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Helloween is a German power metal band founded in 1984 in Hamburg, Northern Germany by members of bands Iron Fist and Gentry. Its first line-up consisted of singer and guitarist Kai Hansen, bass guitarist Markus Grosskopf, guitarist Michael Weikath, and drummer Ingo Schwichtenberg. After the release of a self-titled EP and their debut album Walls of Jericho in 1985, it expanded into a quintet with the addition of singer Michael Kiske, Hansen choosing to focus on guitar instead. Under this line-up, they released the Keeper of the Seven Keys albums (1987 and 1988), which established Helloween as a notable heavy metal band and led to the creation of the power metal subgenre. However, Hansen left the band soon after the release of Part II and was replaced by Roland Grapow. After leaving Helloween Hansen formed Gamma Ray.

Helloween
Helloween - Live in Nürnberg - Löwensaal - 18.01.2006.jpg
Helloween performing in 2006 in Nuremberg. From left to right: Sascha Gerstner, Markus Grosskopf, Andi Deris, and Michael Weikath, with Daniel Löble in the back.
Background information
Origin Hamburg, Germany
Genres
Years active 1984–present
Labels Noise, RCA, EMI, Castle, Sony Music, Nuclear Blast, Steamhammer/SPV
Associated acts Gamma Ray, Iron Savior, Masterplan, Blind Guardian, Freedom Call, Bassinvaders, Pink Cream 69, Unisonic, HammerFall
Website helloween.org
Members
Past members

Helloween's first two albums without Hansen, Pink Bubbles Go Ape (1991) and Chameleon (1993), were commercial and critical failures,[1] which created tensions between band members and led to the firing of Schwichtenberg and Kiske. They were replaced by Uli Kusch and Andi Deris respectively. The albums released under this line-up, Master of the Rings (1994), The Time of the Oath (1996), Better Than Raw (1998) and The Dark Ride (2000), received warmer reception from both fans and critics, gradually establishing Helloween as a successful band again.

However, tensions led to the dismissals in 2001 of both Grapow and Kusch, who then went on to found Masterplan together. Grapow was replaced by Sascha Gerstner, but the attempts to find a new drummer were chaotic and no band member was credited for drums on the album Rabbit Don't Come Easy (2003). The band finally found a stable drummer in Daniel Löble in 2005. Under this new line-up, the longest in its history, the band has released four successful studio albums: Keeper of the Seven Keys: The Legacy (2005), Gambling with the Devil (2007), 7 Sinners (2010), and Straight Out of Hell (2013). Their fifteenth and latest studio album, My God-Given Right, was released on 29 May 2015.

On 14 November 2016, the band announced that both Kai Hansen and Michael Kiske were rejoining Helloween for a world tour, titled Pumpkins United World Tour, to conclude in 2018.[2]

Since its inception, Helloween has released fifteen studio albums, three live albums, three EPs, and twenty-seven singles, and has sold more than eight million records worldwide.[3]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Early years and first album (1984–1986)Edit

Helloween formed in 1984 in Hamburg, Germany. The original line-up included Kai Hansen on vocals and guitar, Michael Weikath on guitar, Markus Grosskopf on bass, and Ingo Schwichtenberg on drums. That year, the band signed with Noise Records and recorded two songs for a Noise compilation record called Death Metal. The compilation featured the bands Hellhammer, Running Wild, and Dark Avenger. The two tracks were "Oernst of Life" by Weikath and Hansen's "Metal Invaders," a faster version of which would appear on the band's first full-length album.

Helloween recorded and released its first record in 1985, a self-titled EP containing five tracks. Also that year, the band released its first full-length album, Walls of Jericho. During the following concert tour, Hansen had difficulties singing and playing the guitar at the same time. Kai's last recording as the band's lead singer was in 1986 on a vinyl EP titled Judas, which contained the song "Judas" and live versions of "Ride the Sky" and "Guardians" recorded at Gelsenkirchen. (The CD edition has the live introduction, but the songs have been replaced with studio versions and crowd noise spliced in.) Following these releases, Helloween began the search for a new vocalist.

