Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic, verbal, and visual transgression".
The term usually refers to a more abrasive, harsher, underground, non-commercialized style associated with the speed metal, thrash metal, black metal, death metal, and doom metal genres. Hardcore punk has been considered an integral part of the development of extreme metal, in the case of song structure and speed, in every case other than doom metal.
Extreme metal acts set themselves apart from traditional heavy metal acts, such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest and Motörhead, by incorporating more abrasive musical characteristics such as higher tempos, increased aggression and a harsher extremity. In the majority of the world, extreme metal does not receive much radio-play or achieve high chart positions.
Extreme metal's sonic excess is characterized by high levels of distortion (also in the vocals – growling, gargling or screaming), less focus on guitar solos and melody, emphasis on technical control, and fast tempos (at times, more than 200 beats per minute). Its thematic transgression can be found in more overt and/or serious references to Satanism and the darker aspects of human existence that are considered out of bounds or distasteful, such as death, suicide and war." "Visual transgression [can include] ... medieval weaponry [and] bloody/horrific artwork."
According to ethnographer Keith Kahn-Harris, the defining characteristics of extreme metal can all be regarded as clearly transgressive: the "extreme" traits noted above are all intended to violate or transgress given cultural, artistic, social or aesthetic boundaries. Kahn-Harris states that extreme metal can be "close to being ... formless noise", at least to the uninitiated listener.: 33 He states that with extreme metal lyrics, they often "offer no possibility of hope or redemption" and lyrics often reference apocalyptic themes. Extreme metal lyrics often describe Christianity as weak or submissive,: 40 and many songs express misanthropic views such as "kill every thing".: 40 A small number of extreme metal bands and song lyrics take radical (left or right) political stances; for example, the Swedish black metal band Marduk has commonly referenced the Nazi Panzer tanks, which can be seen in works such as Panzer Division Marduk (1999).: 41
The British band Venom are one of the first bands to venture into extreme metal territory, due to their ideological shift into themes of evil, the devil and hell. Their first two albums, Welcome to Hell (1981) and Black Metal (1982), are considered a major influence on thrash metal and extreme metal in general. This early work by Venom, in combination with bands like Discharge, the Exploited and Amebix as well as American hardcore punk brought integral elements into the budding extreme metal landscape at the time. In 1983, Metallica would release their debut album Kill 'Em All, which fused elements of the new wave of British heavy metal with hardcore punk and the style of Motörhead, becoming the first thrash metal album, and would eventually be certified triple platinum. A few months later, Slayer would release their own thrash metal album Show No Mercy, influenced by the sounds of Venom, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, and Mercyful Fate.
When extreme metal band Hellhammer first began making music, it was generally panned by critics, leading to the members forming Celtic Frost in its place, which proved very influential on the progression of the genre. During this period, the line between extreme metal genres were blurred, as thrash metal bands such as Slayer, Sepultura, Sodom, Destruction and Kreator were integral to the first wave black metal scene. The front cover of the Sarcófago's 1987 debut album, I.N.R.I., is regarded as a great influence on black metal's corpse paint style make-up. That record is also considered one of the first wave black metal albums that helped shape the genre. Their second album, The Laws of Scourge, was one of the first technical death metal records to be released.
List of genresEdit
Subgenres of primary genresEdit
- Subgenres of black metal
- Subgenres of death metal
- Subgenres of doom metal
Fusions between primary genresEdit
- Blackened death-doom
- Blackened death metal
- Blackened thrash metal
Fusions with punk rock stylesEdit
- Crossover thrash
- Crust punk
- Sludge metal
Fusion with other rock stylesEdit
- Black 'n' roll
- Death 'n' roll
- Progressive doom
- Stoner metal
Fusions with other musical stylesEdit
Genres influenced by extreme metal but usually not considered extreme themselves:
- Avant-garde metal
- Dungeon synth, influenced by black metal
- Funk metal, influenced by thrash metal
- Gothic metal, influenced by death-doom and doom metal
- Groove metal, influenced by thrash metal and death metal
- Grunge, influenced by sludge metal and thrash metal.
- Neoclassical metal and power metal, influenced by speed metal and thrash metal
- Post-metal, influenced by doom metal and later black metal
- Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in IASPM Journal. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 101
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 31.
- Andrews, J. "Origins of Evil: The Birth of Extreme Metal". Metal Injection. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 23.
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 4.
- McIver, Joel (2010). Extreme Metal II. p. 10.
- Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in IASPM Journal. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 103
- Kahn-Harris, Keith, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge, Oxford: Berg, 2007, ISBN 1-84520-399-2.
- Huey, Steve. "Metallica Kill 'Em All". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "METALLICA KILL 'EM ALL". Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- Gargano, Paul. "LiveDaily Interview: Tom Araya of Slayer". Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- Moynihan, Michael & Søderlind, Didrik: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground. Feral House 1998, p. 36.
- "Sarcófago: pioneirismo, polêmica e death metal - Arquivo Valhalla". Whiplash. 22 December 2008. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008.
