Ministry is an American industrial metal band founded in 1981 by Al Jourgensen in Chicago, Illinois. Originally a synth-pop outfit, Ministry's sound changed as they became one of the pioneers of industrial metal in the late 1980s. The band's lineup has frequently changed throughout its history, with the exception of Jourgensen who is the band's main producer, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist. Notable musicians who have contributed to the band's studio or live activities include vocalists Nivek Ogre, Chris Connelly and Burton C. Bell, guitarists Mike Scaccia and Tommy Victor, bassists Paul Barker, Paul Raven, Jason Christopher, Tony Campos and Paul D'Amour, drummers Bill Rieflin, Martin Atkins, Rey Washam and Roy Mayorga, keyboardist John Bechdel, and rappers/producers DJ Swamp and Arabian Prince.
Ministry performing at Wacken Open Air 2016
|Origin||Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
Ministry attained commercial success in the late 1980s and early 1990s with three of their studio albums: The Land of Rape and Honey (1988), The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste (1989) and Psalm 69 (1992), with the former of the two certified gold and the latter certified platinum by the RIAA. The 1996 follow-up album, Filth Pig, was also critically acclaimed and earned Ministry its highest chart position on the Billboard 200, peaking at number nineteen. The band has been nominated for six Grammy Awards and has performed at several notable music festivals, including participating in the second annual Lollapalooza tour in 1992, co-headlining Big Day Out in 1995 and performing at Wacken Open Air thrice (in 2006, 2012 and 2016).
Jourgensen dissolved Ministry in 2008 after 27 years of recording and performing, stating that they would never reunite. However, the band announced a reunion in August 2011, and has released three more studio albums since then: Relapse (2012), From Beer to Eternity (2013) and AmeriKKKant (2018).
Formation and early days (1981–1982)Edit
Ministry's origins date to 1978, when Jourgensen moved from Denver to Chicago to attend the University of Illinois at Chicago. He was introduced to the local underground scene by his then-girlfriend Shannon Rose Riley, and in 1979 he replaced Tom Hoffmann on guitars in Special Affect, a post-punk group which featured vocalist Frank Nardiello (Groovie Mann of My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult), drummer Harry Rushakoff (Concrete Blonde) and bassist Marty Sorenson. Following Special Affect's split in 1980, Jourgensen formed a short-lived band called The Silly Carmichaels, which featured members of The Imports and played two shows.
In 1981, Jourgensen met Jim Nash and Danny Flesher, co-founders and co-owners of the indie record label and shop Wax Trax! Records who recommended him as a touring guitarist for Divine. After playing a few concerts with the latter, Jourgensen began to write and record songs in his apartment, using a newly-bought ARP Omni synthesizer, a drum machine, and a reel-to-reel tape recorder. He presented a demo to Jim Nash, who suggested Jourgensen record a single and form a touring band, which Jourgensen decided to call Ministry.[a]
The first line-up of Ministry consisted of keyboardists Robert Roberts and John Davis, bassist Sorenson, and drummer Stephen George; Jourgensen claimed he didn't want to perform vocals, but decided to do so after he auditioned several singers "who all sucked." Nash purchased recording sessions at Hedden West studios which resulted in a twelve-inch single featuring "I'm Falling" and instrumental track "Primental" on the A-side, with the song "Cold Life" on the B-side.[b] The record was co-produced by Jay O'Roarke and Iain Burgess and released in late 1981 on Wax Trax! in the US. In March 1982, the single was licensed by British label Situation Two, with "Cold Life" as the A-side.
Ministry performed their debut concert on New Year's Eve 1982 in Chicago club Misfits, and, the Spring, commenced a tour of the Northeast and the Midwest, supporting Medium Medium, A Flock of Seagulls, Culture Club, and Depeche Mode. Meanwhile, the "I'm Falling / Cold Life" single reached No. 45 in the Billboard Hot Dance/Disco chart with approximately 10,000 copies as of September 1982,:54 and thus scoring Wax Trax!' first hit.
With Sympathy and later Wax Trax! singles (1983–1985)Edit
The band's initial success drew the attention of Arista Records founder and chief executive Clive Davis, who offered them a deal, promising to make them "the next Joy Division"—a claim that Jourgensen later considered to be misleading. Signing a six-figure, two-album deal, the band—with Jourgensen and George comprising the official line-up—moved to record at the Synchro Sound studios in Boston, with producers Vince Ely (former drummer of Psychedelic Furs) and Ian Taylor (former assistant of Roy Thomas Baker), as well as keyboardists Roberts and Davis as session musicians.
A 12-inch single containing the song "Same Old Madness" was recorded and planned for release, along with its accompanying music video. However, "Same Old Madness"—both the song and video—did not surface until 2014; instead, "Work for Love" was released in January 1983 and peaked No. 20 on the Hot Dance/Disco chart. Ministry's debut album, entitled With Sympathy (also known as Work for Love in Europe), was finished around this time and issued in May, reaching No. 94 in the Billboard 200. On release, the album was supported by two more singles—"Revenge" (with a music video partially reworked from "Same Old Madness") and "I Wanted to Tell Her" (a reworked version of "Primental"), and a supporting concert tour with The Police during the North American leg of their Synchronicity tour. During this time, Jourgensen met the members of Seattle-based band The Blackouts—namely bassist Paul Barker and drummer Bill Rieflin, as well their then-manager Patty Marsh, who later became Jourgensen's wife from 1984 to 1995.
In spite of With Sympathy's success, Jourgensen's relations with Arista were acrimonious. Eventually, Jourgensen sent a demo tape featuring a cover version of Roxy Music's song "Same Old Scene" before parting ways with Arista, suing the latter for violating contractual obligations.:78 Since then, Jourgensen has expressed dislike for the With Sympathy-era, often providing different (and widely conflicting) explanations for his antipathy. In a 2004 interview, conducted by Mark Prindle, Jourgensen said that after signing with Arista, all artistic control of Ministry was "handed over" to other writers and producers. In his 2013 autobiography, Jourgensen gave a different explanation, saying that he was pressured by Arista management into producing his existing songs in the then-popular synthpop style, as a means of making them more commercially palatable. However, in the 1980s, Jourgensen said that when he discovered hardcore music, his musical direction simply changed; Jourgensen reiterated this point in 2012. Jourgensen assumes a false English accent for all of the album's songs, for which he also later expressed great dislike, though Patty Marsh stated in a 2013 interview "...the English accent thing was more an homage to the bands he loved than anything else. He was not trying to come off as British. The Stones used a southern accent and no one crawled up their ass for it.", an explanation Jourgensen himself had also given in a prior, 1983 interview with Richard Skinner.
