Open main menu

Mathcore is a style of music that combines the speed and aggression of hardcore punk and extreme metal with rhythmically complex dissonant riffs and abrupt tempo changes. Although its roots can be traced to post-hardcore and math rock bands of the early 1990s, mathcore was eventually established in the late 1990s and early 2000s by pivotal albums of Botch, Coalesce, Converge and The Dillinger Escape Plan. It is often categorized as a subgenre of metalcore. Other names that have been used to refer to mathcore include noisecore and experimental metalcore, highlighting its connection to noise music and experimental music.




Mathcore emphasizes complex and fluctuant rhythms through the use of irregular time signatures, polymeters, syncopations and tempo changes, while at the same time the drummers play with overall loudness.[1][2][3][4] In the words of The Dillinger Escape Plan bassist Liam Wilson, their "choppy rhythms that people get kind of tongue-twisted on" are "Latin rhythms" mixed with the speed and "stamina" of heavy metal, drawing a parallel between them and John McLaughlin's use of Eastern sounds within a jazz context.[5] Most pioneering mathcore drummers had jazz, orchestral or academic backgrounds, including Dazzling Killmen's Blake Fleming,[6] Craw's Neil Chastain,[7] Coalesce's James Dewees,[8] Botch's Tim Latona,[9] The Dillinger Escape Plan's Chris Pennie[10] and Converge's Ben Koller.[11] As with the rhythm section, the guitars perform riffs that constantly change and are seldom repeated after one section. Early bands were almost completely atonal with the guitars or all the instruments playing polyphonic dissonance.[1] After the first The Dillinger Escape Plan records, the guitar work of most bands became extremely technical as well and "not only musically challenging, but physically demanding."[1][12]

In a 2016 article, Ian Cory of Invisible Oranges described mathcore's emphasis on technical complexity as "the means by which" they attain the aggressiveness of punk, "but never the end unto itself", distinguishing it from "the overflowing excess" of progressive metal.[12] Writer Keith Kahn-Harris has described some mathcore bands as a mix between the aggressiveness of grindcore and the idioms of free jazz.[13]


Early mathcore lyrics were addressed from a realistic worldview and with a pessimistic, defiant, resentful or sarcastic point of view. They have been singled out for their philosophical and poetic elements.[1][14][15][16][17] Some bands satirized and criticized the militant branches of the hardcore punk ideologies prominent in the 1990s.[18][19] Others wrote about deeply personal issues, such as Converge's Jacob Bannon and The Dillinger Escape Plan's Dimitri Minakakis.[20][21]

Although musically rooted in extreme metal, some mathcore artists have shown contempt for extreme metal fictional and horror lyrics.[22][23]

Greg Puciato singing while hanging head down from the ceiling in 2008

Live performancesEdit

Some early mathcore bands incorporated light shows synchronized with the music,[24][25] while others were noted for their reckless, chaotic performances that usually ended up with fights and injuries. Guitarists Jes Steineger of Coalesce and Ben Weinman of The Dillinger Escape Plan commonly featured erratic and violent behaviors.[18][26][27] In 2001, vocalist Greg Puciato joined The Dillinger Escape Plan and starred the most controversial live performances of the band until their disbandment in 2017, being described by Invisible Oranges as "the perfect physical embodiment of [the band's music]" because of his imposing physique along with destructive behavior.[12]


Precedents (1980s to early 1990s)Edit

Early antecedents to mathcore were practiced by post-hardcore bands of the 1980s and early 1990s. Post-hardcore is a broad term to define bands that maintain the aggressiveness and intensity of hardcore punk but emphasizes a greater degree of creative expression. Hardcore punk pioneers Black Flag incorporated characteristics reminiscent to mathcore during their mid-1980s experimental period, including heavy metal laden riffs and lengthy songs, as well as fusion-style time signatures, polyrhythms, instrumental songs and improvisational sections.[28][29] At that time, their biggest influences were the Mahavishnu Orchestra and King Crimson during its 1972–1975 lineup.[29] Author Steven Blush said that their new direction "proved too much for many fans",[30] yet numerous mathcore trailblazers would later credit Black Flag as an inspiration.[6][18][31][32][33] Among others post-hardcore bands usually credited are Minutemen,[6][31][34] who were heavily influenced by avant-garde rock and jazz,[35] The Jesus Lizard,[36][37][38] inspired by progressive rock,[39][40] Fugazi,[18][41][42][43] and Drive Like Jehu,[18][38][44][45] who drew from math rock and krautrock.[46]

