Led Zeppelin II is the second studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released on 22 October 1969 in the United States and on 31 October 1969 in the United Kingdom by Atlantic Records. Recording sessions for the album took place at several locations in both the United Kingdom and North America from January to August 1969. The album's production was credited to the band's lead guitarist and songwriter Jimmy Page, and it was also Led Zeppelin's first album on which Eddie Kramer served as engineer.

Led Zeppelin II
A composite sepia photograph of the band, with members of the Jasta 11 Division of the Luftstreitkräfte, in front of a hydrogen cloud expanding from an outline of the Hindenburg exploding.
Studio album by
Released22 October 1969 (1969-10-22)
RecordedApril–August 1969
ProducerJimmy Page
Led Zeppelin chronology
Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin II
Led Zeppelin III
Singles from Led Zeppelin II
  1. "Whole Lotta Love" / "Living Loving Maid (She's Just a Woman)"
    Released: 7 November 1969 (US)

The album exhibited the band's evolving musical style of blues-derived material and their guitar riff-based sound. It has been described as the band's heaviest album.[2] Six of the nine songs were written by the band, while the other three were reinterpretations of Chicago blues songs by Willie Dixon and Howlin' Wolf. One single, "Whole Lotta Love", was released outside of the UK (the band would release no UK singles during their career),[3] and peaked as a top-ten single in over a dozen markets around the world.

Led Zeppelin II was a commercial success, and was the band's first album to reach number one on charts in the UK and the US. The album's cover designer David Juniper was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Recording Package in 1970. On 15 November 1999, the album was certified 12× Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for sales passing 12 million copies. Since its release, various writers and music critics have cited Led Zeppelin II as one of the greatest and most influential albums of all time.

Background edit

Led Zeppelin II was conceived during a busy period of Led Zeppelin's career from January through August 1969, when they completed four European and three American concert tours.[4] Each song was separately recorded, mixed and produced at various studios in the UK and North America. The album was written on tour, during periods of a couple of hours in between concerts, a studio was booked and the recording process begun, necessarily resulting in spontaneity and urgency, which is reflected in the sound.[4] Several songs resulted from improvisation while touring, including during the instrumental sections of "Dazed and Confused", and were recorded mostly live in the studio.[5]

Recording sessions for the album took place at a wide variety of studios in the UK and US, including Olympic and Morgan Studios in London, England; A&M, Quantum, Sunset, Mirror Sound and Mystic Studios in Los Angeles; Ardent Studios in Memphis, Tennessee; A&R, Juggy Sound, Groove and Mayfair Studios in New York City; and R&D Studios.[6] Some of these were ill-equipped, leading to one Vancouver studio, which had an 8-track set-up without even proper headphone facilities,[7] being credited as "a hut".[8][9] A more favourable set-up was Mystic Studios in Hollywood, Los Angeles with Chris Huston engineering.[7]

Lead singer Robert Plant later complained that the writing, recording, and mixing sessions were done in many different locations, and criticised the writing and recording process.[10] "Thank You", "The Lemon Song" and "Moby Dick" were overdubbed during the tour, while the mixing of "Whole Lotta Love" and "Heartbreaker" was also done on tour. Page later stated, "In other words, some of the material came out of rehearsing for the next tour and getting new material together."[11]

Page and Kramer spent two days mixing the album at A&R Studios,[12] and the album's production was entirely credited to Jimmy Page, with Eddie Kramer engineering.[7] Kramer was quoted as saying, "The famous Whole Lotta Love mix, where everything is going bananas, is a combination of Jimmy and myself just flying around on a small console twiddling every knob known to man."[7] Kramer later gave great credit to Page for the sound that was achieved, despite the inconsistent conditions in which it was recorded: "We cut some of the tracks in some of the most bizarre studios you can imagine ... but in the end it sounded bloody marvellous ... there was one guy in charge and that was Mr. Page."[12]

Music and lyrics edit

The finished tracks reflect the evolving sound of the band and their live performances.[13][14] Plant had his first songwriting credits on Led Zeppelin II; he had been unable to have his contributions to the writing process credited for the first album because of a prior contract with CBS Records.[15]