Keeper of the Seven Keys (1986–1989)Edit

The band found an 18-year-old vocalist, Michael Kiske, from a local Hamburg band named Ill Prophecy. With their new lead vocalist in tow, Helloween approached record labels Noise International and RCA and proposed the release of a double-LP to introduce the new line-up. This proposition was turned down. Instead, they recorded a single LP, Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part I, which was released in 1987. In 1988, Helloween released Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part II, the companion album. MTV put the single "I Want Out" into heavy rotation and in support of its "Headbanger's Ball" show. MTV also presented the inaugural Headbangers Ball Tour with Helloween joining San Francisco Bay area thrash-metal band Exodus in support of headlining act Anthrax. The band was slotted in the prestigious second spot, right before Anthrax's set. On the heels of this exposure to US audiences, the band achieved worldwide success.

Hansen and Kiske's departures (1989–1993)Edit

Guitarist Kai Hansen unexpectedly left the band in 1989 soon after the European leg of the Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part II tour, due to ill-health, conflicts within the band, troubles with Noise International, and a growing dissatisfaction with life on tour. Weikath chose his friend Roland Grapow to replace him, including for the rest of the tour. Grapow, who was a car mechanic at the time, stated in 2017 that, if Weikath had not happened to ask him to join the band, he would have kept his job and given up on his dream of becoming a professional musician.[4]

In 1989, the band released a live album called Live in the U.K. (Keepers Live in Japan and I Want Out Live in the United States), featuring material from its 1988 European tour. The remaining members continued on but ran into label problems with Noise, and after litigation kept them from touring and releasing new material, they were eventually released from their contract. A new album would not appear until 1991 when, after several rumors about the band breaking up, they released Pink Bubbles Go Ape for their new record company, EMI. The album was less heavy and, with song titles such as "Heavy Metal Hamsters", "I'm Doing Fine, Crazy Man", and "Shit and Lobster", showed a shift toward – and an emphasis on – humor rather than the epic moods on previous releases. As a result, Pink Bubbles Go Ape failed both commercially and critically, and tensions started to build amongst the band members.[1]

The pop-influenced follow-up Chameleon was released in 1993. Instead of taking a heavier approach, the band ventured into new territory, eschewing its signature double-guitar harmonies for synthesizers, horns, acoustic guitars, a children's chorus, country music, and swing. As with the previous album, Chameleon failed commercially and critically.[1] Tensions within Helloween worsened, and the band split into three factions, with Michael Kiske and Ingo Schwichtenberg on one side, Michael Weikath and Roland Grapow on the other, and Markus Grosskopf in the middle, trying to keep peace between the four men.

Shortly after, the band began to disintegrate. During the Chameleon tour, the band would often play to half-filled venues. Drummer Ingo Schwichtenberg fell ill due to mental and drug-related issues, and was eventually fired, replaced by session drummer Ritchie Abdel-Nabi. Meanwhile, the conflicts within the rest of the band worsened, with Michael Weikath refusing to work any longer with Michael Kiske. The decision was made to fire Kiske. Since his firing, Kiske has not spoken positively about Helloween. In May 2008, Kiske released Past in Different Ways; an album featuring most of his old Helloween songs, albeit rearranged and re-recorded acoustically. Commenting on Kiske's dismissal, Grosskopf later said:[5]

In addition to the firing of Kiske, Abdel-Nabi, whose inability to replicate Schwichtenberg's machine-gun style of drumming hindered Helloween's ability to play live fan-favorites like "Eagle Fly Free" and "How Many Tears", was let go by the band. 1993 would come to a close for Helloween with no singer, no drummer, and no record contract (EMI released the band from its agreement for the low sales numbers for Pink Bubbles Go Ape and Chameleon).