Experimental bands that mixed extreme metal with hardcore punk also cited include Neurosis[26][41][47] and Today is the Day.[48][49][50]

Early development (1990–1995)Edit

In the 1990s, the hardcore punk scene started to embrace extreme metal openly and also was highly ideologized, with most of the popular bands being part of subcultures, religions or political groups.[18][51][52] Some mathcore bands started inspired by straight edge and Hare Krishna groups, including Converge, Coalesce and Botch.[53] On the other hand, the more unorthodox bands that substantially influenced mathcore remained in the underground.

Two bands usually credited as mathcore forerunners are midwesterners Dazzling Killmen and Craw, who at the time were considered part of the "noisier" branch of math rock.[54][55][56] Their debut albums were released in 1992 and 1993 respectively.[6][55] They were characterized by a "metallic post-hardcore" sound but with constant time signature changes and vocals with an "animalistic sound of a man losing his mind". Three out of four members of Dazzling Killmen knew each other from jazz school, while Craw had a classical percussionist and a jazz bassist.[57] Both were joined by saxophonists on some performances.[54][55][58]

In 1989, New Jersey band Rorschach was formed within the youth crew hardcore scene but soon developed a more complex and dissonant metallic hardcore style.[59] They were influenced by hardcore punk bands such as Die Kreuzen and Black Flag, as well as thrash metal bands Voivod and Slayer.[31] After their disbandment in 1993, their guitarist Keith Huckins joined Deadguy in 1994 and played on their sole studio album, 1995's Fixation on a Co-Worker.[60] The discordant sound of both bands had a profound impact on the first mathcore bands.[18][41][61][62][63][64]

At this period, several pioneering mathcore bands began to form: Botch from Washington in 1993; Coalesce from Missouri, Cable from Connecticut and Knut from Switzerland in 1994; Cave In from Massachusetts and Drowningman from Vermont in 1995. In 1990, Massachusetts band Converge was formed but they started writing and playing what they consider "relevant" music in 1994.[65] Referring to the burgeoning mathcore scene, The Dillinger Escape Plan's founder and guitarist Ben Weinman said:

The [hardcore punk] scene I was in initially was really pretty close-minded... was really revolved around causes: veganism, Christianity, Krishna, straight edge, all that stuff was a huge part of all the bands that were playing ... it became just kind of this clique and this popularity contest. [They] weren't concerned with music, they weren't great musicians, they weren't pushing themselves, they were writing music that just sounded like the bands from before but without that passion and innovation. ... And it was great to see bands like [Dazzling Killmen and Deadguy] who were just music and just killing it, and had so many different influences, were underground, but still musically-driven. ... And I was like: "That's what I want to do!"

— Ben Weinman, 2011[66]

Establishment, milestone albums and first scene (1996–2002)Edit

Converge was formed as an amalgamation of extreme metal, crossover thrash and hardcore punk, but in the mid-1990s they were heavily affected by early metalcore and post-hardcore bands, such as Rorschach, Universal Order of Armageddon and Starkweather.[67][68] Their second and third albums, 1996's Petitioning the Empty Sky and 1998's When Forever Comes Crashing, developed an increasingly technical and bleak style.[68][69]

At their first stages, Coalesce and Botch were influenced by Syracuse, New York metalcore and vegan straight edge pioneers Earth Crisis.[18][70][71] Vocalist Sean Ingram relocated to Syracuse to be nearer to its scene, but ended up disillusioned with their ostracizing attitude and on his return to Missouri formed Coalesce. They incorporated influences from progressive metal band Tool, with founding drummer Jim Redd stating that they "wanted to be" them "with none of the quiet parts", but only using their "heavy guitars, heavy drums, wacky time signatures, and loud-quiet dynamics".[18] Their sophomore studio album, Functioning on Impatience, became a landmark of the genre in 1998.[15][18]

Botch initially tried to become a political-straight edge band but got discouraged by the "elitist" and aggressive stance of many of their participants.[19] Their second album We Are the Romans of November 1999 was influenced by Drive Like Jehu, Sepultura and Meshuggah.[72] This album has influenced numerous bands and met high critical acclaim throughout the years, being lauded by TeamRock in 2015 as "one of the greatest albums in the history of heavy music".[15][73]