Side one edit

"Whole Lotta Love" was built around a five-note Page riff. Parts of the lyrics were taken directly from Willie Dixon's "You Need Love", which led to the group being sued for plagiarism, eventually settling out of court. The arrangement also resembles the Small Faces track "You Need Loving".[16] With basic tracks recorded on Page's houseboat, the middle section of the song contained a variety of overdubbed instruments and vocals which were mixed live by Page and Kramer, making full use of stereo panning and other controls available on the desk. The song was edited down to a single in the US, where it became a top 5 hit. In the UK, a single release was cancelled; the group never issued any singles there during their active career together.[17] It was finally issued as a single in 1997.[18] A mainly instrumental version of the song was recorded by CCS and was used as the theme tune to the BBC TV show Top of the Pops, ensuring it was well known by virtually everyone in Britain.[19]

Led Zeppelin performed "Whole Lotta Love" at every gig from June 1969 onwards. It was the closing number of their live shows between 1970 and 1973, often extended to incorporate a rock'n'roll medley towards the end of the set. A different arrangement of the song was played for the Knebworth Fayre concerts in 1979. It was the last song the group ever performed live with drummer John Bonham, on 7 July 1980. "Whole Lotta Love" has since been critically praised as one of the definitive heavy metal tracks, though the group have never considered themselves to fit that specific style.[19]

"What Is and What Should Never Be" was primarily written by Plant. It features a variety of dynamics during the track, along with flanged vocals and wide-panned stereo guitars.[19]

"The Lemon Song" was a re-arrangement of Howlin' Wolf's "Killing Floor", which had become a regular part of the group's live show during 1969. It was mostly recorded live and expanded to include new lyrics, including the sexually-charged phrase "squeeze my lemon" which was borrowed from Robert Johnson's "Travelling Riverside Blues", which the band had played for the BBC radio show Top Gear broadcast on 29 June 1969.[19][20][21][22]

"Thank You" was written by Plant as a love song to his wife, Maureen. Page played twelve-string guitar and Jones played Hammond organ on the track.[19]

Side two edit

"Heartbreaker" was mostly written by Page as a showcase for his guitar skills, including an unaccompanied solo in the middle of the song. It quickly became a live favourite, being performed regularly from October 1969 onwards, and throughout the group's career.[19]

"Living Loving Maid (She's Just a Woman)" was purported to be written about a groupie the band encountered while touring the US. The group disliked the track, considering it to be little more than filler, and consequently it was never played live by the group. Plant performed the track live on his 1990 solo tour.[19]

"Ramble On" was written by Plant. The lyrics were inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien, and similar themes appeared on subsequent Led Zeppelin albums. The track made good use of dynamics, moving from a quiet acoustic guitar in the opening, to a variety of overdubbed electric guitars towards the end.[23] It was never performed live by Led Zeppelin during their main career, but Plant has performed the song regularly on solo tours, and it was part of Page and Plant's live set in the mid-1990s. It was finally performed live for the first time by Led Zeppelin at the Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in 2007.[24]

"Moby Dick" was designed as a showcase for Bonham's drum solo. It was originally called "Pat's Delight" (after his wife) and features a variety of drums and percussive instruments played with bare hands as well as drumsticks. It was a regular part of Led Zeppelin's live show, developing to include additional percussion and electronic drums.[23]

"Bring It On Home" was a cover of a Willie Dixon song originally performed by Sonny Boy Williamson II. Led Zeppelin's arrangement includes a faster middle section in addition to the straightforward blues structure of the original. It was played live regularly throughout late 1969 and 1970.[23]

Artwork edit

The World War I photograph on which the album sleeve was based

The album sleeve design was from a poster by David Juniper, who was simply told by the band to come up with an interesting idea. Juniper was a fellow student of Page's at Sutton Art College in Surrey.[25]

Juniper's design was based on a photograph of the Jagdstaffel 11 Division of the German Air Force during World War I, the Flying Circus led by the Red Baron. Juniper replaced four of the flyers' heads with photos of the band members, added facial hair and sunglasses to some of the flyers' faces or replaced some with the faces of other people. The blonde-haired woman is French actress Delphine Seyrig in her role as Marie-Madeleine in the film Mr. Freedom, a leftist anti-war satire by William Klein. The cover also pictured the outline of a Zeppelin on a brown background (similar to the cover of the band's first album), which gave the album its nickname "Brown Bomber".[26]