Departed from Arista, Jourgensen returned with Ministry on Wax Trax! in mid-1984. While working as a cashier in the Wax Trax! store, he continued to record new material. In Autumn 1984, Ministry embarked on a new tour with a renewed line-up, supported by Belgian industrial dance act Front 242. During this tour, Sire Records co-owner Seymour Stein attended several gigs, offering the band a new deal; Jourgensen, recalling his negative experience with Arista, repeatedly declined, but eventually agreed to sign on the condition that Sire would provide resources to support the Wax Trax! imprint; as Jourgensen put it, "it was kind of a personal sacrifice to keep that company rolling and allow them to keep signing bands." George left Ministry soon after this tour, disagreeing with Jourgensen over increased use of drum machines, and went on to form the short-lived band Colortone, and, much later, to pursue a record engineering career. Ministry released several singles throughout the Summer of 1985—"All Day", "(Every Day Is) Halloween" and "The Nature of Love", as well as a reissue of "Cold Life"—which were cited as marking Jourgensen's first attempt at injecting industrial elements into Ministry's sound. Initially the B-side on "All Day" single, "... Halloween" became viewed as a goth anthem similar to Bauhaus' "Bela Lugosi's Dead"; "The Nature of Love", which came out in June 1985, became Ministry's final single on Wax Trax!; in July 1985, the band was shown as signed to Sire Records.
Ministry debuted on Sire/Warner Bros. in late 1985 with the single "Over the Shoulder", preceding the release of the band's second studio album, Twitch, in March 1986. Twitch was recorded and mixed largely at Southern Studios in London and Hansa Tonstudio in West Berlin during 1985, with the On-U Sound Records owner Adrian Sherwood and Jourgensen sharing co-production duties. Despite the contribution of several others (namely Belgian singer Luc van Acker and Sherwood's acquaintance Keith LeBlanc), the album's material was mainly performed by Jourgensen, listed as the band's sole member. Some material, recorded during the Twitch sessions, was later used for LeBlanc's and Sherwood's other projects, most prominently LeBlanc's solo album Major Malfunction.:20
On release, Twitch hit No. 194 in Billboard 200, and was supported by a US and Canadian tour. Jourgensen assembled a new touring line-up, featuring Roland Barker on keyboards, Paul Barker on bass and Bill Rieflin on drums. Twitch received mixed reviews, with a music critic Robert Christgau stating, "Chicago's Anglodisco clones meet Anglodisco renegade Adrian Sherwood and promptly improve themselves by trading in wimpy on arty"; nevertheless, the album came to be viewed as a pivotal point in the band's discography, as it signaled ongoing changes in Ministry's sound. In later publications, Jourgensen credited Sherwood with giving his music an aggressive edge and providing production advice, but considered the record "so Adrian Sherwood-influenced."
The Land of Rape and Honey (1987–1988)Edit
After Twitch, Paul Barker became Jourgensen's primary collaborator in Ministry; until his departure, he was the only person credited as a member of the band other than Jourgensen. Jourgensen then made another significant change to Ministry's sound when he resumed playing electric guitar. With Rieflin on drums, Ministry recorded The Land of Rape and Honey (1988). The album continued their success in the underground music scene. The Land of Rape and Honey made use of synthesizers, keyboards, tape loops, jackhammering drum machines, dialogue excerpted from movies, unconventional electronic processing, and, in parts, heavy distorted electric guitar and bass.
The album was supported by a tour in 1988 and the singles and music videos for "Stigmata" and "Flashback". "Stigmata" was also used in a key scene in Richard Stanley's 1990 film Hardware, although the band shown performing the song was Gwar.
The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste (1989–1990)Edit
The follow-up album, The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste was supported by a tour from 1989 to 1990. Due to the complex nature of the album's drumming, a second drummer, Martin Atkins (formerly of Public Image Ltd. and Killing Joke), was hired. In addition to Atkins, a ten piece touring line-up was formed, consisting of Chris Connelly (keyboards and vocals), Skinny Puppy vocalist Nivek Ogre (vocals and keyboards), Joe Kelly (vocals and backing vocals) and guitarists Mike Scaccia, Terry Roberts, and William Tucker, with Jourgensen, Paul Barker and Rieflin serving as the group's core members. This tour was documented on In Case You Didn't Feel Like Showing Up. Two opening tracks, "Burning Inside" and "Thieves", were released as a commercial single; "Burning Inside" was accompanied by a music video.
Psalm 69 (1991–1993)Edit
After completing the Revolting Cocks tour in early 1991, Jourgensen and his bandmates began work on a follow-up to The Mind ... at Chicago Trax! studios, amidst problems brought on by growing substance abuse. During these initial sessions, Gibby Haynes of the Butthole Surfers recorded vocals for what became "Jesus Built My Hotrod", which hit No. 19 in the Modern Rock Tracks chart with approximately 128,000 copies as of mid-July 1992; considered Ministry's first and biggest commercial hit, it built significant anticipation for their upcoming album, then titled The Tapes of Wrath. In an attempt to distance themselves from drugs and find fresh perspective, the band relocated from Chicago to Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, to record at Royal Recorders studios for ten weeks. After considering the Wisconsin sessions a "washout", they returned to Chicago to complete the album – now entitled Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs, after a chapter from Aleister Crowley's The Book of Lies – by early May 1992, with only nine of about thirty songs written being chosen to feature. The album was influenced by speed and thrash metal, often being described as their fastest record by fans and critics. It was released on July 14, 1992 and peaked at No. 27 on the Billboard 200 chart. Soon after, Ministry was invited to headline the second Lollapalooza tour with Pearl Jam, Red Hot Chili Peppers and Soundgarden, among others, before commencing a tour of Europe and the US, with Helmet and Sepultura as supporting acts.
Filth Pig (1994–1996)Edit
In October 1994, Ministry performed at the eighth Bridge School Benefit charity concert, with sets of cover songs (most prominently Bob Dylan's "Lay Lady Lay") and one original song, "Paisley", which was intended to be on their next album. After constructing a studio in Austin, Texas in 1993, the band proceeded to record a new album in July 1994. After refusing to perform drums on a cover version of "Lay Lady Lay", Rieflin parted ways with Jourgensen midway through the recording process. Along with newly-recruited Rey Washam (formerly of Scratch Acid, Didgits, and Rapeman) who performed the rest of the album's drum work, Ministry performed as one of the headliners for Australia and New Zealand's Big Day Out touring festival in January 1995. In spite of their growing success, Ministry was nearly derailed by drug problems and a series of arrests followed in August 1995. Completed at Chicago Trax Studios, Filth Pig was released in 1996. Musically, Filth Pig was more heavy metal than industrial, with synthesizers and samples mostly stripped from a mix that focused on conventional hard rock instrumentation.