- Raymer, Miles (22 May 2008). "Beautiful Brutality". Chicago Reader. Wrapports. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- Unger, Matthew (22 August 2016). Sound, Symbol, Sociality: The Aesthetic Experience of Extreme Metal Music. Springer. ISBN 9781137478351 – via Google Books.
- Roel F., Interview with Treachery, Lords of Metal issue 87, December 2008.  Access date: 3 December 2008.
- Buesnel, Ryan David (November 2020). "National Socialist Black Metal: a case study in the longevity of far-right ideologies in heavy metal subcultures". Patterns of Prejudice. 54 (3): 393–408. doi:10.1080/0031322X.2020.1800987. S2CID 229466327 – via ResearchGate.
- "The 10 essential post-black metal albums". 14 May 2019.
- Howells, Tom (5 October 2015). "Blackgaze: meet the bands taking black metal out of the shadows". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "Oranssi Pazuzu - Decibel Magazine". 22 February 2016.
- Smialek, Eric (2015). Genre and Expression in Extreme Metal Music, ca. 1990–2015 (PhD). McGill University. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Hagen, Ross; Barratt-Peacock, Ruth, eds. (6 September 2019). Medievalism and Metal Music Studies. Emerald Publishing Limited. p. 216. ISBN 9781787563971.
- "Symphonic Black Metal : Significant Albums, Artists and Songs, Most Viewed : AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- Sol (11 February 2015). "7 Christian Black Metal Bands You Need To Hear". Metal Injection. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
- Phillipov, Michelle (31 August 2018). Death Metal and Music Criticism: Analysis at the Limits. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739164594 – via Google Books.
- Arnopp, Jason (1993). "Industrial Metal: A User's Guide". Kerrang!. No. 462. p. 44.
- Bowar, Chad. "What Is Melodic Death Metal?". About.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Purcell, N. Death Metal music: the passion and politics of a subculture, at 9, McFarland, 2003 (retrieved 3 June 2011)
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland. p. 23. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
- Wise, Lauren (14 April 2015). "Discover Your Next Favorite Phoenix Metal Band at AZ Brutal Fest". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "The 10 Essential Symphonic Metal Albums". Metal Hammer. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- Simms, Kelley. "Obscura Interview". About.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Hayes, Craig. "Witch Mountain – Cauldron Of The Wild Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Henderson, Alex. "Fear of Infinity". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- Hayes, Craig. "Pallbearer – Sorrow And Extinction Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "ITALIAN BLACKENED DOOMSTERS FORGOTTEN TOMB PLAN RELEASE review". Terrorizer Online. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Ordo Obsidium – Orbis Tertius Review review". About.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Yavuz, Mehmet Selim (September 2015). Dead is dead: Perspectives on the Meaning of Death in Depressive Suicidal Black Metal Music through Musical Representations (MMus). University of London. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Kelly, Kim (29 March 2017). "Morast Expertly Synthesize Black, Death, and Doom Metal on 'Ancestral Void'". Noisey Vice. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Henderson, Alex. "Ninewinged Serpent - Devian". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Bowar, Chad. "Hacavitz - Venganza Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- ANDREW, J (19 February 2015). "Blackened Melodic Death Metal: A History Lesson". Metal Injection. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: War Black Metal: Die Extremsten der Extremen. Was bleibt, ist Schutt und Asche. In: Rock Hard, no. 279, p. 71-73.
- "The Best Metal Album From 40 Subgenres". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Tracey, Ciaran (March 2006). "Doom/Death: United in Grief", Terrorizer #142, pp.54-55.
- FORD, LEYLA (3 January 2012). "ALBUM OF THE DAY: DEATHCHAIN'S DEATHRASH ASSAULT". Metal Sucks. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Ekeroth, Daniel (2008). Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points Books. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- DiStefano, Alex (23 February 2015). "The 10 Best Crossover Thrash Bands". LA Weekly. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Von Havoc, Felix (1 January 1984). "Rise of Crust". Profane Existence. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- "De Zwaarste Metalgids: 66 metalgenres in één zin uitgelegd". Studio Brussel (in German). Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- Gevorgyan, Elen. "Music, Ideology and How They Interact: A Journey from Sacred Music to Black Metal" (PDF). American University of Armenia. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- Nonjon, Adrien (2019). Black Metal Theory Symposium Program. University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- "If It Ain't Got No Blastbeat, It's Not My Revolution: Panopticon". PopMatters. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "14 Bush-era political artworks that stood the test of time". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). "Chapter Thirty-three: Industrial and Grindcore". Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 249. ISBN 978-0793540426.
- "Converse Rubber Tracks x MetalSucks 2015 Preview: Dendritic Arbor - MetalSucks". Metal Sucks. 16 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Lilker, Danny, Grind Your Mind: A History of Grindcore liner notes. Mayan Records, MYNDD056, 2007.
