thing I've ever heard in my entire life."[26] Other accounts attribute the term to an audience member at an Embrace show, who yelled that the band was "emocore" as an insult.[27][28] Others contend that MacKaye coined the term when he used it self-mockingly in a magazine, or that it originated with Rites of Spring.[28]

The Oxford English Dictionary, however, dates the earliest usage of "emo-core" to 1992 and "emo" to 1993, with "emo" first appearing in print media in New Musical Express in 1995.[29][30]

The "emocore" label quickly spread around the Washington, D.C. punk scene and became attached to many of the bands associated with Ian MacKaye's Dischord Records label.[27] Although many of these bands simultaneously rejected the term, it stuck nonetheless. Scene veteran Jenny Toomey has recalled that "The only people who used it at first were the ones that were jealous over how big and fanatical a scene it was. [Rites of Spring] existed well before the term did and they hated it. But there was this weird moment, like when people started calling music 'grunge,' where you were using the term even though you hated it."[31]

The Washington, D.C. emo scene lasted only a few years. By 1986, most of the major bands of the movement—including Rites of Spring, Embrace, Gray Matter, and Beefeater—had broken up.[32] Even so, the ideas and aesthetics originating from the scene spread quickly across the country via a network of homemade zines, vinyl records, and hearsay.[33] According to Greenwald, the Washington, D.C. scene laid the groundwork for all subsequent incarnations of emo:

MacKaye and Picciotto, along with Rites of Spring drummer Brendan Canty, went on to form the highly influential band named Fugazi who, despite sometimes being connected with the term "emo", are not commonly recognized as an emo band.[35]

1991–1994: Reinvention

As the ideals of the Washington, D.C. emo movement spread across the United States, many bands in numerous local scenes began to emulate the sound as a way to marry the intensity of hardcore punk with the complex emotions associated with growing older.[36] The style combined the fatalism, theatricality, and outsiderness of The Smiths with the uncompromising and dramatic worldview of hardcore punk.[36] Although the bands were numerous and the locales varied, the aesthetics of emocore in the late 1980s remained more or less the same: "over-the-top lyrics about feelings wedded to dramatic but decidedly punk music."[36]

However, in the early 1990s, several new bands reinvented the emo style and carried its core characteristic, the intimacy between bands and fans, into the new decade.[37] Chief among these were Jawbreaker and Sunny Day Real Estate, both of whom fostered cult followings, recontextualized the word "emo", and brought it a step closer to the mainstream.[37] According to Andy Greenwald:

In the wake of the 1991 success of Nirvana's Nevermind, underground music and subcultures in the United States became big business. New distribution networks emerged, touring routes were codified, and regional and independent acts were able to access the national stage.[37] Teenagers across the country declared themselves fans of independent music, and being punk became mainstream.[37] In this new musical climate, the aesthetics of emo expanded into the mainstream and altered the way the music was perceived: "Punk rock no-nos like the cult of personality and artistic abstraction suddenly become de rigueur", says Greenwald. "If one definition of emo has always been music that felt like a secret, Jawbreaker and Sunny Day Real Estate were cast in the roles of the biggest gossips of all, reigning as the largest influences on every emo band that came after them."[38]

Jawbreaker has been referred to as "the Rosetta Stone of contemporary emo".[38] Emerging from the San Francisco punk rock scene of the late 1980s and early 1990s and being formed in New York City, Jawbreaker's songwriting combined the heft of hardcore punk with pop punk sensibilities and the tortured artistry of mid-1980s emocore.[38][40] Singer/guitarist Blake Schwarzenbach focused his lyrics on topics that were personal, immediate, and lived, often lifting them directly from his journal.[41] Though they were often obscure and cloaked in metaphors, their specificity to Schwarzenbach's own concerns gave the words a bitterness and frustration that made them universal and magnetic to audiences.[42]

Schwarzenbach became emo's first idol as listeners related to the singer more than the songs themselves.[42] Jawbreaker's 1994 album 24 Hour Revenge Therapy became their most-loved amongst fans and is a touchstone of mid-1990s emo.[43] The band signed to major label Geffen Records and toured with Nirvana and Green Day, but their 1995 album Dear You sold poorly and they broke up soon after, with Schwarzenbach later forming Jets to Brazil.[44] Their influence lived on, however, through later successful emo and pop punk bands openly indebted to Jawbreaker's sound.[45]