The album's songs were played mostly at slower tempos than those on their previous three LPs, giving it an almost doom metal feel. Filth Pig was supported with the singles/videos "Reload", "The Fall", "Lay Lady Lay" and "Brick Windows" and with a tour in 1996 (the live performances were later anthologized on the Sphinctour album and DVD in 2002). Jourgensen has subsequently said that he was severely depressed during this period, that Filth Pig reflects this, and that he dislikes performing music from Filth Pig.
Dark Side of the Spoon (1998–2000)Edit
Ministry recorded their final studio album for Warner Bros. Records, Dark Side of the Spoon (1999), which they dedicated to William Tucker, who committed suicide earlier that year. For Dark Side of the Spoon, Ministry tried to diversify their sound by adding some melodic and synthetic touches to their usual electro-metal sound, along with some jazz influences, but the album was not well received. However, the single "Bad Blood" appeared on the soundtrack album of The Matrix and was nominated for a 2000 Grammy award.:72 During this period, Jourgensen had an infected toe amputated after accidentally stepping on a discarded hypodermic needle.
Hiatus and Animositisomina (2001–2003)Edit
After Ministry split from Warner Bros., the label issued the 2001 collection Greatest Fits, which featured a new song, "What About Us?". Ministry would later perform the song in a cameo appearance in the Steven Spielberg film AI: Artificial Intelligence. During the years 2000–2002, disputes with Warner Bros. Records resulted in the planned live albums Live Psalm 69, Sphinctour and ClittourUS on Ipecac Recordings being canceled. Sphinctour was released on Sanctuary Records.
Around 2001, Jourgensen almost lost his arm when he was bitten by a venomous spider. By his own admission, Jourgensen was suicidal during this period and decided to call an acquaintance he had met years earlier; the acquaintance, Angelina Luckacin, helped Jourgensen give up his massive substance habit (which included heroin and cocaine "speedballs", crack, LSD, various pharmaceuticals and as many as two full bottles of Bushmills whiskey per day). Jourgensen and Barker, along with Max Brody who had joined as a saxophone player for the 1999 tour, focused on developing songs for a new record during 2001 and 2002, with the band issuing Animositisomina on Sanctuary Records in 2003. The sound was strongly heavy metal with voice effects, though it featured an almost-pop cover of Magazine's "The Light Pours Out Of Me". Animositisomina, compared to previous releases, sold poorly and singles for "Animosity" and "Piss" were canceled before they could be released.
Barker announced his departure from Ministry in January 2004. He stated that the trigger was his father dying while the band was wrapping up a summer tour in Europe, and also stated that his family life was his main focus at that particular time. Jourgensen's second wife Angelina Lukacen stated in 2013 that he fell out with Barker over the band's finances. Jourgensen continued Ministry with Mike Scaccia and various other musicians.
Houses of the Molé and Rio Grande Blood (2004–2006)Edit
For Ministry's next album, Jourgensen released the song "No W", a song critical of then-U.S. President George W. Bush; an alternate version of the track was placed on the multi-performer compilation Rock Against Bush, Vol. 1. The follow-up LP, Houses of the Molé (2004), contained the most explicitly political lyrics Jourgensen had yet written, with songs played more crudely than on previous recordings, giving the album the most metal-oriented sound of their career. In 2006 the band released Rio Grande Blood, an LP on Jourgensen's own 13th Planet Records. With Prong's Tommy Victor and Killing Joke's Paul Raven, the album featured an even heavier thrash metal sound drawing comparison to Slayer. The single "Lieslieslies" was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance at the 49th annual Grammy Awards. It, along with another song on the album, "The Great Satan", is also available as a downloadable content song for the 2008 video game Rock Band 2. In July 2007, the band released Rio Grande Dub, an album featuring remixes from the band's 2006 Rio Grande Blood album.
The Last Sucker, Cover Up and Undercover (2007–2010)Edit
Paul Raven died on October 20, 2007, a month and two-days after the release of The Last Sucker, suffering an apparent heart attack shortly after arriving in Europe to commence recording for the French industrial band Treponem Pal near the Swiss border.
Al Jourgensen remixed and co-produced Spyder Baby's "Bitter", which was released by Blind Prophecy Records in early 2008.
A song titled "Keys to the City", which became the theme song for the Chicago Blackhawks, was released on March 5, 2008. In addition to this single, two albums of covers/remixes, Cover Up (April 1, 2008) and Undercover (December 7, 2010) were released. All of these releases are credited to Ministry and Co-Conspirators, since they feature collaborations between Al Jourgensen and other musicians.
Ministry's "farewell" tour, the "C-U-LaTour", started its North American leg on March 26, 2008 with Meshuggah performing as special guests and Hemlock as an opening act. They played their final North American shows in Chicago on May 10 and 12, 2008. The final date on the international leg of the tour was at the Tripod in Dublin, Ireland on July 18, 2008. During the performance, Jourgensen repeatedly reaffirmed it would indeed be the last ever Ministry show. Due to a large demand for tickets, an extra gig was added at the Tripod on July 19, 2008. The band again played to a full house. Ministry's final song at this show (and ostensibly their last ever live performance) was a rendition of their cover version of "What a Wonderful World".
Adios ... Puta Madres, a live album featuring material culled from the tour, was released in 2009 on CD and DVD.
A documentary film called Fix: The Ministry Movie was planned for release sometime in 2010. However, the release date was pushed back to early 2011. Eventually, it premiered at the Chicago International Movies & Music Festival. Jourgensen sued the filmmaker, Doug Freel, for failing to fulfill a portion of the contract giving Jourgensen approval over the final cut, along with "thousands of dollars". The lawsuit was dropped in July 2011. On July 21, the film was screened privately at the Music Box Theater in Los Angeles.
Reunion, Relapse and death of Mike Scaccia (2011–2012)Edit
On August 7, 2011, Ministry announced they would reform and would play at Germany's Wacken Open Air festival, set to take place August 2–4, 2012. The reunion lineup featured Al Jourgensen on vocals, Mike Scaccia and Tommy Victor on guitar, Aaron Rossi on drums, John Bechdel on keyboards, and Tony Campos on bass.
Jourgensen told Metal Hammer in August 2011 that Ministry was working on a new album called Relapse, which they hoped to release by Christmas. Regarding the sound of the new material, he explained, "We've only got five songs to go. I've been listening to it the last couple of weeks and I wasn't really in the mood, I was just taking it as a joke. Just to pass the time at first but [Mikey's] raving about it. It's like, dude c'mon, this is not about Bush, so ... that part's over. The ulcers are gone and Bush is gone so it's time for something new. I think this is actually gonna wind up being the fastest and heaviest record I've ever done. Just because we did it as anti-therapy therapy against the country music we would just take days off and thrash faster than I've done in a long time, faster than Mikey's done in a long time. He just did a Rigor Mortis tour and said it was easy compared to this Ministry stuff so it's gonna be brutal and it's gonna freak a lot of people out."