In 1997, The Dillinger Escape Plan evolved from the political-oriented act Arcane because they did not want to become part of "cliques" again.[74] They turned around their sound significantly in their second EP, Under the Running Board of 1998, and their debut album, Calculating Infinity of September 1999, drawing from progressive death metal bands Cynic, Meshuggah and Death, as well as King Crimson and several jazz fusion artists.[26][74][75] Both records created an extremely technical and fast brand of mathcore, which "launched an arms race in the metallic hardcore scene" and went on to define the subgenre substantially.[12][76][77] Relapse Records marketed Calculating Infinity as "math metal" because its sound and the album's title "sounded mathematical", yet this was not the band's intent.[21][78]

In 1999, Converge released the split album The Poacher Diaries expanding drastically their technical elements, but afterwards main songwriter Kurt Ballou called it "a failed experiment".[79] This inspired him to change his focus to song structure and the "memorable" elements that initially attracted him to music, birthing their 2001 album Jane Doe. This record was the first with drummer Ben Koller and bassist Nate Newton who made significant contributions to the songwriting.[79][80] Jane Doe exerted considerable influence in extreme music circles and attained a cult following.[81]

Other important albums of this period are 1996's Variable Speed Drive by Cable,[48] 1998's Until Your Heart Stops by Cave In,[82] 2000's Rock and Roll Killing Machine by Drowningman,[83] and 2002's Challenger by Knut.[84]

Contemporary influence (early 2000s - present)Edit

In the early 2000s several new mathcore bands started to emerge. Norma Jean's earlier records are often compared to Converge and Botch.[85][86][87] Other new mathcore bands that cite older mathcore bands as an influence or are compared to them include Car Bomb,[88] The Locust,[89] Daughters,[90] Some Girls,[91] Look What I Did,[92] and The Number Twelve Looks Like You.[93]


Before the term "mathcore", the style had only been referred to as "noisecore",[94][95] though the genre's existence before this time is generally recognized. Sometimes it's also been referred to as "experimental metalcore".[96][97] In the 1990s, groups now often described as mathcore were commonly called "noisecore." Kevin Stewart-Panko of Terrorizer referred to groups such as Neurosis, Deadguy, Cave In, Today Is the Day, The Dillinger Escape Plan, Converge, Coalesce, Candiria, Botch, and Psyopus as falling under this label.[98] Stewart-Panko described the sound of these bands as a "dynamic, violent, discordant, technical, brutal, off-kilter, no rules mixture of hardcore, metal, prog, math rock, grind and jazz."[citation needed]