Sunny Day Real Estate formed in Seattle during the height of the early-1990s grunge boom.[47] In contrast to Jawbreaker, its members were accomplished musicians with high-quality gear, lofty musical ambitions, intricate songwriting, and a sweeping, epic sound.[47] Frontman Jeremy Enigk sang desperately, in a falsetto register, about losing himself and subsuming himself in something greater, often using haphazard lyrics and made-up words.[48] The band's debut album Diary (1994) was over-the-top and romantic, and the music video for "Seven" received airplay on MTV.[49] The band's ambitious sound challenged other bands to reach further with their own music in sentiment, instrumentation, and metaphor, and represented a generational shift between grunge and emo.[46] Another emo band that emerged at the same time as Sunny Day Real Estate was California band Weezer.[50] Weezer released its debut album in 1994. Given the titles Weezer and the Blue Album, Weezer's debut album sold at least 3,300,000 copies in the United States.[51] NME claimed that Weezer's debut album "pretty much invented emo's melodic wing".[52] Jimmy Eat World, an emo band from Arizona, also emerged at this time. Influenced by pop punk bands such as the Mr. T Experience and Horace Pinker,[53] Jimmy Eat World released its self-titled debut album in 1994.[54]

Other emo-leaning punk bands soon followed suit, and the word "emo" began to shift from being vague and undefined to referring to a specific type of emotionally overbearing music that was romantic but distanced from the political nature of punk rock.[55] Sunny Day Real Estate fell apart after Diary, as Enigk became a born-again Christian and launched a solo career while the other members drifted into new projects such as the Foo Fighters. They released three more albums through a series of breakups and occasional reunions, but are remembered primarily for the promise of their debut and the shift it engendered in the tastes of underground rock fans.[56] Despite emo's reinvention in the 1990s, bands such as Policy of 3[57] and Hoover[58][59][59] retained the post-hardcore-oriented emo sound.

1994–1997: Underground popularity

In the mid-1990s, the American punk and indie rock movements, which had been largely underground since the early 1980s, became part of mainstream culture. After Nirvana's success, major record labels capitalized on the popularity of alternative rock and other underground music by signing numerous independent bands and spending large amounts of capital promoting them.[60] In 1994, the same year that Jawbreaker's 24 Hour Revenge Therapy and Sunny Day Real Estate's Diary were released, punk rock acts Green Day and The Offspring had multiplatinum successes with their respective albums Dookie and Smash. In the wake of the underground going mainstream, over the next several years emo as a genre retreated, reformed, and morphed into a national subculture, and then eventually something more.[60] Drawing inspiration from bands like Jawbreaker, Drive Like Jehu, and Fugazi, the new sound of emo was a mixture of hardcore's passion and indie rock's intelligence, bearing the anthemic power of punk rock and its do-it-yourself work ethic but with smoother songs, sloppier melodies, and yearning vocals.[61]

Emo band Braid on June 20, 2004

Many of the new emo bands originated from the Midwestern and Central United States, such as Cap'n Jazz[62] from Chicago, Braid from ChampaignUrbana, Illinois, Christie Front Drive from Denver, Mineral from Austin, Texas, Jimmy Eat World from Mesa, Arizona, The Get Up Kids from Kansas City, Missouri, and The Promise Ring from Milwaukee.[63] According to Andy Greenwald, "This was the period when emo earned many, if not all, of the stereotypes that have lasted to this day: boy-driven, glasses-wearing, overly sensitive, overly brainy, chiming-guitar-driven college music."[61] Many of these bands employed a sound that featured a distinct vocal style and guitar melodies, which was later dubbed as Midwestern emo.[64]

On the east coast, New York City-based Texas Is the Reason bridged the gap between indie rock and emo in their brief three-year lifespan by melding the melodies of Sunny Day Real Estate to churning punk musicianship and singing directly to the listener.[65] In New Jersey, Lifetime gained a reputation as a melodic hardcore act, playing shows in fans' basements.[66] Their 1995 album Hello Bastards on rising independent label Jade Tree Records fused hardcore with emo's tunefulness, turning its back on cynicism and irony in favor of love songs.[66] The album sold tens of thousands of copies[67] and the band inspired a number of later New Jersey and Long Island emo acts such as Brand New, Glassjaw, Midtown,[68] The Movielife, My Chemical Romance,[68] Saves the Day,[68][69] Senses Fail,[68] Taking Back Sunday,[67][68] and Thursday.[68][70]

The Promise Ring were one of the premier bands of the new emo style. Their music took a slower, smoother, pop punk approach to hardcore riffs, blending them with singer Davey von Bohlen's imagist lyrics delivered with a froggy croon and pronounced lisp, and they played shows in basements and VFW halls[71] Jade Tree released their debut 30° Everywhere in 1996 and it sold tens of thousands of copies, a blockbuster by independent standards.[72] Greenwald describes the effect of the album as "like being hit in the head with cotton candy."[73] Other bands such as Karate, The Van Pelt, Joan of Arc, and The Shyness Clinic incorporated elements of post-rock and noise rock into the emo sound.[74] The common lyrical thread between these bands was "applying big questions to small scenarios."[74]