Release and reception edit

The album was released on 22 October 1969 on Atlantic Records, with advance orders of 400,000 copies.[27] The advertising campaign was built around the slogans 'Led Zeppelin – The Only Way to Fly' and 'Led Zeppelin II Now Flying'.[15] In the United States, some commercially duplicated reel-to-reel copies of Led Zeppelin II made by Ampex bore the title Led Zeppelin II – The Only Way to Fly on their spine. Commercially, Led Zeppelin II was the band's first album to hit No. 1 in the US, knocking The Beatles' Abbey Road (1969) twice from the top spot, where it remained for seven weeks.[15] By April 1970 it had registered three million American sales, whilst in Britain it enjoyed a 138-week residence on the LP chart, climbing to the top spot in February 1970.[15] Meanwhile, the album reached the top spot in other 5 national albums charts (including Canadian, Australian and Spanish albums charts). In November Ritchie Yorke reported in Billboard that while the album had achieved "staggering" sales, as a hard rock record it was considered unsuitable for North American Top 40 radio stations, who were "dreary and detached from the mainstream of contemporary rock music".[28]

The album also yielded Led Zeppelin's biggest hit, "Whole Lotta Love". This song reached No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 in January 1970, after Atlantic went against the group's wishes by releasing a shorter version on 45. The single's B-side, "Living Loving Maid (She's Just a Woman)", also hit the Billboard chart, peaking at No. 65 in April 1970. The album helped establish Led Zeppelin as an international concert attraction, and for the next year, the group continued to tour relentlessly, initially performing in clubs and ballrooms, then in larger auditoriums and eventually stadiums as their popularity grew.[29]

Led Zeppelin II was not well-received by contemporary music critics. John Mendelsohn wrote a negative review of the record for Rolling Stone, in which he mocked the group's heavy sound and white blues, while writing that "until you've listened to the album eight hundred times, as I have, it seems as if it's just one especially heavy song extended over the space of two whole sides".[30] In The Village Voice, Robert Christgau jokingly referred to the band as "the best of the wah-wah mannerist groups, so dirty they drool on demand", while complaining that "all the songs sound alike", before assigning the album a "B" grade.[31] He nonetheless conceded in 1970 that "Led Zeppelin simply out-heavied everyone" the previous year, "pitting Jimmy Page's repeated low-register fuzz riffs against the untiring freak intensity of Robert Plant's vocal. This trademark has only emerged clearly on the second album, and more and more I am coming to understand it as an artistic triumph."[32]

On 10 November 1969, the album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America and in 1990 it was certified 5× platinum reflecting shipping of five million copies. By 14 November 1999, Led Zeppelin II had shipped twelve million copies and was certified 12× platinum by the RIAA.[33] The 2014 reissue of the album helped itself get back into the Billboard Top 10 when it got to No. 9.[34]

Legacy and reappraisal edit

Retrospective professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic     [35]
Blender     [36]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music     [37]
Entertainment WeeklyA+[38]
MusicHound Rock4.5/5[39]
Q     [40]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide     [41]
Tom Hull – on the WebB+[42]

Led Zeppelin II has since been regarded as the quintessential hard rock and heavy metal album.[1] AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine said it "provided the blueprint for all the heavy metal bands that followed it".[13] While crediting the band for essentially inventing metal, Tom Hull said that, after the first album had declared their musical ambition, "the second honed it down to a singular entity, a sound", with subsequent albums expanding on it in "sophisticated, subtler, often quite intelligent" ways, but still indebted to "the basic dumbness" of II – "dumb not in the sense of stupid but of non-speaking. Lyrics are there of course, but as an integral part of the music, a music better appropriated tactilely, through incoherent sensation, than intellectually, literarily."[43]