The term is generally applied by journalists, rather than by musicians themselves. Jacob Bannon of Converge stated:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Wang, Angel (October 31, 2014). ""Mad for Mathcore: Appreciating a Subgenre of Heavy Metal Rock Music"". Columbia University. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  2. ^ Tadday, Brandon (November 30, 2017). "Shaping Metal: Top 3 Most Influential Mathcore Albums". Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  3. ^ "Top Ten Songs: "D" Is For The Dillinger Escape Plan". June 20, 2013. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  4. ^ Oliver, Lane (November 11, 2012). "Exclusive Interview: CAR BOMB's Greg Kubacki". Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  5. ^ Beller, Bryan (March 9, 2010). "Liam Wilson of The Dillinger Escape Plan". Bass Player. Archived from the original on August 6, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Cohan, Brad (November 29, 2016). "How Dazzling Killmen Merged Avant-Garde Jazz and Punk Fury". Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  7. ^ "Neil Chastain, Percussionist, Composer, and Music Director". Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  8. ^ Mikula, Sean (January 11, 2012). "Interviews: James Dewees (Reggie and the Full Effect, The Get Up Kids, Coalesce)". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  9. ^ Hill, Stephen (September 16, 2015). "Botch could have been bigger than The Dillinger Escape Plan". Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  10. ^ Rowland, Mark (October 17, 2002). "Dillinger Escape Plan - Interview". Archived from the original on December 25, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  11. ^ "Ben Koller". September 14, 2006. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d Cory, Ian (November 17, 2016). "The Dillinger Escape Plan: A Body of Work". Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  13. ^ Kahn-Harris, Keith (2007). Extreme Metal. Berg Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 1-84520-399-2. Retrieved February 26, 2018. Contemporary grindcore bands such as The Dillinger Escape Plan [...] have developed avant-garde versions of the genre incorporating frequent time signature changes and complex sounds that at times recall free jazz.
  14. ^ "Coalesce". Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  15. ^ a b c Oliver, Lane (March 1, 2017). "March Madness: COALESCE – "Functioning on Impatience"". Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  16. ^ Mudrian 2009, p. 322. What were the lyrical influences?
    Dave Verellen: [...] stuff that I witnessed was usually what had an impact on me. I’d look at a social situation or whatever was going on in the world, and then just try to be creative with it. [...] I was a Joan of Arc fan, [...] and half the reason was because the guy Tim Kinsella had such weird lyrics. I’ve always been attracted to abstract stuff like that, so I think that’s where I drew most of my lyrics from.
  17. ^ Butterworth, Scott (December 23, 2014). "The Brilliance Behind Converge's Unintelligible Lyrics". Noisey. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018. Jacob Bannon loves to wax poetic, so when his opaque elegies suddenly turn to simple, direct metaphors, it’s almost like your parents calling you by your full name: you stop, you notice, you listen.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ryan J. Downey (September 2007). "History". Alternative Press. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  19. ^ a b Mudrian 2009, p. 321-322, 323.
  20. ^ Schnipper, Matthew (November 7, 2017). "Converge's Jacob Bannon Untangles the Meaning of Every Song on His Band's New Album, The Dusk in Us". Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  21. ^ a b Mudrian 2009, p. 314-315.
  22. ^ Svitil, Greg (1996). "Jacob Bannon (Converge)". Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018. Jacob Bannon: I feel that [bands such as] Slayer are the Spinal Tap of metal. There’s nothing to them. They’re just there, and they’re just a band that likes to write heavy, scary things. And there’s really not an emotional depth to anything they really do. It’s just all for shock value.
  23. ^ "Dillinger Escape Plan Guitarist Talks New Album And Papa Roach". Rock Sound. April 24, 2009. Archived from the original on April 13, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2018. Ben Weinman: When I was growing up I discovered metal and it interested me, I liked that it was dark and talked about the fact that the world is not all puppy dogs and ice cream cones. But then it just got ridiculous, humourous, I look at black metal bands and they are suppose to be so evil. But it's not real. It's about fiction. About goblins and the gates of hell, pretty much a bad horror movie.
  24. ^ Stewart-Panko, Kevin (January 12, 2017). "That Tour Was Awesome – Botch/Jesuit/The Dillinger Escape Plan (1998)". Decibel. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  25. ^ Natalie Zina Walschots (June 17, 2013). "The Dillinger Escape Plan | Hazard Warning". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  26. ^ a b c Tsimplakos, Jason (November 5, 2013). "The Dillinger Escape Plan (Ben Weinmann & Greg Puciato)". Glasgow, Scotland (published November 25, 2013). Archived from the original on 2017-08-25. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  27. ^ Apostolopoulos, Tom (January 18, 2011). "Dillinger Escape Plan Biography". Archived from the original on February 2, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  28. ^ Steven Blush, American Hardcore: A Tribal History, "Thirsty and Miserable", Los Angeles: Feral House, 2001, p. 66