A cornerstone of mid-1990s emo was Weezer's 1996 album Pinkerton.[76] Following the success of their multiplatinum debut, Pinkerton turned from their power pop sound to a much darker, more abrasive character.[77][78] Frontman Rivers Cuomo's songs were obsessed with messy, manipulative sex and his own insecurities of dealing with celebrity.[78] A critical and commercial failure,[78][79] it was ranked by Rolling Stone as the second-worst album of the year.[80] Cuomo retreated from the public eye,[78] later referring to the album as "hideous" and "a hugely painful mistake".[81] However, Pinkerton found enduring appeal with teenagers just discovering alternative rock, who were drawn to its confessional lyrics and themes of rejection and came to believe that it was directed at them.[75] Sales grew steadily as word of the album passed between fans, over online messageboards, and via Napster.[75] "Although no one was paying attention", says Greenwald, "perhaps because no one was paying attention—Pinkerton became the most important emo album of the decade."[75]

When Weezer returned in 2000, however, they did so with a decidedly pop-oriented sound. Cuomo refused to play songs from Pinkerton, dismissing it as "ugly" and "embarrassing".[82] Nevertheless, the album held its appeal and eventually achieved both high sales and critical praise, and is noted for introducing emo to larger and more mainstream audiences.[83]

The emo aesthetic of the mid-1990s was embodied in Mineral, whose albums The Power of Failing (1997) and EndSerenading (1998) encapsulated the emo tropes of somber music accompanied by a shy narrator singing seriously about mundane problems.[84] Greenwald calls their song "If I Could" "the ultimate expression of mid-nineties emo. The song's short synopsis—she is beautiful, I am weak, dumb, and shy; I am alone but am surprisingly poetic when left alone—sums up everything that emo's adherents admired and its detractors detested."[84] Another significant band of the era was Braid, whose 1998 album Frame and Canvas and B-side song "Forever Got Shorter" blurred the lines between band and listener, as the group was a mirror-image of its own audience in passion and sentiment and sang in the voice of their fans.[85]

Though the emo style of the mid-1990s had thousands of young fans, it never broke into the national consciousness.[87] A few bands were offered contracts with major record labels, but most broke up before they could capitalize on the opportunity.[88] Jimmy Eat World signed to Capitol Records in 1995 and built a following among the emo community with their album Static Prevails, but did not break into the mainstream despite their major-label association as their music was mostly lost amongst the popular ska movement of the period.[89] The Promise Ring were the most commercially successful emo band of the time, with sales of their 1997 album Nothing Feels Good topping out in the mid-five figures.[87] Greenwald calls the album "the pinnacle of its generation of emo: a convergence of pop and punk, of resignation and celebration, of the lure of girlfriends and the pull of friends, bandmates, and the road."[90] He refers to mid-1990s emo as "the last subculture made of vinyl and paper instead of plastic and megabytes."[91]

1997–2002: Rise in popularity

Beginning in the late 1990s emo had a surge of popularity in the realm of independent music, as a number of notable acts and record labels experienced successes that would lay the foundation for the style's later mainstream breakthrough. As emo gained a larger fanbase the music business began see its marketing potential, and as big business entered the picture many of the acts previously associated with the term intentionally distanced themselves from it:

In 1997, Deep Elm Records launched a series of compilation albums entitled The Emo Diaries, which continued until 2007 with eleven installments.[93] Featuring mostly unreleased music from unsigned bands, the series included acts such as Jimmy Eat World, Further Seems Forever, Samiam, and The Movielife.[93] The diversity of bands and musical styles made the case for emo as more of a shared aesthetic than a genre, and the series helped to codify the term "emo" and spread it throughout the community of underground music.[92]

Jimmy Eat World's 1999 album Clarity was one of the most significant emo albums of the late 1990s and became a touchstone for later emo bands.[96] Writing in 2003, Andy Greenwald called it "one of the most fiercely beloved rock 'n' roll records of the last decade. It is name-checked by every single contemporary emo band as their favorite album, as a mind-bending milemarker that proved that punk rock could be tuneful, emotional, wide-ranging, and ambitious."[96] However, despite warm critical reception and promotion of the single "Lucky Denver Mint" in the Drew Barrymore comedy film Never Been Kissed, Clarity was commercially unsuccessful in a musical climate dominated by teen pop, and the band left major label Capitol Records the following year.[94][95] Nevertheless, the album gained steady popularity via word-of-mouth and was treasured by fans, eventually selling over 70,000 copies.[97] Jimmy Eat World self-financed the recording of their next album Bleed American (2001) before signing to Dreamworks Records. The album sold 30,000 copies in its first week and went gold shortly after. In 2002, it went platinum as emo broke into the mainstream.[98]