Ministry announced on their website that they entered the studio on September 1, 2011 with engineer Sammy D'Ambruoso to begin recording their new album. During the third webisode featuring behind-the-scenes footage from the making of Relapse, a release date of March 3, 2012 was announced.
On December 23, 2011, Ministry released "99 Percenters", the first single from Relapse, and began streaming it on their Facebook page two days later. On February 22, 2012, Ministry released a second single, "Double Tap", which was included in the April 2012 issue of the Metal Hammer magazine. On March 23, 2012, Relapse was released; it was supported with "Defibrillatour", a concert tour which lasted from that year's June to August.
From Beer to Eternity, AmeriKKKant and next album (2013–present)Edit
On December 23, 2012, guitarist Mike Scaccia died following an on-stage heart attack, while playing with his other band, Rigor Mortis. In an interview with Noisey in March 2013, Jourgensen announced that Ministry would break up again, explaining that he did not want to carry on without Scaccia. He explained, "Mikey was my best friend in the world and there's no Ministry without him. But I know the music we recorded together during the last weeks of his life had to be released to honor him. So after his funeral, I locked myself in my studio and turned the songs we had recorded into the best and last Ministry record anyone will ever hear. I can't do it without Mikey and I don't want to. So yes, this will be Ministry's last album." The album, titled From Beer to Eternity, was released on September 6, 2013. Jourgensen stated that Ministry would tour in support of From Beer to Eternity, but would not record any more albums. In an April 2016 interview with Loudwire, however, Jourgensen mentioned the possibility of making another Ministry album "if the circumstances are right."
When asked in July 2016 whether Ministry was going to release another album after From Beer to Eternity, Jourgensen stated, "When I was asked [before], it was after Mikey passed and the entire media immediately starts asking me what is going to happen to Ministry. He wasn't even buried yet. I thought, 'Fuck you.' I was really pissed and really angry. I said, 'Fuck Ministry and fuck you for asking.' They want to comment on Ministry when my best friend had died. It's been more than two years now, and I got more ideas and I have done albums with Mikey and have done them without him. It's time to get another record out. I have a bunch of songs written in my head. I wanted to have time to mourn before people start asking me about touring dates. It was sick. I was bombarded and email boxes were overloaded with 'what are you going to do now?' It was kind of creepy."
By February 2017, Ministry had begun working on their fourteenth studio album, titled AmeriKKKant. The album, released on March 9, 2018, includes guest appearances from Burton C. Bell of Fear Factory, former N.W.A member Arabian Prince, DJ Swamp and Lord of the Cello. During their performance at the Blackest of the Black Fest in Silverado, California in May 2017, Ministry debuted their first song in four years, "Antifa", which, at the time, was expected to appear on AmeriKKKant.
In an October 2018 interview with Billboard magazine, Jourgensen revealed that he has begun working on new material for Ministry's fifteenth studio album. He explained, "I have to get as many albums as I can done while Trump is still president, and then what am I going to do: write those crappy albums that I write while Democrats are president?" A month later, media reports noted that Jourgensen had reconnected with Barker after 15 years, hinting that the two might collaborate once again in the upcoming Ministry album.
In a 2019 interview with Revolver magazine, Jourgensen reaffirmed that he had been working on new material since 2018, and revealed that he had hired Paul D'Amour (formerly of Tool) as the new bassist of Ministry. The band – alongside Primus and Philip H. Anselmo & The Illegals – will open for Slayer on the final North American leg of their farewell tour, which will take place that November.
Ministry's experimentation, stylistic variation and changes during its career cross several genres of popular music. Alternative rock subgenres such as industrial rock and industrial metal are umbrella terms predominately used to describe the band's career in general.[c] Ministry has been classified under many others genres, including EBM/industrial dance, techno-rock, hard rock, heavy metal, speed metal, thrash metal, and electro-industrial; their early output has been categorised as new wave, synth-pop, dance pop, electronic dance, and dark wave. In the April 1989 issue of Spin Magazine, an author Michael Corcoran labelled the band as "industrial disco;" in 1994, writer Simon Glickman used this term as well. AllMusic's Steve Huey states that, previous to Nine Inch Nails' rose to mainstream popularity, "Ministry did more than any other band to popularize industrial dance music, injecting large doses of punky, over-the-top aggression and roaring heavy metal guitar riffs that helped their music find favor with metal and alternative audiences outside of industrial's cult fan base." Despite frequent descriptions of the band's music as industrial, Jourgensen disputed the use of this tag in several publications since early 90s, preferring instead to identify his style as "aggro", and, much later "industrious".
Despite Jourgensen's dislike of touring, Ministry are noted for their live performances, featuring extended versions of songs (as evidenced on In Case You Didn't Feel Like Showing Up) and disturbing visual imagery. MTV also recognized the band as an influential heavy metal act, highlighting the use of sampling during their heyday.
Jourgensen, with former and current bandmates, has been active in a number of musical projects besides Ministry. Foremost of these was Ministry's alter ego, the Revolting Cocks, founded by Jourgensen, Richard 23 and Luc van Acker during Ministry's and Front 242's tour in 1984. Since its formation, the band has released a number of records, and has gone through several line-up changes. 1000 Homo DJs, a project purposed for outtakes from The Land of Rape and Honey and The Mind ... , has recorded a cover of Black Sabbath's "Supernaut", featuring Nine Inch Nails frontman and one-time Revolting Cocks touring member Trent Reznor. PTP, a project led by Jourgensen and Barker, included the assistance from Nivek Ogre on one occasion, and Connelly on another, and notably provided the song "Show Me Your Spine" featured in Paul Verhoeven's 1987 film RoboCop. Other notable projects include Pailhead with Ian MacKaye of Minor Threat and Fugazi, Lard with former Dead Kennedys lead singer Jello Biafra, and Acid Horse with Cabaret Voltaire members Richard H. Kirk and Stephen Mallinder. Buck Satan and the 666 Shooters, a country project led by Jourgensen, released the sole album, Bikers Welcome Ladies Drink Free, in 2012 through 13th Planet Records.
Barker has released several solo recordings under various monikers, including Age of Reason and Chicks & Speed: Futurism as Lead into Gold in 1990, The Perfect Pair as Flowering Blight in 2008, and Fix This!!!, an accompanying soundtrack of Fix: The Ministry Movie, under his own name in 2012. Through the 2000s, Barker formed Pink Anvil with Max Brody and U.S.S.A. with the Jesus Lizard guitarist Duane Denison.