The album was described as a "brilliant if heavy-handed blues-rock offensive", by popular music scholar Ronald Zalkind.[44] According to Robert Santelli's The Big Book of Blues: A Biographical Encyclopedia (2001), Led Zeppelin "had already begun to move beyond its blues-rock influences, venturing into previously unexplored hard-rock territories".[45] Blues-derived songs like "Whole Lotta Love", "Heartbreaker", "The Lemon Song", "Moby Dick", and "Bring It On Home" have been seen as representing standards of the metal genre, where the guitar-based riff (rather than vocal chorus or verses) defines the song and provides the key hook.[17] Such arrangements and emphasis were at the time atypical in popular music.[13] Page's guitar solo in "Heartbreaker" was an influence on later renowned guitarists Eddie Van Halen, as inspiration for his two-handed tapping technique, and Steve Vai.[46]

Since its initial critical reception, Led Zeppelin II has earned several accolades from music publications, being ranked on critics' "best album" lists. In 1989, Spin magazine ranked the album No. 5 on its list of The 25 Greatest Albums of All Time.[citation needed] In 1990, CD Review ranked it sixth on their list of top 50 CDs for starting a "pop/rock" library; an accompanying blurb described the album as "white boy blues with a hard rock edge".[47] In 2000, Q magazine placed Led Zeppelin II at number 37 in its list of the 100 Greatest British Albums Ever.[48] In 2003, the album was ranked number 75 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time,[49] 79 in a 2012 revised list,[50] and 123 in a 2020 revised list.[51] The album was also included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[52]

Accolades for Led Zeppelin II
Publication Country Accolade Year Rank
Grammy Award United States "Grammy Award for Best Recording Package"[53] 1970 Nominee
Guitarist United Kingdom "Top 50 Most Influential Guitar Albums of All Time Ever"[54] 1994 3
Mojo United Kingdom "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made"[55] 1996 41
Platendraaier The Netherlands – Dutch "Top 30 Albums of the 60s"[56] 2015 11
The Guitar United States "Album of the Millennium"[57] 1999 6
Rolling Stone United States "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time"[51] 2020 123
Q United Kingdom "100 Greatest Albums Ever"[58] 2003 37
Rock Hard Germany "The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time"[59] 2005 318
Robert Dimery United States "1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die"[60] 2006 *
Classic Rock United Kingdom "100 Greatest British Rock Album Ever"[61] 2006 8
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame United States "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time"[62] 2007 47
Q United Kingdom "50 Years of Great British Music (1960s)"[63] 2008 *

(*) designates unordered lists.

2014 reissue edit

2014 reissue ratings
Aggregate scores
Review scores
The Austin Chronicle     [65]
Consequence of SoundA−[66]
Q     [68]
Rolling Stone     [69]

Along with the group's self-titled debut album and their third album, Led Zeppelin III, the album was remastered and reissued on 2 June 2014. The reissue comes in six formats: a standard CD edition, a deluxe two-CD edition, a standard LP version, a deluxe two-LP version, a super deluxe two-CD plus two-LP version with a hardback book, and as high-resolution, 24-bit/96k digital downloads. The deluxe and super deluxe editions feature bonus material containing alternative takes, backing tracks and the previously unreleased instrumental, "La La".[70] The reissue was released with an altered colour version of the original album's artwork as its bonus disc's cover.[71]

The reissue was met with widespread critical acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 95, based on 10 reviews.[64] Pitchfork journalist Mark Richardson said, "the reissue sounds as thrilling as ever",[67] while Julian Marszalek of The Quietus noted the bonus disc's "intriguing insight" into the original record's creation.[72] In Rolling Stone, David Fricke wrote, "the alternate takes highlight Robert Plant's ripening vocal poise and, in a rough mix of 'Ramble On', the decisive, melodic force of John Paul Jones' bass and John Bonham's drumming."[69] "As a two-disc set", Consequence of Sound's Michael Madden wrote, "this reissue is both a reminder of the original album's wallop and a closer look at the alchemy of a band increasingly attuned to ideas of progression."[66] Raoul Hernandez from The Austin Chronicle was more critical of the bonus disc, finding it to be "the thinest of extras" offered by the reissue program.[65]

Track listing edit

All tracks composed by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant, except where noted.