Drive-Thru Records, founded in 1996, steadily built up a roster of primarily pop punk bands with emo characteristics such as Midtown, The Starting Line, The Movielife, and Something Corporate.[99] Drive-Thru's partnership with major label MCA enabled their brand of emo-inflected pop to reach wider audiences.[100] The label's biggest early success was New Found Glory,[100] whose 2000 eponymous album reached No. 107 on the Billboard 200[101] with the single "Hit or Miss" reaching No. 15 on the Alternative Songs chart.[102] Drive-Thru's unabashedly populist and capitalist approach to music allowed its bands' albums and merchandise to sell heavily through popular outlets such as Hot Topic:[103]

Saves the Day was called an "emo flagship band" by the Los Angeles Times.[11]

Independent label Vagrant Records was behind several successful emo acts of the late 1990s and early 2000s. The Get Up Kids had sold over 15,000 copies of their debut album Four Minute Mile (1997) before signing to Vagrant, who promoted the band aggressively and put them on tours opening for big-name acts like Green Day and Weezer.[105] Their 1999 album Something to Write Home About was an independent success, reaching No. 31 on Billboard's Top Heatseekers chart.[106] Vagrant signed and released albums by a number of other emo and emo-related acts over the next two years, including The Anniversary, Reggie and the Full Effect, The New Amsterdams, Alkaline Trio, Saves the Day, Dashboard Confessional, Hey Mercedes, and Hot Rod Circuit.[107] Saves the Day had built a large following on the east coast and sold almost 50,000 copies of their second album Through Being Cool (1999)[69] before signing to Vagrant and releasing Stay What You Are (2001), which sold 15,000 copies in its first week,[108] reached No. 100 on the Billboard 200,[109] and went on to sell over 200,000 copies.[110] In 1999, pop punk band Blink-182, despite not being recognized as an emo band, created an emo song called "Adam's Song".[111] "Adam's Song", which is from Blink-182's 5x platinum[112] album Enema of the State, went to number 2 on the Alternative Songs chart.[113]

In the summer of 2001, Vagrant organized a national tour featuring every band on the label, sponsored by corporations such as Microsoft and Coca-Cola. This populist approach and the use of the internet as a marketing tool helped Vagrant become one of the country's most successful independent labels and also helped to popularize the term "emo".[114] According to Greenwald, "More than any other event, it was Vagrant America that defined emo to masses—mainly because it had the gumption to hit the road and bring it to them."[108]

2002–2010: Mainstream popularity

Jimmy Eat World's 2001 single "The Middle" was a huge success on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks, bringing emo to a mainstream audience.

Emo broke into the mainstream media in the summer of 2002 with a number of notable events:[115] Jimmy Eat World's Bleed American album went platinum on the strength of "The Middle", which reached No. 1 on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks chart.[115][116][117] Dashboard Confessional reached No. 22 on the same chart with "Screaming Infidelities"[118] from their Vagrant Records debut The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most, which was No. 5 on Independent Albums,[119] and became the first non-platinum-selling artist to record an episode of MTV Unplugged[115] (the resultant live album itself was a No. 1 Independent Album in 2003 and quickly went platinum).[119][120] New Found Glory's album Sticks and Stones debuted at No. 4 on the Billboard 200.[115][121] Also, The Get Up Kids' 2002 release On a Wire had some success as it peaked at No. 57 on the Billboard 200 and No. 3 on the Top Independent Albums chart. Their 2004 release Guilt Show also had some success as it peaked at No. 58 on the Billboard 200.[122]

Saves the Day toured with Green Day, Blink-182, and Weezer, playing large arenas such as Madison Square Garden,[123] and by the end of the year had performed on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, appeared on the cover of Alternative Press, and had music videos for "At Your Funeral" and "Freakish" in heavy rotation on MTV2.[108][110] Taking Back Sunday would release their debut album Tell All Your Friends through Victory Records in 2002. The album would give the band a taste of success inside the emo scene thanks to singles like "Cute Without the 'E' (Cut from the Team)", and "You're So Last Summer". Although initially charting at #183 on the Billboard 200, Tell All Your Friends would eventually lead up to be certified gold by the RIAA in latter years and is now considered a landmark and one of the most influential albums in the emo scene. Articles on Vagrant Records were published in Time and Newsweek,[124] while the word "emo" began appearing on numerous magazine covers and became a catchall term for any music outside of mainstream pop.[125] Andy Greenwald attributes emo's sudden explosion into the mainstream to media outlets looking for the "next big thing" in the wake of the September 11 attacks:

Taking Back Sunday performing on August 24, 2007
The All-American Rejects performing on December 4, 2006

In the wake of this success, many emo bands were signed to major record labels and the style became a marketable product.[127] Dreamworks Records senior A&R representative Luke Wood remarked that "The industry really does look at emo as the new raprock, or the new grunge. I don't think that anyone is listening to the music that's being made—they're thinking of how they're going to take advantage of the sound's popularity at retail."[128] The depoliticized nature of emo, coupled with its catchy music and accessible themes, gave it a broad appeal to young mainstream audiences. Emo staple band Taking Back Sunday would continue to find major success in the years that followed, with their 2004 album Where You Want To Be charting at #3 in the Billboard 200, with the second single of the album "This Photograph is Proof (I Know You Know)" being featured in the Spider-Man 2 soundtrack, and their 2006 album Louder Now, with Louder Now being the band's breakout into the mainstream and charting at #2 in the Billboard 200, notably because of the popularity of its lead single "MakeDamnSure", both albums would be certified gold by the RIAA with Where You Want To Be having sold 667,000 copies as of September 2005, and Louder Now having sold over 900,000 copies as of June 9, 2008. The All-American Rejects' self-titled album was certified platinum by the RIAA[129] and the album's song "Swing, Swing" went to number 60 on the Billboard Hot 100.[130] The All-American Rejects' album Move Along was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA[131] and its single "Dirty Little Secret" went to number 9 on the Billboard Hot 100[130] and was certified platinum by the RIAA.[132] Canadian emo band Simple Plan became really popular in the 2000s; their 2002 album No Pads, No Helmets...Just Balls was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA[133] and was certified 2x platinum by Music Canada[134] and their 2004 album Still Not Getting Any... was certified platinum by the RIAA[135] and was certified 4x platinum by Music Canada.[136] Hawthorne Heights had some popularity during the 2000s; the band's 2004 album The Silence in Black and White sold at least 929,000 copies in the United States.[137] Hawthorne Heights' 2006 album If Only You Were Lonely sold 114,000 units in its first week of being released.[138]

My Chemical Romance in February 2007
AFI concert in July 2006

Other emo bands that achieved mainstream success during the 2000s included My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy, AFI, The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus, Boys Like Girls, Fall Out Boy, Panic! at the Disco, and Paramore. My Chemical Romance broke into the mainstream with its second studio album Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge, which was certified platinum by the RIAA in 2005.[139] The mainstream success of My Chemical Romance continued with the band's third studio album The Black Parade, which sold 240,000 copies in its first week of being released[140] and was certified platinum by the RIAA in less than 1 year of being released.[141] Fall Out Boy broke into the mainstream during the 2000s; the band's album From Under the Cork Tree sold at least 2,700,000 copies in the United States.[142] Also, the band Fall Out Boy continued to be mainstream with its album Infinity on High, which peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200, sold 260,000 copies in its first week of being released[143] and sold at least 1,400,000 copies in the United States.[142] Fall Out Boy's song "Sugar, We're Goin' Down" went to number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100[144] and the band's song "Dance, Dance" went to number 9 on the Billboard Hot 100.[144] Also, Fall Out Boy's song "Thnks fr th Mmrs" went to number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100.[144] Panic! at the Disco's album A Fever You Can't Sweat Out was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA[145] and the album's single "I Write Sins Not Tragedies" went to number 7 on the Billboard Hot 100[146] and was certified 4x platinum by the RIAA.[147] Boys Like Girls singles such as "Hero/Heroine",[148] "The Great Escape",[149] and "Thunder"[150] all were certified either gold or platinum by the RIAA. The song "Face Down" by the band The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus peaked at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100[151] and the band's album Don't You Fake It sold at least 852,000 copies in the United States.[152] With its albums Sing the Sorrow and Decemberunderground, the band AFI achieved success; both albums were certified platinum by the RIAA[153][154] and Decemberunderground peaked at number 1 on the Billboard 200.[155] Paramore broke into the mainstream in the 2000s; the band's album Riot! was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA.[156] Riot!'s song "Misery Business" peaked at number 26 on the Billboard Hot 100[157] and was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA.[158]