- With Sympathy (1983)
- Twitch (1986)
- The Land of Rape and Honey (1988)
- The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste (1989)
- Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs (1992)
- Filth Pig (1996)
- Dark Side of the Spoon (1999)
- Animositisomina (2003)
- Houses of the Molé (2004)
- Rio Grande Blood (2006)
- The Last Sucker (2007)
- Relapse (2012)
- From Beer to Eternity (2013)
- AmeriKKKant (2018)
- With Sympathy Tour, 1983
- Wax Trax! Singles Tour, 1984
- Twitch Tour, 1986–1987
- The Land of Rape and Honey Tour, 1988
- The Mind Tour, 1989–1990
- Lollapalooza 1992
- Psalm 69 Tour, 1992–1994
- Big Day Out, 1995
- Sphinctour, 1996
- ClitourUS, 1999
- Fornicatour, 2003
- Evil Doer Tour, 2004–2005
- MasterBaTour, 2006
- C-U-LaTour, 2008
- DeFiBriLaTouR / Relapse Tour, 2012
- From Beer To EternaTour, 2015
- Death Grips and Ministry US Tour 2017
- The AmeriKKKan Tour, 2018
- In an article published in the September 1982 issue of Illinois Entertainer, Jourgensen was said to discuss several possible names for the band (including "Fallen Pillar", "Ministry of Fear" and "Ministry of Funk"), before settling on Ministry as it combined "the doom / gloom chromosomes of Fear and the dance feel of Funk." Much later publications has Jourgensen giving a credit to Fritz Lang's 1944 movie Ministry of Fear for inspiring the band's name; AllMusic editor Greg Prato reiterated this point in Jourgensen's profile, and so did Burton C. Bell and John Bechdel in an interview to James Hester for Target Audience Magazine.
In the November 1988 interview for Rockpool, Jourgensen explains:
Everyone interprets the name, Ministry, differently. Some people interpret it religiously ... To a lot of people I'm the Ministry of Assholes and others think I'm the Ministry of whatever. The whole point being that the name conjures up the image of a big omnipotent corporation behind closed doors, in darkened rooms, wheeling and dealing, powerplay type of thing. So to some people the name is along government lines and to others it's along religious lines, but when it all boils down to it what's the fucking difference. Power brokers is all that it is, behind closed doors, running your lives. And that's what it's supposed to conjure up and that's what I wanted to generate and that's what it will always be within Ministry.
- According to Jello Biafra, it was intended to be a seven-inch single featuring the song "Overkill" with the B-side "I'm Falling".
- Alternative rock subgenres such as industrial rock and industrial metal are umbrella terms predominately used to describe the band's career in general.
- Yücel, Ilker (April 7, 2017). "Sin Quirin InterView: Just as Intense and Heavy". ReGen Magazine. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
- Brooks 2017, p. 49.
- "Gold & Platinum – RIAA". RIAA.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Ministry – Chart history". Billboard. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "Ministry Is Back! 2012 Wacken Open Air Festival Appearance Confirmed". Blabbermouth.net. August 7, 2011. Archived from the original on June 5, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- Thompson 2000, p. 497; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 45–46.
- Wolanski, Coreen (March 1, 2003). "Ministry – Nothing Exceeds Like Excess". Exclaim!. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- Angle, Brad (December 1, 2007). "Ministry: Track Record". Revolver Magazine. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- "Interview with Ben Krug regarding the Silly Charmichaels". Prongs.org. March 18, 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 47.
- Krakow, Steve (December 11, 2016). "Hyde Park postpunks the Imports could've been America's Joy Division | Bleader". Chicago Reader. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
- Alamo-Costello, Chester (August 7, 2016). "ONO – An Unabridged History In Conversation". The COMP Magazine. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 47–48.
- Baker, Cary (September 1982). "Ministry: Ordained by Dance" (transcription). Illinois Entertainer. Vol. 2 no. 103. Retrieved September 12, 2018 – via Prongs.org archive. See also Reed 2013, p. 236.
- Dolgins, Adam (1998). Rock Names: From ABBA to ZZ Top: How Rock Bands Got Their Names (3rd ed.). Secaucus, N.J: Carol Pub. Group. pp. 176. ISBN 978-0-8065-2046-9 – via the Internet Archive.
- Swanson, Sandra (1999). "Ministry". In Hochman, Steve (ed.). Popular Musicians (loan required). 3. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press. pp. 731–732. ISBN 0893569860 – via the Internet Archive.
- Greg Prato. "Al Jourgensen – Biography". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- Hester, James (2009). Rock Scars. S.l: iUniverse. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4401-2773-1 – via Google Books.
- Dunkley, Andy (November 15, 1988). "Ministry of Mayhem" (scan). Rockpool. Vol. 9 no. 20 (206). pp. 14–15. Retrieved March 25, 2018 – via Prongs.org archive.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 49.
- Rod Smith (March 27, 2014). "Wax Trax: An Introduction". Red Bull Music Academy Daily. Red Bull Music Academy. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- "Interview with Robert Roberts". Prongs.org. n.d. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 104.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 50.
- Gimarc, George (1997). Post Punk Diary, 1980–1982. New York: St.Martin's Griffin. p. 250. ISBN 031216968X. OCLC 1036803142 – via the Internet Archive.
- Greene 1993, p. 26; Fontenoy 1999, p. 645.
- McCormick, Moira (September 11, 1982). "Indie New Music Labes Proliferating In Chicago". Billboard Magazine. Vol. 94 no. 36. pp. 9, 54. Retrieved January 26, 2018. See also Reed 2013, p. 236.
- Greene 1993, p. 26; Reed 2013, p. 236; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 50–51.
- Glickman 1994, p. 164; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 51.
- Zaleski, Annie (May 10, 2018). "35 Year Ago: Ministry Release Disavowed Debut, 'With Sympathy'". Ultimate Classic Rock. Townsquare Media. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Coupe, Stuart; Baker, Glenn A. (1983). The New Rock'N'Roll. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0312572107 – via Internet Archive.
- Huey, Steve. "Ministry". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Brooks 2017, p. 48.
- Sweeting, Adam (July 10, 1982). "Ministry of Offence" (scan). Melody Maker. ISSN 0025-9012. Retrieved February 5, 2018 – via Prongs.org archive. See also Reed 2013, p. 236.
- McCormick, Moira (October 23, 1982). "A Chicago Venue Is Reborn". Heartland Beat. Billboard. Vol. 94 no. 42. pp. 10, 68. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Morris, Erin (December 11, 1982). "Studio Track". Billboard. Vol. 94 no. 49. p. 42. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
- McCormick, Moira (January 15, 1983). "Genesis Center In Gary Making Steady Progress". Heartland Beat. Billboard. Vol. 95 no. 2. pp. 24, 53. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 10, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Morris, Erin (February 26, 1983). "Studio Track". Billboard. Vol. 95 no. 8. p. 29. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 23, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Greene 1993, p. 26; Reed 2013, p. 236.