First years with Andi Deris (1994–2000)Edit

Helloween returned in 1994 with former Pink Cream 69 frontman Andi Deris as their new lead vocalist and Uli Kusch, formerly of Kai Hansen's Gamma Ray, on drums. The band already knew Deris from some recording sessions in Hamburg.[5] He had been approached by Weikath to join the band in 1991, but he had declined, despite being intrigued by the offer and having to deal with emerging conflicts between him and his band. In the years since, however, Kiske was fired from Helloween and the issues within Pink Cream 69 worsened. Faced with the inevitability of his firing, Deris accepted Weikath's offer during a night out with the band members.[5] With this new lineup and a new record contract with Castle Communications, Helloween released its comeback album, Master of the Rings.

In 1995, original drummer Ingo Schwichtenberg committed suicide by jumping in front of a train in his native Hamburg. In the years since his departure from Helloween, Schwichtenberg had gotten involved in drug-use and suffered from depression. 1996's The Time of the Oath was dedicated to his memory. Following another world tour, a double live album called High Live was released. In 1998, Helloween released Better Than Raw, one of the band's heaviest albums since the full-length debut. The subsequent supporting tour was made up of stops in Europe, Japan, and Brazil, but on 20 December 1998, the band visited New York and played a show at the venue Coney Island High in Manhattan, the first show for Helloween in the United States in nearly a decade. The band would follow Better Than Raw with a 1999 release titled Metal Jukebox, a cover-album featuring Helloween's versions of songs from such bands as Scorpions, Jethro Tull, Faith No More, The Beatles, ABBA, and Deep Purple.

Line-up changes (2002–2004)Edit

The year 2000 saw the release of The Dark Ride, a more experimental and darker album than their previous releases. It came complete with downtuned guitars and a gruffer singing style from Deris. Immediately following the tour, Helloween parted ways with guitarist Roland Grapow and drummer Uli Kusch.[5] One version of events states that Weikath, Deris, and Grosskopf felt that Kusch and Grapow, in particular, were spending more time on and paying more attention to their new side-project, Masterplan (Grapow's output on Helloween albums had dropped to barely one song per album by that point); since the others believed that Kusch and Grapow were not one hundred percent dedicated to Helloween, they were dismissed.

They were replaced by guitarist Sascha Gerstner (ex-Freedom Call, Neumond) and drummer Mark Cross (ex-Metalium, Kingdom Come, At Vance, Firewind), culminating with the recording of another studio album, titled Rabbit Don't Come Easy, in 2003. The band met Sascha via a recommendation by producer Charlie Bauerfeind. According to Grosskopf, one day he was recording something with Freedom Call "and later on we called him up and he went to first meet Weiki because it was very important that Weiki finds a player that he can play with and also communicate and understand. [...] So we got him on the island where we recorded and let him hang out with us a little and then he decided 'Good, let's go'."[5] Later in 2012, on an interview with Metal Shock Finland's Chief Editor, Mohsen Fayyazi, Roland stated:

[6][7]

Cross could not finish the album due to mononucleosis, completing only two tracks; the drum tracks were completed by Motörhead's Mikkey Dee. Stefan Schwarzmann, former drummer of Running Wild and Accept would shortly thereafter take over the drumming duties. Despite a somewhat tepid response to the album, Helloween nonetheless completed a successful world tour, highlighted by the return of classic songs such as "Starlight", "Murderer", "Keeper of the Seven Keys" and "How Many Tears" to the setlist. Additionally, the band toured the United States for the first time since 1989, playing to sold-out crowds at nearly every venue.

Steady line-up and recent albums (2005–2016)Edit

 
Helloween at Przystanek Woodstock in 2011

2005 saw yet another line-up change, following the "Rabbits on the Run" tour, as it became apparent that Helloween and Stefan Schwarzmann did not share the same musical vision. As further noted by the band, he had some trouble performing fast drum parts,[5] so he was replaced by Daniel Löble, the former drummer of German metal band Rawhead Rexx. A change in record company also followed as they inked a deal with German label SPV. Any fears that what had now become a revolving door of band members would affect the quality of their new album were laid to rest as Helloween's new studio album, titled Keeper of the Seven Keys - The Legacy, was released on 28 October 2005 in Germany, and 8 November in the U.S.A. to commercial and critical acclaim. The album had a pre-release single, "Mrs. God", as well as a video for the track. The track "Light the Universe" was released as a single on 22 November, featuring Candice Night of Blackmore's Night on guest vocals. She also appears in the video clip for that track.