Emo band Thursday
Screamo band Underoath

At the same time, a darker, more aggressive style of emo gained popularity. New Jersey–based Thursday signed a multimillion-dollar, multi-album contract with Island Def Jam on the strength of their 2001 album Full Collapse, which reached No. 178 on the Billboard 200.[159] Their music differed from the prominent emo bands of the time in that it was more politicized and lacked dominant pop hooks and anthems, drawing influence from more maudlin bands such as The Smiths, Joy Division, and The Cure. However, the band's accessibility, openness, basement-show roots, and touring alongside bands like Saves the Day made them part of the emo movement.[160] Thursday's 2003 album War All the Time went to number 7 on the Billboard 200.[161]

Screamo, a subgenre of emo, also has had some popularity. Hawthorne Heights, Story of the Year, Underoath, and Alexisonfire, four bands frequently featured on MTV, have been noted for their popularization of contemporary screamo.[162] Other active American screamo acts include Comadre,[163] Off Minor, Men As Trees,[164] Senses Fail,[165][166] and Vendetta Red.[162] The contemporary screamo scene is also particularly active in Europe, with bands such as Funeral for a Friend,[167] and Le Pré Où Je Suis Mort[168] all being prime examples of their scene. The screamo band Underoath were able to have some popularity; their albums They're Only Chasing Safety (2004)[169] and Define the Great Line (2006)[170] both were certified gold by the RIAA. The Used's self-titled album (2002)[171] and In Love and Death (2004)[172] both were certified gold by the RIAA. Alexisonfire albums were certified either gold or platinum in Canada.[173][174][175][176]

2010s: Decline in popularity and a mainly underground "emo revival"

In the early 2010s, emo's popularity began to decrease. Some bands moved away from their emo roots or disbanded. For example, My Chemical Romance's album Danger Days: The True Lives of the Fabulous Killjoys moved away from their emo roots[177] in favor of a traditional pop punk style.[178] Additionally, Paramore and Fall Out Boy both moved away from their emo roots during 2013[179] with albums like the former's self-titled and the latter's Save Rock and Roll. Moreover, Panic! at the Disco moved away from their emo pop roots with albums like Too Weird to Live, Too Rare to Die!, moving to a more synthpop style.[180] Also, by this time, many bands associated with the emo genre disbanded, which included bands like My Chemical Romance,[181][182] Alexisonfire,[183] and Thursday.[184] This has led to arguments regarding the state of emo music.[185]

The "emo revival"[186][187][188][189] is a 2010s development in the emo genre in which bands have taken inspiration from the sounds and aesthetics of emo from the 1990s and early 2000s. A mainly underground movement, music artists that have been part of this movement are Modern Baseball,[190] The World Is a Beautiful Place & I Am No Longer Afraid to Die,[186][188][189] A Great Big Pile of Leaves,[186] Pianos Become the Teeth,[189] Empire! Empire! (I Was a Lonely Estate),[186] Touché Amoré,[186][188] Into It. Over It.,[186][188] and the Hotelier.[191] Some modern emo bands with a more hardcore punk-oriented style include Title Fight[192] and Small Brown Bike.[193]


Emo pop

"Emo pop" emerged as an offshoot from emo that also embraces pop music influences, such as more concise songs and hook filled choruses. AllMusic describes emo pop as blending "youthful angst" with "slick production" and mainstream appeal, using "high-pitched melodies, rhythmic guitars, and lyrics concerning adolescence, relationships, and heartbreak."[195] Britain's The Guardian described the style as a cross between "saccharine boy-band pop" and emo.[196]

Weezer's Pinkerton (1996) is viewed by Spin as "a groundbreaking record for all the emo-pop that would follow."[197] According to Nicole Keiper of CMJ, Sense Field's Building (1996) pushed the band "into the emo-pop camp with the likes of the Get Up Kids and Jejune".[198] As emo became commercially successful in the early 2000s, the emo pop genre became popular with Jimmy Eat World's 2001 release Bleed American and the success of that album's single "The Middle".[195]

Emo pop band The Get Up Kids performing at the Bowery Ballroom in 2000

Emo pop began in the 1990s. Bands like Jimmy Eat World,[195] The Get Up Kids[199] and The Promise Ring[200] are examples of early emo pop bands. The emo pop style of Jimmy Eat World's album Clarity[201] was very influential on later emo.[202]

Emo pop became really popular in the early 2000s and began to have some success in the late 1990s, which was becoming increasingly successful commercially. The Get Up Kids sold over 15,000 copies of their debut album Four Minute Mile (1997) before signing to Vagrant Records, which promoted the band strongly and put them on tours, opening for famous bands like Green Day and Weezer.[105] Their 1999 album Something to Write Home About was a success, reaching No. 31 on Billboard's Top Heatseekers chart.[106]