- Kretsch, Ron (September 16, 2014). "Ministry's first video was for a song that has never been released. Until today. Sort of". Dangerous Mind. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- Greene 1993, p. 28.
- Greene 1993, p. 28; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 54.
- "Session with Patty Jourgensen". Prongs.org. 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 54.
- Blush, Steven (October 1991). "Cult of Personality". Spin Magazine. Vol. 7 no. 7. pp. 77–78. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved February 23, 2018 – via Google Books. See also Greene 1993, p. 28; Masuo 1996, p. 70.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 52, 54.
- Greene 1993, p. 28; Glickman 1994, p. 164; Masuo 1996, p. 70; Larkin 1998, p. 3692.
- "Alain Jourgensen interview". Markprindle.com. 2004. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
- Glickman 1994, p. 164; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 52.
- Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground (First ed.). Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 387. ISBN 0-316-06379-7 – via Internet Archive.
- Murphy, Tom (June 12, 2012). "Ministry's Al Jourgensen on his ties to Colorado: living in Breckenridge, attending Greeley High School and his ill-fated attempt at a rodeo career". Westword. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 49–50.
- "Session with Patty Jourgensen". prongs.org. 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- Skinner, Richard (1983). "Al Jourgensen In Conversation With Richard Skinner - Inc. Excerpts From The Forthcoming Album "Work For Love"". MINIC 1. Arista.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 56.
- Fontenoy 1999, p. 645; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 58.
- Greene 1993, p. 28; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 58.
- Van Matre, Lynn (March 31, 1988). "Future Looks Bright For Colortone Crew". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 49–50, 68.
- Greene 1993, p. 28; Masuo 1996, p. 71; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 56–57; Reed 2013, p. 236.
- Ladouceur, Liisa (2011). Encyclopedia Gothica. ECW Books. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-77041-024-4. Retrieved October 31, 2017 – via Google Books.
With its bouncy synthpop rhythms and lyrics all about woe-begotten Goth life, it's up there to 'Bela Lugosi's Dead' on the short list of universal Goth anthems ...
- Popson, Tom (July 26, 1985). "The Wax Trax Method Of Making Records". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Glickman 1994, p. 165.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 64; Reed 2013, p. 237.
- Acharya, Kiran. "Revolting Lots: Al Jourgensen's Favourite Ministry Albums". The Quietus. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Moore, Paul (1992). "Keith LeBlanc" (interview; scans). Technology Works. No. 13. pp. 16–25. Retrieved May 11, 2018 – via Imgur.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 64–65.
- Popson, Tom (March 28, 1986). "Adventures With Ministry In The Land Of Majors". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
- Greene 1993, p. 32; Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 68.
- Greene 1993, p. 28; Glickman 1994, p. 165; Brooks 2017, p. 48.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 64.
- Larkin 1998, p. 3692; Reed 2013, p. 239; Brooks 2017, p. 48.
- Worley, Gail (November 4, 1999). "What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been: The Definitive Bill Rieflin Interview". Ink19.com. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Donnelly, K. (August 16, 2007). British Film Music and Film Musicals (electronic book). Springer. pp. 87–90. ISBN 9780230597747. Retrieved March 7, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Punter, Jenine (November 1992). "Ministry: The Medium Is The Message" (scan). Spotlight. Music Express. Vol. 17 no. 177. p. 12 – via Prongs.org archive.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 130–131, 220.
- Pettigrew, Jason (October 1992). "Ministry's Meddle in Metal" (scans). Alternative Press. No. 51. Photo by Lisa Johnson. pp. 27–29. ISSN 1065-1667 – via Prongs.org archive.
- Kot, Greg (July 19, 1992). "Ministry`s Secret: Singing Ugly". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- Greene 1993, p. 40.
- Dan MacIntosh (February 18, 2012). "Al Jourgensen of Ministry". Songfacts. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 131, 159–160.
- Gitter, Mike (October 1992). "Ministry". Pulse!. pp. 53–55. Retrieved May 18, 2018 – via Prongs.org archive.
- Greene 1993, p. 40; Glickman 1994, p. 166; Larkin 1998, p. 3692.
- Montgommery, James (August 2, 2010). "Lollapalooza Lookback 1992: Meet Pearl Jam". MTV. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Fontenoy 2003, p. 676.
- Mehling, Shane (October 26, 2016). "That Tour Was Awesome: Ministry/Helmet/Sepultura (1992)". Decibel. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (January 1995). "In the Noose". Metal. CMJ New Music Monthly. No. 17. pp. 46–47. ISSN 1074-6978. Retrieved March 25, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Cadrey, Richard (March 1996). "Avalanche in 4/4". Pulse! (scans). pp. 30–35, 87 – via Prongs.org archive.
- Larkin 1998, p. 3693.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 164–165.
- George-Warren, Holly; Romanowski, Patricia; Pareles, Jon, eds. (2001). "Ministry". The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll ("Revised and updated for the 21st century" ed.). New York: Fireside. p. 654. ISBN 0-7432-0120-5 – via the Internet Archive.
- Locher 1998, p. 114: "The 1996 Ministry release is stylistically much more metal than industrial."
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Filth Pig – Ministry". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
- Dasein, Deena (February 1996). "Ministry Comes Clean" (transcription). Illinois Entertainer. Vol. 22 no. 4. pp. 26, 28. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 60, 164.
- "Final Nominations For The 42nd Annual Grammy Awards". Billboard. Vol. 112 no. 3. January 15, 2000. pp. 72–73. Retrieved May 29, 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Ministry Mainman Comments On Fifth Grammy Nomination". Blabbermouth.net. December 4, 2008.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 185–186.
- Mancini, Rob (April 20, 2000). "Ministry Live Albums In The Works". MTV. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Mancini, Rob (May 16, 2000). "Ministry Out, Soulfly In For Ozzfest". MTV. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- "Steven Spielberg Nabs Ministry for A.I." MTV. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- "Ministry – Jourgensen's Heroin Wake-Up Call". Contactmusic.com. November 8, 2005. Retrieved March 16, 2011. Also cited in: Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 193–194.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. XXIV, 59–61, 196, 199–207.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (January 22, 2004). "Founding Bassist Paul Barker Leaves Ministry". MTV News. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 213–215.
- Graff, Gary (May 26, 2006). "Ministry Plots Final Disc". Billboard. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- "Los Angeles Superior Court – Civil Case Summary". Lasuperiorcourt.org. Archived from the original on April 15, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- "Paul Raven – Bass player with Killing Joke, Ministry, Prong Dies in Geneva Aged 46 (Jan 16th 1961)". Side-line.com. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, p. 251.