Original release edit

Side one[73]
1."Whole Lotta Love"5:33
2."What Is and What Should Never Be" 4:47
3."The Lemon Song"
4."Thank You" 3:50[a]
Total length:20:30
Side two[73]
  • Jimmy Page
  • Robert Plant
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
2."Living Loving Maid (She's Just a Woman)" 2:40
3."Ramble On" 4:35
4."Moby Dick"
  • Jimmy Page
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
5."Bring It On Home"
  • Jimmy Page
  • Robert Plant
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
  • Willie Dixon
Total length:20:14 40:44

Deluxe Edition (2014) edit

2014 deluxe edition bonus disc[9]
No.TitleWriter(s)Recording DateLength
1."Whole Lotta Love" (Rough mix with vocal)
  • Jimmy Page
  • Robert Plant
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
  • Willie Dixon
16 April 19695:38
2."What Is and What Should Never Be" (Rough mix with vocal) 19 April 19694:33
3."Thank You" (Backing track) 25 June 19694:21
4."Heartbreaker" (Rough mix with vocal)
  • Jimmy Page
  • Robert Plant
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
21 May 19694:24
5."Living Loving Maid (She's Just a Woman)" (Backing track) 25 June 19693:08
6."Ramble On" (Rough mix with vocal) 1 June 19694:43
7."Moby Dick" (Intro/Outro Rough mix)
  • Jimmy Page
  • John Paul Jones
  • John Bonham
6 May 19691:37
8."La La" (Backing track) 14 April 19694:07
Total length:32:39

Personnel edit

Led Zeppelin


  • Producer – Jimmy Page
  • Recording engineers
George Chkiantz at Olympic Studios, London: "Whole Lotta Love", "What Is and What Should Never Be"
Chris Huston at Mirror Sound, Los Angeles: "The Lemon Song", "Moby Dick"
Andy Johns at Morgan Studios, London: "Thank You", "Living Loving Maid (She's Just a Woman)"
Eddie Kramer at A & R Studios, Juggy Sound Studio, and Atlantic Studios (resp.), New York: "Heartbreaker", "Ramble On", "Bring It On Home"

Digitally remastered editions

  • First 1987 CD mastering [19127-2] – Barry Diament at Atlantic Studios
  • 1994 digital remastering (from the original master tapes) – Jimmy Page and George Marino at Sterling Sound
  • 2014 24 bit/192 kHz digital transfers of the original analogue tapes – Jimmy Page at Metropolis Mastering, London
Additional engineering for prev. unreleased studio outtakes – Drew Griffiths at Metropolis Mastering, London
Mastering of prev. unreleased tracks – John Davis at Metropolis Mastering, London
  • All reissues produced by Jimmy Page

Charts edit

Certifications edit

Certifications for Led Zeppelin II
Region Certification Certified units/sales
Argentina (CAPIF)[102] Gold 30,000^
Australia (ARIA)[103] 4× Platinum 280,000^
Austria (IFPI Austria)[104] Gold 25,000*
Canada (Music Canada)[105] 9× Platinum 900,000^
France (SNEP)[106] 2× Gold 200,000*
Germany (BVMI)[107] Platinum 500,000^
Italy (FIMI)[108]
sales since 2009
Platinum 100,000*
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[109] Gold 50,000^
Sweden (GLF)[110] Gold 25,000[111]
United Kingdom (BPI)[112] 4× Platinum 1,200,000^
United States (RIAA)[33] 12× Platinum 12,000,000^

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b Original LP pressings of the album lists the running time of "Thank You" at 3:50, since the song's coda has a false fade at that point. The 2014 deluxe reissue lists it as 4:49.[9]