Emo pop band Fall Out Boy performing in 2006

As the genre coalesced, the record label Fueled by Ramen became a center of the movement, signing bands like Fall Out Boy, Panic! at the Disco, and Paramore, all bands that had achieved sales success.[195] Two main regional scenes developed; in Florida, the scene was created by the label Fueled by Ramen, and in the Midwest, emo-pop was promoted by Pete Wentz, whose band Fall Out Boy rose to the front of the style in the mid-2000s.[195][203][204] In 2008, the band Cash Cash released Take It to the Floor, which AllMusic stated could be "the definitive statement of airheaded, glittery, and content-free emo-pop".[205] AllMusic further stated that with this release "the transformation of emo from the expression of intensely felt, ripped-from-the-throat feelings played by bands directly influenced by post-punk and hardcore to mall-friendly Day-Glo pop played by kids who look about as authentic as the "punks" on an old episode of Quincy did back in the '70s was made pretty much complete".[205] Also in 2008, You Me at Six released their debut album Take Off Your Colours, which had been described by AllMusic's Jon O'Brien as "follow[ing] the "emo-pop for dummies"' handbook word-for-word."[206] The album would later be certified gold in the UK.[207]


Pg. 99, a prominent screamo band.

The term "screamo" was initially applied to a more aggressive offshoot of emo that developed in San Diego in 1991, which used short songs that grafted "spastic intensity to willfully experimental dissonance and dynamics."[208] Screamo is a particularly dissonant style of emo influenced by hardcore punk[162] and uses typical rock instrumentation, but is noted for its brief compositions, chaotic execution, and screaming vocals.

The Used's self-titled album has been described as "one of the masterworks of the screamo movement" by the Kansas City Star.[210]

The genre is "generally based in the aggressive side of the overarching punk-revival scene."[162] The style began in 1991, in San Diego, at the Ché Café,[211] with groups such as Heroin, Antioch Arrow,[212] Angel Hair, Mohinder, Swing Kids, and Portraits of Past.[213] These groups were influenced by Washington, D.C. post-hardcore (particularly Fugazi and Nation of Ulysses),[208] straight edge, the Chicago group Articles of Faith, hardcore punk band Die Kreuzen[214] and post-punk, such as Joy Division[215] and Bauhaus.[208] Another example of a screamo band is I Hate Myself, a band described as "a cornerstone of the 'screamo' genre" by author Matt Walker.[216] Walker wrote: "Musically, I Hate Myself relied on being very slow and deliberate, with sharp contrasts between quiet, almost meditative segments that rip into loud and heavy portions driven by Jim Marburger's tidal wave scream."[217]

Some bands that formed in the United States during the late 1990s and remained active throughout the 2000s, such as the Used, Thursday, Thrice, and Poison the Well made screamo much more popular.[162] Many of these bands took influence from the likes of post-hardcore bands like Refused and At the Drive-In.[162] By the mid-2000s, the over-saturation of the screamo scene caused many bands to purposefully expand past the genre's trademarks and incorporate more experimental elements.[162] Even bands that weren't necessarily screamo would often use the style's characteristic guttural vocal style.[162] Derek Miller, guitarist for the post-hardcore band Poison the Well, claimed that the term screamo "describes a thousand different genres."[218]

According to Jeff Mitchell of the Iowa State Daily, "there is no set definition of what screamo sounds like but screaming over once deafeningly loud rocking noise and suddenly quiet, melodic guitar lines is a theme commonly affiliated with the genre."[219] Juan Gabe, vocalist for the band Comadre, alleged that the term "has been kind of tainted in a way, especially in the States."[163]

Fashion and subculture

Emo fashion took a noticeable turn in the 2000s; from being clean-cut to more punk-looking.