  29. ^ a b Shteamer, Hank (July 2012). "#9: GREG GINN". Manhattan, New York City. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  30. ^ Steven Blush, American Hardcore: A Tribal History, "Thirsty and Miserable", Los Angeles: Feral House, 2001, p. 66
  31. ^ a b c "an interview w/ Charles Maggio of Rorschach (who are in the middle of their short run of reunion dates)". BrooklynVegan. September 24, 2009. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  32. ^ Fallis, Stephen (October 16, 2004). "Converge interview with singer Jake Bannon from At Both Ends". (published October 27, 2004). Retrieved February 15, 2018. Jacob Bannon: Our direct inspiration comes from bands like Black Flag ...
  33. ^ Hesselink, Jasper (April 2005). "The Dillinger Escape Plan". Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2018. Ben Weinman: When we first started playing in a band, we listened to a lot of bands ... even Black Flag and Dead Kennedys, who had something to say and added some honest energy.
  34. ^ Anderl, Timothy (June 27, 2012). "Brian Cook (Russian Circles) on Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime". Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  35. ^ Gross, Jason (October 1997). "Mike Watt interview". Perfect Sound Forever. Archived from the original on February 18, 1999. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  36. ^ "Kurt Ballou (Converge) English interview, november 2017". (published December 2017). November 2017. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  37. ^ Siegl, Michael (June 6, 2009). ".: INTERVIEWS :: Jes Steineger von Coalesce". (in German). Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  38. ^ a b Warwick, Kevin (November 1, 2016). "With We Are The Romans, Botch helped redefine hardcore". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on November 15, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  39. ^ Smith-Lahrman, Matthew (February 3, 1993). "Interview with Duane Denison, February 3, 1993". Chicago, Illinois (published January 30, 2012). Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  40. ^ Pehling, Dave (December 11, 2017). "CBS SF Talks To The Jesus Lizard Drummer Mac McNeilly, Part II". KPIX-TV. San Francisco, California. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  41. ^ a b c "Interview #68 /// Brian Cook of Botch / Russian Circles". November 22, 2013. Archived from the original on February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  42. ^ Farris 2011, 1:36:13.
  43. ^ Ramirez, Carlos (February 19, 2008). "Converge: 'The Best Way To Learn Is Just Start Doing It'". Ultimate Guitar Archive. Archived from the original on June 16, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  44. ^ Anthony, David (June 15, 2017). "Rank Your Records: Converge's Jacob Bannon Reflects on the Seminal Hardcore Band's Eight Albums". Noisey. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  45. ^ Farris 2011, 1:28:28.
  46. ^ Khanna, Vish (October 8, 2015). "Ep. #217: Do You Compute – The Story of Drive Like Jehu". (Podcast). Event occurs at 34:19-34:35 (Mark Trombino on Bastro and Slint), 1:13:55-1:14:52 (Trombino on Spiderland), 1:17:45-1:18:23 (John Reis's influences) and 1:19:46-1:19:58 (Trombino on the band's influences). Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  47. ^ "Jacob Bannon (Converge): Six Songs To Die With". June 12, 2012. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  48. ^ a b Shickler, Jadd (February 6, 2008). "Cable | Brilliance meets resilience". Unrestrained!. No. 27. p. 61. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  49. ^ Martinelli, Roberto (2004). "KNUT". No. 9. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  50. ^ Farris 2011, 2:23:46.
  51. ^ Heller, Jason (January 14, 2014). "Punk turned in on itself in 1995, and out came the wolves". The A.V. Club. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  52. ^ Farris 2011, 2:15:08.
  53. ^ Gardner, Josh (July 22, 2010). "Kurt Ballou (Converge) talks gear and guitars". MusicRadar. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2018. Kurt Ballou: [We] also discovered punk and hardcore through skateboarding, and in turn these local bands such as Slapshot, Terminally Ill and DYS and I think we had some of the same intensity and motivation.
  54. ^ a b Kretsch, Ron (2016). "The heroically weird, jazz-damaged art rock of Laddio Bolocko". Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  55. ^ a b c Zorgdrager, Bradley (December 10, 2015). "How a Reissue Campaign Will Stick Craw's Music Into the Post-Hardcore Canon". Noisey. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  56. ^ Hunter, Nikk; Covert, William (August 16, 2015). "THE HISTORY OF MATH ROCK Pt 1: "SO I GUESS BLACK FLAG IS 'MATH ROCK' NOW?!"". Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  57. ^ Hemmerling, Joe (December 10, 2015). "1993-97: Craw - 1993-1997". Tiny Mix Tapes. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  58. ^ "Selections from The Punk Vault – Dazzling Killmen". May 21, 2010. Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  59. ^ Alva, Freddy. "On Suffering Remembered: Rorschach's Needlepack 25th Anniversary". Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  60. ^ Ramirez, Carlos (May 9, 2014). "Keith Huckins (Rorschach, Deadguy, Kiss It Goodbye)". Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  61. ^ Sergeant D (June 7, 2010). "THE HISTORY OF METALCORE/SCREAMO". MetalSucks. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2018. While not as frequently discussed these days, the so-called “noisecore” bands of the 90s were perhaps an even more direct influence on today’s shitty metalcore artists. Rorschach and their descendants Deadguy were perhaps the first band to put a discordant take on the post-Slayer metalcore formula, [...]