- Kevin Stewart-Panko, "Shock Tactics", "Grindcore Special", part 2, p. 52-53
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
- "Fear of God Founder Erich Keller Talks Grindcore History, Album Reissue". Decibel Magazine. 6 March 2018.
- Brown, Jonathon (6 September 2007). "Everything you ever wanted to know about pop (but were too old to ask)". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- Bowar, Chad. "What Is Metalcore?". About.com. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Henderson, Alex. "Desolation of Eden". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
Deathcore -- the type of noisy, caustic, abrasive mixture of metalcore and death metal that Chelsea Grin offer on their first full-length album, Desolation of Eden -- is bound to annoy a lot of parents, which is exactly the point."
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Heaven Shall Burn". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Henderson, Alex. "Burning Skies". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Gorania, Jay H. "Despised Icon - 'Day Of Mourning'". About.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Chichester, Sammi (19 October 2012). "Dan Kenny of Suicide Silence Picks the Top Five Underground Death-Metal Bands". Revolver. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- "omaha easycore band everbloom releases new self-produced single and video". The Daily Nebraskan. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- Heaney, George. "Ghost Town – The After Party". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
most electronicore is essentially metalcore with some synths tacked on for good measure
- Wang, Angel (31 October 2014). "Mad for Mathcore: Appreciating a Subgenre of Heavy Metal Rock Music". blogs.cuit.columbia.edu. Columbia University. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "At The Gates Albums Ranked". Loudwire. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "Thrash Hits - Nu metalcore". Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Giffin, Brian (2015). Encyclopaedia of Australian Heavy Metal. Australia: DarkStar. ISBN 9780994320612.
- "Quick Review: AURAS Heliospectrum - Metal Injection". Metal Injection. 3 October 2016. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod". Allmusic. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- Pearson, David (2020). "Ch3-The Dystopian Sublime of Extreme Hardcore Punk". Rebel Music in the Triumphant Empire: Punk Rock in the 1990s United States. Oxford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0197534885.
- "Vreid: 'The Reap' Video Released". Blabbermouth.net. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Whelan, Kez (17 September 2013). "Incubate Preview: Khold". Terrorizer. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Kelly, Kim (14 August 2014). "Hell Awaits: Disemballerina, Khold, Heavydeath and more". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Cosmo Lee. "Stylus magazine review". Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
"Death 'n' roll" arose with Entombed's 1993 album Wolverine Blues ... Wolverine Blues was like '70s hard rock tuned down and run through massive distortion and death growls.
- Ramirez, Carlos (12 October 2012). "THE FORESHADOWING CRAFT GOTHIC DOOM MASTERPIECES". Noise Creep. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- "The 9 albums that inspired King Goat's progressive doom sound". 15 March 2018.
- Ellis, Iain (2008). Rebels Wit Attitude: Subversive Rock Humorists. Soft Skull Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-59376-206-3.
- Burke, David (2018). Political Expression in Doom Metal (MA). University of Southampton. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- Wiederhorn 2009, p. 62.
- Cummins, Johnson (April 2009). "Myth Demeanour: Finland's Korpiklaani lead the pagan metal pack". Montreal Mirror. 24 (44). Archived from the original on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Jonsson 2011. sfn error: no target: CITEREFJonsson2011 (help)
- Christe, Ian (2004). Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. Harper Paperbacks. p. 253. ISBN 0380811278. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- Stuart Maconie (24 May 2020). "Dungeon Synth". BBC Radio 6 Music. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
- Prato, Greg (16 September 2014). Primus, Over the Electric Grapevine: Insight into Primus and the World of Les Claypool. Akashic Books. ISBN 978-1-61775-322-0.
- Metal Hammer #173
- Coyle, Doc. "Hidden Gems: Rediscovering The '90s Post-Thrash Groove Metal Scene". VH1. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Ramirez, Carlos. "Rediscovered Steel - Prong's 'Beg to Differ' - Noisecreep". Noisecreep. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Christe (2003), Sound of the Beast, p. 264,
As close to death metal as any other gold-selling record before it, Chaos A.D. stripped down Sepultura's sound into a coarse metallic loop. The CD sold half a million copies, and alongside Pantera the band forged a streetwise, death-derived groove metal that inspired an upcoming generation of mavens in the 1990s.
- "Sludge Metal: Doom's Filthier Sibling". 5 October 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
The sound of sludge has gone pop a couple times, first when mixed with alternative rock by Nirvana, Soundgarden, and other grunge acts in the early '90s,
- "Get Thrashed: The Story of Thrash Metal". Retrieved 9 November 2018.
from its early years, through its influence on grunge, nu metal and today's heavy metal scene.
- Strong, Catherine. Grunge: Music and Memory. Routledge, 2016. p.18
- Henderson, Justin. Grunge: Seattle. Roaring Forties Press, 2016. Ch. 5
- "Helloween - Biography & History - AllMusic". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- What Is Power Metal?, by Dan Marsicano Archived 25 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine (about.com)
- Wiederhorn, Jon (4 August 2016). "A Brief History of Post-Metal". Bandcamp. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.