Originally, emo fashion was fairly clean cut, associated with a trend towards geek chic.[220] A 2002 article in the Honolulu Advertiser compared the style to that of Mr. Rogers, and noted the substantial differences between emo and goth or hip-hop styles, noting the prevalence of V-neck sweaters, white dress shirts and fitted, often cuffed jeans.[220] The Honolulu Advertiser described emo fashion as fashion that consists of sweaters, tight shirts, horned rimmed glasses compared to the glasses of 1950s musician Buddy Holly, dyed-black hair, and fitted, flat-front jeans.[220]

As emo entered the mainstream, it became as tied to fashion and emo subculture as to the music genre.[221] The term "emo" was associated with wearing skinny jeans, as well as tight t-shirts (usually short-sleeved) which often bear the names of emo bands. Studded belts, converse sneakers, vans, and black wristbands also became associated with emo fashion.[222][223] Also, thick, horn-rimmed glasses remained in emo fashion.[222] In the mid-2000s, eyeliner and black fingernails became another common thing in emo fashion.[224][221] The most famous part of emo fashion is the emo hairstyle. The emo hairstyle is flat, straight, and usually jet black hair with long bangs that often will cover a lot of the face.[223] This fashion has at times been characterized as a fad.[223] Emo fashion also has been often confused with goth fashion[225] and scene fashion.[226]

As emo became known as a subculture, people who both dressed in emo fashion and associated themselves with the emo music genre have been called "emo kids" or "emos".[223] Examples of bands that emos have been known for listening to are My Chemical Romance, Hawthorne Heights, AFI, Dashboard Confessional, Simple Plan, Brand New, From First to Last, Armor for Sleep, Aiden, Fall Out Boy, Taking Back Sunday, Death Cab for Cutie, the Used, Finch, Panic! at the Disco, and Paramore.[223][221][224][227][228][229][230] Some bands that are not commonly recognized as emo, such as Blink-182 and Good Charlotte, also have been examples of what emos listen to.[231]

Criticism and controversy


Emo has been associated with a stereotype that includes being particularly emotional, sensitive, shy, introverted, or angst-ridden.[10][232][233] It has also been associated with stereotypes like depression, self-injury, and suicide.[234][235] This stereotype has been often associated with emo people.[223]

Suicide and self harm

Emo music has been blamed for the suicide by hanging of teenager Hannah Bond by both the coroner at the inquest into her death and her mother, Heather Bond, after it was claimed that emo music glamorized suicide and her apparent obsession with My Chemical Romance was said to be linked to her suicide. The inquest heard that she was part of an Internet "emo cult"[236] and her Bebo page contained an image of an "emo girl" with bloody wrists.[237] It also heard that she had discussed the "glamour" of hanging online[236] and had explained to her parents that her self-harming was an "emo initiation ceremony".[237] Heather Bond criticised emo fashion, saying: "There are "emo" websites that show pink teddies hanging themselves." After the verdict was reported in NME, fans of emo music contacted the magazine to defend against accusations that it promotes self-harm and suicide.[238] My Chemical Romance responded to the suicide of Hannah Bond. The band posted "we have recently learned of the suicide and tragic loss of Hannah Bond. We’d like to send our condolences to her family during this time of mourning. Our hearts and thoughts are with them". My Chemical Romance also posted that they "are and always have been vocally anti-violence and anti-suicide".[239]

Gender bias

Paramore is an emo band with a female vocalist.

Emo has been criticized for its androcentrism.[240] Andy Greenwald notes that there are very few women in emo bands, and that even those few do not typically have an active voice in the songs' subject matter: "Though emo—and to a certain degree, punk—has always been a typically male province, the monotony of the labels' gender perspective can be overwhelming."[241] The triumph of the "lonely boy's aesthetic" in emo, coupled with the style's popularity, has led to a litany of one-sided songs in which males vent their fury at the women who have wronged them:[241] Some emo bands' lyrics disguise violent anti-women sentiments in a veneer of pop music.[242]

However, despite emo's frequent portrayal of women as powerless victims, fans of the style are from both genders, and some acts have even greater popularity with women than with men.[243] One explanation for this is that the unifying appeal of emo, its expression of emotional devastation, can be appreciated equally by both sexes regardless of the songs' specific subjects.[244]


"Fuck emo" graffiti on a wall in Mexico

Emo inspired a backlash movement in response to its rapid growth. Some bands that are described as emo, such as Panic! at the Disco[245] and My Chemical Romance,[246] rejected the emo label for the social stigma and controversy surrounding the emo label. Warped Tour founder Kevin Lyman stated that there was a "real backlash" among bands on the tour towards emo groups, but he dismissed the hostility as "juvenile" in nature.[247] The movement grew with intensity over time. Time reported in 2008 that "anti-emo" groups attacked teenagers in Mexico City, Querétaro, and Tijuana.[248][249]

In Russia, a law was presented at the Duma to regulate emo websites and forbid emo style at schools and government buildings, for fears of emo being a "dangerous teen trend" promoting anti-social behaviour, depression, social withdrawal and even suicide.[250][251]

In March 2012, reports by human rights activists suggested that, in a single month, Shia militias in Iraq had shot or beaten to death up to 58 young Iraqi emos.[252]

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Further reading

External links