- Ryan, Kyle (13 May 2008). "The Overdue Demise of Ministry". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Gendron, Bob (May 10, 2008). "Ministry farewell tour is the wrong goodbye". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
- Brown, Dean (August 2, 2012). "Ministry: 18 July 2012–Dublin, Ireland". PopMatters. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- "Al Jourgensen: Sex-O Olympic-O". SuicideGirls.com. March 12, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- McIntyre, Gina (April 20, 2011). "Ministry frontman Al Jourgensen sues makers of behind-the-scenes documentary 'Fix'". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Gill, James (August 18, 2011). "Ministry World Exclusive!". Metal Hammer. Archived from the original on August 27, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
- "Al Jourgensen: Why I Decided To Bring Back Ministry". Blabbermouth.net. August 18, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
- "Ministry: The Making Of 'Relapse' Webisode 3". Blabbermouth.net. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- Steffen Hung. "Ministry – Relapse". austriancharts.at. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Prato, Greg (December 23, 2012). "Ministry Guitarist Mike Scaccia Dies After Onstage Collapse". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "MIKE SCACCIA: Official Cause Of Death Revealed; Benefit Concert Planned". Blabbermouth.net. December 24, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "Al Jourgensen Announces the End of Ministry". Ultimate Guitar.
- "Al Jourgensen says Ministry will tour behind 'From Beer to Eternity'". Metal Insider.
- "Ministry To Tour In Support Of "From Beer To Eternity" With Full Album Performances". theprp.com.
- "Al Jourgensen Talks Surgical Meth Machine, Hating Facebook + New Ministry Album Possibility". Loudwire.com. April 14, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- "Al Jourgensen Planning New Ministry Album, Slams Republicans & Trump Supporters". theprp.com. July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- "Al Jourgensen Planning New Ministry Album, Slams Republicans & Trump Supporters". theprp.com. February 22, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "Ministry Tap Fear Factory, Ex-N.W.A., Etc. Members For New Album "AmeriKKKant"". theprp.com. May 29, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "MINISTRY: 'AmeriKKKant' Cover Artwork Unveiled; 'Antifa' Music Video Released". Blabbermouth.net. December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- "MINISTRY Signs With NUCLEAR BLAST; 'AmeriKKKant' Album Due In Early 2018". Blabbermouth.net. September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
- "Watch Ministry Debut New Track "Antifa" Live". theprp.com. May 29, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Stingley, Mick (October 11, 2018). "Ministry's Al Jourgensen on Turning 60, 30th Anniversary of 'The Land of Rape and Honey'". Billboard. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- "MINISTRY Is Already Working On Follow-Up To 'AmeriKKKant', Says AL JOURGENSEN". Blabbermouth.net. October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
- Graff, Gary. "Ministry's Al Jourgensen and Paul Barker Bury the Hatchet, Consider Future Music Plans". Billboard. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
- "Ministry's Al Jourgensen on How Playing in a Band Is Like 'Naked and Afraid'". Revolver. July 1, 2019. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "SLAYER Announces 'The Final Campaign' Tour Dates With PRIMUS, MINISTRY And PHILIP H. ANSELMO & THE ILLEGALS". Blabbermouth.net. July 9, 2019. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- Deming, Mark. "Ministry: Sphinctour (1996) – Overview". AllMovie. All Media Network. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
In 1996, after the release of their album Filth Pig, pioneering industrial rock troublemakers Ministry set out on a worldwide tour, leaving dazzled and dazed audiences in the wake of their brutal live shows.
- Christensen, Thor (1999). "Ministry". In Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (eds.). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide (loan required). Detroit: Visible Ink Press. p. 762. ISBN 978-1-57859-061-2 – via the Internet Archive.
nine inch nails might sell more records, but the Al Jourgensen-led Ministry is the most influential American industrial-rock band.
- Бухарин, Андрей (December 19, 2007). "Ministry "The Last Sucker"" [Ministry: The Last Sucker]. Rolling Stone Russia (in Russian). No. 40 (published October 2007). pp. 85–86. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Reed 2013, p. 188.
- Ferman, Dave (June 27, 2001). "Metal Band Ministry Rocks For A.i.'s Robots". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- McIntyre, Gina (April 20, 2011). "Ministry frontman Al Jourgensen sues makers of behind-the-scenes documentary 'Fix'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Cam Lindsay (July 17, 2017). "With 'Psalm 69,' Ministry Set the Bar for Depravity". Noisey Vice. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- "Ministry Performs New Song 'Antifa' At 'Blackest Of The Black' Festival (Video)". Blabbermouth. May 29, 2017. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
Industrial metal veterans MINISTRY debuted a new song called "Antifa" during their May 27 appearance at this year's edition of the "Blackest Of The Black" festival, which took place May 26–27 at Oak Canyon Park in Silverado, California.
- "Kultni industrial metal band Ministry u Zagrebu". HRT Magazin (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. June 5, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Milk it!: Collected Musings on the Alternative Music Explosion of the 90s. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-306-81271-1 – via the Internet Archive.
- Reynolds, Simon (2005). Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984. London: Faber and Faber. p. 523. ISBN 0571215696 – via the Internet Archive.
- Miller 2014, p. 82.
- Comer, M. Tye (April 1998). "Cubanate: Interference — Wax Trax!/TVT". Reviews. CMJ New Music Monthly. No. 56. College Media, Inc. p. 48. ISSN 1074-6978. Retrieved January 31, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Filene, Benjamin (2000). Romancing the Folk: Public Memory & American Roots Music. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 231. ISBN 9780807848623 – via Google Books.
- Henderson, Lol (January 27, 2014). Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century. Routledge. p. 720. ISBN 9781135929466 – via Google Books.
- Tolleson, Robin; Nunziata, Susan (August 1, 1992). "Artists in Concert". Artists & Music. Billboard Magazine. Vol. 104 no. 31. p. 13. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 29, 2017 – via Google Books.
- MacIntosh, Dan (February 18, 2012). "Al Jourgensen of Ministry : Songwriter Interviews". Songfacts. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- MacDonald, Trystan (September 9, 2013). "Ministry – From Beer to Eternity". Exclaim!. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- Elferen, Isabella van (January 7, 2012). Gothic Music: The Sounds of the Uncanny. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780708325186 – via Google Books.
- Moon 2008, p. 505.
- Knowles 2010, p. 236.
- Distefano, Alex (August 28, 2014). "The 10 Best Industrial Bands". OC Weekly. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- Corcoran, Michael (April 1989). "The Night Chicago Died". Flash. Spin. Vol. 5 no. 1. Spin Media, LLC. p. 20. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved January 31, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Glickman 1994, p. 164.
- Barber, Greg (June 20, 2006). "Q&A: Paul Raven of Ministry". Washington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- Knowles 2010, p. 236; Brooks 2017, p. 47.