  62. ^ Mudrian 2009, p. 325.
  63. ^ Webb, Brian (November 25, 2000). "Interview: Drowningman". Archived from the original on March 30, 2013. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  64. ^ Farris 2011, 2:14:13.
  65. ^ "ABOUT". Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  66. ^ Farris 2011, 2:08:26, 2:15:08.
  67. ^ Dick, Chris (January 2, 2013). "Say What? Not So Long Long Converge Quotes". Decibel. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  68. ^ a b "5-10-15-20: Converge's Kurt Ballou". January 7, 2010. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  69. ^ Gramlich, Chris (January 1, 2006). "Converge Have Innovation Through Suffering". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  70. ^ Cook, Brian (February 29, 2008). "Guilty Pleasure March 9th at Studio7!!! Firestorm!!!". The Stranger. Archived from the original on October 6, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  71. ^ French, Chris (June 29, 2007). "The Oral History Of Botch: Thank God For Worker Bees". Alternative Press. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  72. ^ Mudrian 2009, p. 324.
  73. ^ Hill, Stephen (September 16, 2015). "Botch could have been bigger than The Dillinger Escape Plan". Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  74. ^ a b Rosen, Steven (April 16, 2013). "Dillinger Escape Plan's Ben Weinman: 'We Never Want to Be An Assembly Line of Riffs'". Ultimate Guitar Archive. Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  75. ^ Marcus, Jerome (October 2009). "Chris Pennie (Coheed & Cambria) – unleashed and moving forward". (published January 1, 2010). Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  76. ^ Mudrian 2009, 308-309.
  77. ^ Considine, J.D. (June 21, 2017). "The Dillinger Escape Plan, 'Calculating Infinity' (1999) - The 100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  78. ^ Hundey, Jason. "The Dillinger Escape Plan | Calculating Infinity". AllMusic. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  79. ^ a b O'Connor, Andy (March 8, 2017). "Converge Look Back On 'Jane Doe'". Archived from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  80. ^ Mudrian 2009, p. 332-335.
  81. ^ Mudrian 2009, p. 331.
  82. ^ "THE MATHCORNER VOL. 4: SPONSORED BY THE LETTER C – GETTING DOWN WITH CAVE IN, COALESCE, AND CANDIRIA". January 30, 2013. Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  83. ^ Hocking, Mat (October 23, 2000). "Drowningman | Rock n Roll Killing Machine". Drowned in Sound. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  84. ^ York, William. "Knut | Challenger". AllMusic. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  85. ^ Bosler, Shawn. Christian metalcore heavyweights Norma Jean make new believers with O’ God, the Aftermath." Decibel Magazine. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  86. ^ Bansal, Vik. "Norma Jean - O God The Aftermath (Abacus)" Archived 2008-10-06 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  87. ^ Heisel, Scott. "Listening Station" Alternative Press. Issue 242 Page 168.
  88. ^ Angle, Brad. Centralia review. Guitar World. Retrieved 2009-12-17.[dead link]
  89. ^ Ken McGrath. "Destruction and Chaos are Never Far Behind". Interview with Bobby Bray. Sorted Magazine. 2003. [1] Access date: October 4, 2008.
  90. ^ Steve Carlson, Hell Songs review, "Blog Critics", October 19, 2006. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-10-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Access date: September 13, 2008.
  91. ^ "San Diego Reader"[2] Access date: September 13, 2008.
  92. ^ Harris, Chris. "Look What I Did Name Upcoming LP 'Atlas Drugged'"Noisecreep
  93. ^ Miller, Kirk. "The Number Twelve Looks Like You: Put on Your Rosy Red Glasses - You know, the kind Bootsy Collins wears..." Decibel Magazine. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  94. ^ Whitney Strub, "Behind the Key Club: An Interview with Mark "Barney" Greenway of Napalm Death ", PopMatters, May 11, 2006. [1] Access date: September 17, 2008.
  95. ^ "Botch ... a noisecore pioneer", 'Terrorizer, "Grindcore Special", #180, Feb. 2009, p. 63.
  96. ^ "Album review: Ken Mode – Entrench". Scene Point Blank. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  97. ^ "Horse the band invade Lancaster's Chameleon Club". Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  98. ^ Kevin Stewart-Panko, "The Decade in Noisecore", Terrorizer no. 75, Feb 2000, p. 22-23.
  99. ^ Huval, Rebecca (October 28, 2009). "Axe to Grind: Four Tense Questions with Converge". New York Press. Press Play (blog). Archived from the original on June 6, 2011.

Works citedEdit