References edit


  1. ^ a b Rosen 1996, p. 1967.
  2. ^ Buckley 2003, p. 502.
  3. ^ Schinder, Scott (2007). Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever. Greenwood. p. 380. ISBN 978-0313338472.
  4. ^ a b Rosen 1996, p. 118.
  5. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 15, 46–47.
  6. ^ "R&D Studios (Vancouver), May 10, 1969 | [title]". Led Zeppelin | Official Website – Official Website. 10 May 1969. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Lewis 1990, p. 15.
  8. ^ Cleveland, Barry (May 2008). "Guitar Player: Mixing Led Zeppelin II". Guitar Player. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  9. ^ a b c Led Zeppelin II (Super Deluxe Edition Box) (Media notes). Atlantic Records. 2014. p. 3. R2-536181.
  10. ^ Lewis & Pallett 1997, p. 32.
  11. ^ Schulps, Dave (October 1977). "Interview with Jimmy Page". Trouser Press. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
  12. ^ a b "Classic Rock Presents Led Zeppelin: Their Time is Gonna Come". Classic Rock: 21. 2008.
  13. ^ a b c "Led Zeppelin II". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  14. ^ Gilmore, Mikal (10 August 2006). "The Long Shadow of Led Zeppelin". Rolling Stone. No. 1006. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2007.
  15. ^ a b c d Lewis 1990, p. 47.
  16. ^ Lewis 1990, pp. 47, 57.
  17. ^ a b Lewis 1990, pp. 47–48.
  18. ^ Lewis 2012, p. 59.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Lewis 1990, p. 48.
  20. ^ Martin Popoff (21 August 2018). Led Zeppelin: All the Albums, All the Songs. Voyageur Press. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9780760363775.
  21. ^ Lewis 2010, p. 102.
  22. ^ David Fricke (13 September 2016). "Jimmy Page on Led Zeppelin's 'Totally Fearless' BBC Sessions". rollingstone.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  23. ^ a b c Lewis 1990, p. 49.
  24. ^ Lewis 2012, p. 67.
  25. ^ "David Juniper". led-zeppelin.org. 25 September 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  26. ^ Lewis 2012, pp. 55–56.
  27. ^ Welch, Chris (1994) Led Zeppelin, London: Orion Books. ISBN 1-85797-930-3, p. 40.
  28. ^ Yorke, Ritchie (14 November 1970). "Maple Leaf Rock". Billboard. Vol. 82, no. 46. p. R-16. ISSN 0006-2510.
  29. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Led Zeppelin: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  30. ^ Mendelsohn, John (13 December 1969). "Records". Rolling Stone. No. 48. San Francisco: Straight Arrow Publishers, Inc. p. 48. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  31. ^ Christgau, Robert (15 January 1970). "Consumer Guide (6)". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  32. ^ Christgau, Robert (12 February 1970). "Delaney & Bonnie & Friends Featuring Eric Clapton". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  33. ^ a b "American album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Recording Industry Association of America.
  34. ^ "Billboard 200". Billboard. p. 1. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  35. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Led Zeppelin II: Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  36. ^ "Review". Blender. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  37. ^ Larkin, Colin (2006). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Vol. 5 (4th ed.). MUZE. p. 141. ISBN 0195313739.
  38. ^ Tom Sinclair (20 June 2003). "Entertainment Weekly Review". Ew.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  39. ^ Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel, eds. (1999). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Farmington Hills, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 662. ISBN 1-57859-061-2.
  40. ^ "Q (magazine)|Q Review". Q4music.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  41. ^ Brackett & Hoard 2004, p. 479.
  42. ^ Hull, Tom (n.d.). "Grade List: Led Zeppelin". Tom Hull – on the Web. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  43. ^ Hull, Tom (April 1975). "The Rekord Report: L'Objet Rèpris". Overdose. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020 – via tomhull.com.
  44. ^ Zalkind, Ronald (1980). Contemporary Music Almanac. p. 255.
  45. ^ Santelli, Robert (2001). The Big Book of Blues: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Penguin Books. p. 290. ISBN 0141001453.
  46. ^ "Led Zeppelin 1979 'Heartbreaker' Performance is Giving Us a Dose of 70s Nostalgia". 25 March 2021.
  47. ^ "Pop/Rock Library". CD Review. Vol. 6, no. 7–12. 1990. p. 42.
  48. ^ Tower: Led Zeppelin II. Tower.com. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  49. ^ "75) Led Zeppelin II". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  50. ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time Rolling Stone's definitive list of the 500 greatest albums of all time". Rolling Stone. 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  51. ^ a b "Led Zeppelin II ranked 123rd greatest album by Rolling Stone magazine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  52. ^ Robert Dimery; Michael Lydon (7 February 2006). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5.
  53. ^ "Grammy Award for Best Recording Package (David Juniper) – 11 March 1970". Grammy. 9 February 1970. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  54. ^ "Top 50 Most Influential Guitar Albums of All Time Ever – December 1994". Guitarist. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  55. ^ "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made – January 1996". Mojo. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  56. ^ "Top 30 albums van de jaren 60 – October 2015". Platendraaier. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  57. ^ "Album of the Millennium – December 1999". The Guitar. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  58. ^ "100 Greatest Albums Ever – January 2003". Q. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  59. ^ Rensen, Michael, ed. (2005). Best of Rock & Metal – Die 500 stärksten Scheiben aller Zeiten (in German). Rock Hard. p. 83. ISBN 3-89880-517-4.