In late 2006, Helloween filmed and recorded shows in São Paulo (Brazil), Sofia (Bulgaria), and Tokyo (Japan) for their live album Keeper of the Seven Keys – The Legacy World Tour 2005/2006. The DVD also featured extra footage of the band, as well as interviews and a road movie. This was the second Helloween live album to feature Andi Deris as frontman, and third overall. It enjoyed chart success in several countries: Germany: 9 (DVD) & 58 (CD), Sweden: 9 (DVD), France: 10 (DVD)[8] Helloween has since completed their studio album Gambling with the Devil, which was released on 23 October 2007. It received many positive reviews, with most fans praising the album as being one of the best Deris-era albums. Despite being one of Helloween's heaviest albums, it is noted for featuring more keyboards. "As Long as I Fall", the first single, was released in early September and only available via download (save for Japan, where it was released on CD). The video for the song is available at their official site.[9]

Helloween teamed up with Kai Hansen's current band Gamma Ray for their 2007–2008 "Hellish Rock" world tour, which started in early November 2007. Helloween were headlining and Gamma Ray were labeled as the "very special guest" with most shows also having fellow German "guest" Axxis. The tour went through Europe, Asia, and South America, as well as a few dates in the US. The tour is notable for Kai Hansen stepping on stage with his former band fellows Weikath and Grosskopf to perform hits "I Want Out" and "Future World" in the last encore segment of Helloween.[10]

On 26 December 2009, Helloween released the Unarmed – Best of 25th Anniversary album in Japan. The album was released on 1 February 2010 in Europe. The album is a compilation of ten of the band's best known songs, re-recorded in different musical styles than the original recordings and by the current lineup. It features a seventeen-minute "Keepers Medley", recorded by a seventy-piece orchestra from Prague, mixing together "Halloween", "The Keeper of the Seven Keys", and "The King for a 1000 Years". There is a limited edition digipak, including a thirty-minute "making of"-DVD with interviews and studio footage. The band's website states that the album was released on 13 April 2010 in North America via Sony & THE END RECORDS labels.[11] On 14 May 2010, it was announced on their site that they were working on a new studio album,[12] which was the fastest and heaviest effort in years.

Helloween released their thirteenth studio album, 7 Sinners, on 31 October in Europe and 3 November in the US. Before its physical release, the band made it available worldwide for streaming via their Myspace page. The name of the album alludes to the seven deadly sins. According to Andi Deris, the album goes straight to the point: "After an acoustic album, we needed definitely something that shows the people without any question that this is a metal album."[13] The band toured to promote the new album with Stratovarius and Pink Cream 69 as their guests.[14][15] On 5 April 2011, via the band's website, it was announced that 7 Sinners was awarded 'Gold status' in the Czech Republic.[16]

In June 2012, Helloween entered the studio to begin recording their fourteenth album, Straight Out of Hell, which was released on 18 January 2013.[17] They then went on tour around the world with Gamma Ray again.[18]

In September, Helloween played at Rock in Rio 2013 with former member Kai Hansen as a special guest.[19] In October 2014, the band announced a new album for a May 2015 release. It was produced by Charlie Bauerfeind at Mi Sueño Studio on Tenerife and marked their return to the Nuclear Blast label with which they released The Dark Ride and Rabbit Don't Come Easy.[20]

On 26 February 2015 the band revealed the name and the cover artwork of the album, My God-Given Right, released on 29 May 2015. The artwork was created by Martin Häusler.[21][22]

 
Former members Kai Hansen (left) and Michael Kiske re-joined the band in 2016 for the Pumpkins United World Tour.