- Fricke, David (April 18, 1991). "An Earful of Wax". Rolling Stone. No. 602. pp. 37–39. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Himes, Geoffrey; Harrington, Richard (November 30, 1994). "Recordings". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
... one of Jourgensen's latter-day descriptions is more accurate: The music he prefers to call 'aggro' is 'erotic, neurotic, psychotic, cyberaggresive, new-beat dance, country new wave punk with a metal edge ... and just a touch of insanity.'
- Jancik, Wayne; Lathrop, Tad (1995). "Ministry". Cult Rockers. New York: Fireside. pp. 189–190. ISBN 068481112X – via the Internet Archive.
- Masuo 1996, p. 69.
- Herzog, Kerry (July 31, 2013). "Al Jourgensen Bids Adieu to Ministry, Not to Speaking His Mind". Spin. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- Mervis, Scott (October 18, 2017). "Al Jourgensen talks about new Ministry album, the 'industrial' tag and that wild Lollapalooza of '92". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
Everyone puts us in this 'We're an industrial band' [stuff]. I don't know about industrial because I never worked in a construction site or an industrial site. What is industrial? ZZ Top uses drum programming and samples and stuff. Is ZZ Top industrial? I don't think so. So I've never considered us an industrial band. We're an industrious band. How about that? We're still around after 35 years. That makes us industrious. But I don't know about industrial.
- Raggett, Ned. "In Case You Didn't Feel Like Showing Up – Ministry". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Larkin 1998, p. 3692; Brooks, pp. 50–51.
- Wiederhorn, Jon. "Greatest Metal Bands – Honorable Mentions". MTV. Viacom. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Jourgensen & Wiederhorn 2013, pp. 76–77.
- Greene 1993, p. 38.
- Greene 1993, pp. 32, 38; Glickman 1994, p. 165; Larkin 1998, p. 3692
- Langer, Andy (July 2013). "Industrial Strength". Texas Monthly. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Jeffries, David. "Bikers Welcome Ladies Drink Free - Buck Satan & the 666 Shooters". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
- Greene 1993, pp. 32, 38, 40.
- Suarez, Gary (March 13, 2009). "Please Hug It Out, Industrial Metal Gods". MetalSucks. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Exclusive: Stream Paul Barker And Taylor Momsen's Song From 'FIX: The Ministry Movie' Soundtrack". Metal Insider. March 30, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- Bryant, Andrew (June 11, 2003). "Pink Anvil: Halloween Party". Pitchfork. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Prato, Greg. "The Spoils – USSA". AllMusic. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Death Grips & Ministry Co-Headline US Tour 2017". thirdworlds.net. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- Barker, Paul (Spring 1996). "Ministry". IndustrialnatioN. No. 12. Interviewed by Sharon Maher. pp. 24–27. ISSN 1062-449X. Retrieved October 31, 2018 – via the Internet Archive.
- Berelian, Essi (2005). The Rough Guide to Heavy Metal. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-415-0.
- Brooks, Jeffrey S. (2017). "Chapter 5: The Evolution of a Revolution". In Terri N. Watson, Jeffrey S. Brooks, Floyd D. Beachum (eds.). Educational Leadership and Music: Lessons for Tomorrow's School Leaders. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. pp. 47–54. ISBN 9781681238579 – via Google Books.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- Brown, Jake (2012). "Chapter 18: Al Jourgensen—The Ministry of Industrial Rock". Behind the Boards: The Making of Rock 'n' Roll's Greatest Records Revealed. Hal Leonard Books. pp. 195–202. ISBN 978-1-4584-1972-9.
- Fontenoy, Richard (1999). "Ministry". In Buckley, Jonathan; Duane, Orla; Ellingham, Mark; Spicer, Al (eds.). Rock: The Rough Guide (2nd ed.). London, New York: Rough Guides. pp. 645–646. ISBN 1-85828-457-0 – via the Internet Archive.
- Glickman, Simon (1994). "Ministry". In Rubiner, Julia M. (ed.). Contemporary Musicians: Profiles of The People in Music. 10. Detroit / Washington, D.C. / London: Gale Research. pp. 164–166. ISBN 0-8103-2218-8. ISSN 1044-2197 – via the Internet Archive.
- Greene, Jo-Ann (April 2, 1993). "Ministry" (scans). Goldmine. Vol. 19 no. 7 (331). pp. 26, 28, 32, 38, 40. ISSN 1055-2685. Retrieved October 13, 2018 – via the Prongs.org archive.
- Jourgensen, Al & Wiederhorn, Jon (July 9, 2013). Ministry: The Lost Gospels According To Al Jourgensen (loan required). Boston, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306822186. OCLC 811206550 – via the Internet Archive.
- Jourgensen, Al (July – December 2003). "Al Jourgensen Talks Politics with IN". IndustrialnatioN. No. 18. Interviewed by Sharon Maher. ISSN 1062-449X. Archived from the original on August 19, 2004. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Knowles, Christopher (2010). The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Berkeley, California: Viva Editions (Simon and Schuster). ISBN 978-1-57344-405-7 – via Google Books.
- Larkin, Colin, ed. (1998). "Ministry". Encyclopedia of Popular Music (loan required). 5 (3rd ed.). Muse UK Ltd. pp. 3692–3693. ISBN 1561592374 – via the Internet Archive.
- Locher, David A. (1998). "The Industrial Identity Crisis: The Failure of a Newly Forming Subculture to Identify Itself". In Jonathan S. Epstein (ed.). Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World (loan required). Wiley-Blackwell Publishers. pp. 100–117. ISBN 1-55786-851-4 – via the Internet Archive.
- Masuo, Sandy (January – February 1996). "Ministry: It's Not Easy Being Mean". Option: Music Culture. No. 66. pp. 66–73. ISSN 0882-178X.
- McLeod, Kembrew (November 2004). "Ministry". In Brackett, Nathan (ed.). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 544. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8 – via Google Books.
- Miller, Monica (August 2014). "'No man with a good car needs to be justified': Preaching Roack and Roll Salvation from O'Connor's Wise Blood to Ministry's 'Jesus Built My Hotrod.'". Flannery O'Connor Review. Georgia College. 12: 82–98. ISSN 0091-4924.
- Moon, Tom (2008). 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. New York: Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7611-3963-8 – via Google Books.
- Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). "Ministry / Chapter 33: Industrial and Grindcore". Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Foreword by Joe Satriani; edited by Jon Eiche. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 250–251. ISBN 0-7935-4042-9 – via Google Books.
- Reed, S. Alexander (2013). Assimilate: A Critical History of Industrial Music. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199832606 – via Google Books.
- Thompson, Dave (2000). Alternative Rock. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 9780879306076 – via Google Books.
- Wiederhorn, Jon & Turman, Katherine (2013). Louder Than Hell: The Definitive Oral History of Metal (loan required). New York: itbooks. ISBN 978-0-06-195828-1 – via the Internet Archive.