  60. ^ Dimery, Robert (7 February 2006). "1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die". New York, NY: Universe. p. 156. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5.
  61. ^ "Classic Rock – 100 Greatest British Rock Album Ever – April 2006". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  62. ^ "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (United States). Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  63. ^ "50 Years of Great British Music – March 2008". Q. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  64. ^ a b "Reviews for Led Zeppelin II [Remastered] by Led Zeppelin". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 1 September 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  65. ^ a b Hernandez, Raoul (18 July 2014). "Review: Led Zeppelin". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  66. ^ a b Madden, Michael (4 June 2014). "Led Zeppelin II Reissue". Consequence of Sound. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  67. ^ a b "Pitchfork Review". Pitchfork.com. 6 September 2018. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  68. ^ "Review". Q. July 2014. p. 120.
  69. ^ a b Fricke, David (3 June 2014). "Led Zeppelin II (Reissue)". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  70. ^ "Led Zeppelin return with new unheard song". The Independent. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  71. ^ "Led Zeppelin Remasters Arrive At Last". Mojo. 13 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  72. ^ Marszalek, Julian (2 June 2014). "Led Zeppelin". The Quietus. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  73. ^ a b Led Zeppelin (1969). Led Zeppelin II (Album notes). New York City: Atlantic Records. Inside cover. SD 8236.
  74. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  75. ^ "Top RPM Albums: Issue 6117". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  76. ^ "danskehitlister.dk". Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  77. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  78. ^ Pennanen, Timo (2006). Sisältää hitin – levyt ja esittäjät Suomen musiikkilistoilla vuodesta 1972 (in Finnish) (1st ed.). Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtiö Otava. ISBN 978-951-1-21053-5.
  79. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  80. ^ "Classifiche". Musica e Dischi (in Italian). Retrieved 8 July 2023. Set "Tipo" on "Album". Then, in the "Artista" field, search "Led Zeppelin".
  81. ^ Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970–2005 (in Japanese). Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
  82. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  83. ^ Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
  84. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  85. ^ "Led Zeppelin Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  86. ^ "Australiancharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  87. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  88. ^ "Ultratop.be – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  89. ^ "Ultratop.be – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II" (in French). Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  90. ^ "Danishcharts.dk – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  91. ^ "Led Zeppelin: Led Zeppelin II" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  92. ^ "Lescharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  93. ^ "Album Top 40 slágerlista – 2014. 32. hét" (in Hungarian). MAHASZ. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  94. ^ "Italiancharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  95. ^ "Charts.nz – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  96. ^ "Oficjalna lista sprzedaży :: OLiS - Official Retail Sales Chart". OLiS. Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  97. ^ "Portuguesecharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  98. ^ "Spanishcharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  99. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  100. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Hung Medien. Retrieved July, 8 2023.
  101. ^ "Top 100 Metal Albums of 2002". Jam!. Archived from the original on 12 August 2004. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  102. ^ "Led Zeppelin Discos de oro y platino" (in Spanish). Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  103. ^ "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2007 Albums" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association.
  104. ^ "Austrian album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II" (in German). IFPI Austria.
  105. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". Music Canada.
  106. ^ "French album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Volume 2" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique.
  107. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Led Zeppelin; 'II')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
  108. ^ "Italian album certifications – Led Zeppelin – II" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Select "Tutti gli anni" in the "Anno" drop-down menu. Select "II" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Album e Compilation" under "Sezione".
  109. ^ Sólo Éxitos 1959–2002 Año A Año: Certificados 1979–1990 (in Spanish). Iberautor Promociones Culturales. 2005. ISBN 8480486392.
  110. ^ "LED ZEPPELIN: A 'GOLD' SALES AWARD FOR THE ALBUM LED ZEPPELIN II, 1970". Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  112. ^ "British album certifications – Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin II". British Phonographic Industry.


External links edit