In June 2015, it was discovered that the band members were working on a book, released as "Hellbook".[23] Markus stated that it is "a kind of history book with lots of pictures".[24][25][26]

Pumpkins United (2016–present)Edit

In November 2016, it was announced that former members Kai Hansen and Michael Kiske were re-joining the band for a world tour titled Pumpkins United World Tour 2017/2018, that would start on 19 October 2017 in Monterrey, Mexico, and conclude the following year.[27] The reunion is meant to last only until the end of the tour.[28]

"Kai said something like, 'Michael, if we don't ever do anything again under the name of Helloween, we're just idiots.' [...] and I just said, 'You know what, Kai? I'm open.'"
Michael Kiske in 2017, on when Kai Hansen convinced him to perform with Helloween again.[29][30]

Although Hansen had been occasionally appearing as a guest on Helloween shows for a few years, Kiske had been particularly reluctant in interviews to the idea of performing with Helloween again due to bad blood with Markus Grosskopf and especially Michael Weikath, dating from when he was fired from the band in 1993; This started to change in 2013, when Kiske ran into Michael Weikath at the Sweden Rock Festival.[31] He stated: "The first thing [Weikath] said was, 'What have I done that you can't forgive me?' That was the first line he said to me. And I realized that I had forgiven somehow a long time ago without noticing. That's how it all started". It was Hansen, who had been his bandmate as a part of Unisonic since 2011, who ultimately convinced him in 2014.[29][30] Other popular former members Roland Grapow and Uli Kusch were not asked to re-join, with Grosskopf stating "it would be too many people".[28]

This new line-up released an original song, "Pumpkins United", on 13 October 2017, as a free download (with a vinyl release on 8 December), on which Deris, Hansen, and Kiske all share lead vocals.[32] It is their first original material featuring Hansen since Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part II in 1988, and the first with Kiske since Chameleon in 1993.

The tour started in Monterrey, Mexico on 19 October 2017. The show sees both Deris and Kiske performing songs from their respective Helloween albums and also doing duets. Kai Hansen does lead vocals for a medley of songs from the early days of the band before Kiske first joined. The show also includes a tribute to original Helloween drummer Ingo Schwichtenberg.[33]

However, Kiske started suffering health issues related to his voice shortly before starting the tour, to the point where after the first two shows in Mexico, his involvement for the next dates was unsure.[33][34] He was cleared to perform by doctors in time for the next show in San José, Costa Rica on October 23, although his illness forced the band to temporally remove a few songs from their setlist, and to have Deris, Hansen, and Gerstner support him more vocally.[35][36][33] After accusations from fans of Kiske using lip sync on the more vocally demanding parts of some songs, Kai Hansen confirmed that Kiske had indeed partially used taped vocals, but only for the tour's opening show in Monterrey, and because the band feared they would have to cancel the show, as Kiske felt unsure he would be able to perform at all due to his illness.[33]

On 28–29 October 2017, the band recorded their concerts in São Paulo, Brazil for a future live album and DVD.[37][38]

Band membersEdit

TimelineEdit

 

Awards and nominationsEdit

Metal Hammer Awards (GER)
Year Nominee/work Award Result
2014 Helloween Maximum Metal[39] Won

DiscographyEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Official Helloween Website: History". Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  2. ^ "Officiale website for Pumpkins United". Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  3. ^ "Helloween: Band History". Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "ROLAND GRAPOW Says HELLOWEEN Doesn't Want Him To Take Part In 'Pumpkins United' Tour". Blabbermouth.net. August 20, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Syrjala, Marko (11 January 2011). "Helloween – bassist Markus Grosskopf". Metal Rules. Retrieved 31 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "MASTERPLAN's Roland Grapow – "I Think HELLOWEEN Would Be Much Bigger If They Would Continue with the Style of Keepers Albums"; New Audio Interview Online". BW&BK. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Fayyazi, Mohsen (15 November 2012). "Interview With MASTERPLAN Mainman And Ex-HELLOWEEN Roland Grapow". Metal Shock Finland. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "HELLOWEEN: 'Keeper Of The Seven Keys' Live DVD/CD Chart Positions Revealed". BlabberMouth. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. 
  9. ^ Official Helloween Website: Videos Archived 28 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Official Helloween Website: Hellish Rock 2007/2008 Archived 1 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ "Helloween official website: UNARMED Best of 25th Anniversary". Helloween.org. Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  12. ^ "Official Helloween website: HELLOWEEN ARMED AGAIN!". Helloween.org. Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Helloween interview by Mandah from". VerdamMnis. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  14. ^ Helloween Official Website: The 7 Sinners World Tour 2010/11 Archived 18 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "Trick or Treat website". Trickortreatband.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "7 SINNERS reaches Gold status in Czech Republic!". Helloween.org. Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011. 
  17. ^ "Helloween Posts Album Update Video, New LP Due in 2013". Meal Underground. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  18. ^ "HELLOWEEN: New Album Title, Release Date Announced". Blabbermouth. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  19. ^ Suzuki, Shin Oliva (22 September 2013). "Helloween repete Offspring e faz o Palco Sunset ficar pequeno". G1 (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Grupo Globo. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  20. ^ "Helloween Begins Recording New Album". Blabbermouth.net. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  21. ^ "NEW ALBUM: MY GOD-GIVEN RIGHT". Blabbermouth.net. 28 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  22. ^ "HELLOWEEN: Announce New Album "My God-Given Right" Release Details". metalshockfinland.com. Metal Shock Finland. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "HELLOWEEN: Working On Their Bible, "HellBook"". Metal Shock Finland. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  24. ^ Fayazi, Mohsen. "Interview With HELLOWEEN 's Bass Invader Markus Grosskopf". Metal Shock Finland. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  25. ^ "HELLOWEEN - "Working On Hellbook"; Audio Interview". Bravewords.com. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  26. ^ "Helloween Collecting Photos For The "Hellbook"". metalunderground.com. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  27. ^ "Pumkins United World Tour 2017/2018". www.helloween.org. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  28. ^ a b "MARKUS GROSSKOPF On HELLOWEEN's 'Pumpkins United' Reunion Tour: 'It's Getting Better And Better Every Day'". Blabbermouth. November 11, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017. 
  29. ^ a b "MICHAEL KISKE Explains Decision To Reunite With HELLOWEEN: 'I Can't Really Be Angry Anymore'". Blabbermouth. February 7, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017. 
  30. ^ a b "MICHAEL KISKE DETAILS HOW HELLOWEEN REUNION TOOK SHAPE". Loud Wire. Retrieved November 19, 2017. 
  31. ^ "HELLOWEEN: First Magazine Cover Story On 'Pumpkins United' Touring Lineup Feat. MICHAEL KISKE, KAI HANSEN". Blabbermouth. November 11, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017. 
  32. ^ "WHOA". Helloween's official facebook. October 2, 2017. Retrieved October 3, 2017. 
  33. ^ a b c d "HELLOWEEN's KAI HANSEN Admits To Using Taped Vocals During Opening Concert Of 'Pumpkins United' Tour". Blabbermouth.net. October 24, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017. 
  34. ^ "Michael Kiske Health Issues!". Helloween's official facebook. October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 23, 2017. 
  35. ^ "HELLOWEEN just arrived in San Jose!". Helloween's official facebook. October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017. 
  36. ^ http://helloweenbrazil.blogspot.com.br/2017/10/michael-kiske-esta-com-problemas-na-voz_22.html
  37. ^ http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/ilustrada/2017/10/1930705-com-membros-da-formacao-classica-helloween-faz-tres-shows-no-brasil.shtml
  38. ^ https://www.teletica.com/
  39. ^ Kessler, Sebastian (13 September 2014). "Das sind die Gewinner der Metal Hammer Awards 2014!". Metal Hammer.de (in German). TeamRock. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 

External linksEdit