|• Mayor||Tanya Hristova|
|• City||233.817 km2 (90.277 sq mi)|
|Elevation||392 m (1,286 ft)|
(Census February 2011)
|• Density||250/km2 (650/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
It is situated at the foot of the central Balkan Mountains, in the valley of the Yantra River, and is known as an international capital of humour and satire (see Gabrovo humour), as well as noted for its Bulgarian National Revival architecture. Gabrovo is also known as the longest city in Bulgaria, stretching over 25 km along the Yantra, yet reaching only 1 km (0.6 mi) in width at places. The geographic center of Bulgaria - Uzana is located near the city.
According to the most widespread legend, Gabrovo was founded by a blacksmith called Racho, close to whose fireplace a hornbeam rose, so the settlement acquired its name, from the Slavic word gabar ("hornbeam") + the Slavic suffix -ovo.
The area around Gabrovo, inhabited since the Neolithic, gained economic importance after Veliko Tarnovo became capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire in the 12th century. Craftsmanship and trade prospered due to the proximity to both the capital and the Balkan passes. Medieval Gabrovo was a small pass village of about 100 houses.
After the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the 14th century, the demographic position of Gabrovo changed significantly, as it was the only settlement in a considerably large geographic area and an attractive place for Bulgarians fleeing from the conquered capital and neighbouring fortresses. It turned from a village into a small town (palanka) and began to develop as an economic, cultural and spiritual centre.
During Ottoman rule, the rich tradesmen spent plenty of resources for the small town's public planning. The first Bulgarian secular school, the Aprilov National High School, was founded in Gabrovo in 1835 with the aid of Vasil Aprilov and Nikolay Palauzov. Gabrovo was officially proclaimed a town by the Ottoman authority in May 1860. In the 1870s Felix Kanitz said that Gabrovo is "a big workshop" and that it is a "city that lives from the water," referring to widely used water power. The glory of the goods of Gabrovo became known throughout the Ottoman Empire, and beyond that, in Bucharest even nowadays there is a street named "Gabroveni".
Shortly before and after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878, Gabrovo developed as a centre of industry on the basis of its economic traditions. Joint-stock companies emerged, factories were constructed and connections to the large stock exchanges were created, prompting some to label the city "The Bulgarian Manchester".
Gabrovo saw its most rapid growth in the post-World War II years, when its population was doubled. Following general population trends in Bulgaria, the number of citizens started declining after the fall of Communism in the country. People started emigrating abroad or to the capital of Sofia. Currently, Gabrovo is more than 20,000 people short of its peak, achieved in the period 1985-1991 when the number of the residents exceeded 80,000. The following table presents the change of the population after the liberation of the country in 1887. According to Census 2011, as of February 2011[update], the population of the city was 58,950 inhabitants.
|Highest number 81,786 in 1986|
|Sources: National Statistical Institute, citypopulation.de, pop-stat.mashke.org, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences|
Ethnic, linguistic and religious compositionEdit
- Bulgarians: 54,227 (97.9%)
- Turks: 473 (0.9%)
- Roma: 343 (0.6%)
- Others: 193 (0.3%)
- Indefinable: 151 (0.3%)
- Undeclared: 3,563 (6.0%)
The ethnic composition of Gabrovo Municipality is 60,207 Bulgarians, 504 Turks and 367 Roma among others.
Internationally known as a centre of humour and satire, Gabrovo has two theatres, the Racho Stoyanov Drama Theatre and the puppet theatre, a House of Humour and Satire that serves as a cultural institute, a centre, museum and gallery to popularise comic art. There is a cinema, Aleko Cinema, and museums and memorial houses in the town and around it, most notably the Etar Architectural-Ethnographic Complex and the National Museum of Education at the Aprilov National High School.
On a Saturday around the week of May 21, Gabrovo hosts an annual Carnival of Humor and Satire with the slogan in Bulgarian “Da izkukurigame ot smyah” (translating to "Let`s go nuts from laughter"). On the day of the carnival, the streets of Gabrovo city are overflowing with fun characters like masked musketeers, bullfighters, shamans, gypsies, and much more. The carnival is also popular for its use of traditional Balkan songs, folklore choreography, and a rich display of Gabrovo humour and culture.
A planetarium is in operation.
Places of interest in Gabrovo include the House of Humour and Satire and Aprilov National High School. In Gabrovo Province sites include architectural reserve Bozhentsi. Hiking is widely available in the Central Balkan National Park and in the Bulgarka Nature Park, itself home to Ethnographic Complex Etara, Dryanovo Monastery, Sokolski Monastery, Shipka Pass, and the Uzana area. For admirers of historical tourism Shipka Memorial is a must-see.
- Vasil Aprilov (1789-1847) - revivalist and educator; founder of the first secular school in Bulgaria
- Nikolay Palauzov - marchant, donated money for the Gabrovian school
- Ivan Kolchev Kalpazanov (1835–1889) - industrialist, ancestor of the modern industry in Gabrovo and Kingdom of Bulgaria (1882)
- Vasil Nikolov Karagiosov (1856-1938) - teacher, industrialist, politician, German vicecouncul, monk in the Zograf monastery, Mount Athos, Greece
- Ivan Hadji Berov (1858-1934) - industrialist- lit the first light bulb in Bulgaria - erected the first hydro electric power plant in Gabrovo
- Tsanko Dyustabanov - revolutionary
- Christo Yavashev - installation artist
- Petar Rúsеv - father of former Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff
Gabrovo has one of the biggest technical universities in Bulgaria, the Technical University of Gabrovo. The technical university in Gabrovo opened in 1964. The idea for the university came from the 1840s. Today the university has about 5400 students; around 60 of them are from other countries.
Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit
- (in Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2011 Archived 2011-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
- Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. 2012. p. 135. ISBN 9780982261996.
- Kay, Annie (2008). Bulgaria. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 157. ISBN 9781841621555.
- Gabrovo in Encyclopædia Britannica
- (in Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992[permanent dead link]
- (in English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute - towns in 2009 Archived November 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- (in English) „WorldCityPopulation“
- (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived July 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- (in Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute Archived September 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute Archived 2013-04-05 at WebCite (in Bulgarian)
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- Crampton, R. J. (November 24, 2005). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780521616379.
- Entangled Histories of the Balkans. BRILL. June 13, 2013. p. 185. ISBN 9789004250765.
- Palairet, Michael R. (November 13, 2003). The Balkan Economies c. 1800-1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 245. ISBN 9780521522564.
- Anamnesis article by Hristo Berov
- Conflicting Loyalties in the Balkans. I.B.Tauris. May 15, 2011. p. 138. ISBN 9781848854772.
- Baal-Teshuva, Jacob (2001). Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Taschen. p. 11. ISBN 9783822859964.
- "Technical University of Gabrovo". tugab.bg. Technical University of Gabrovo. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Twin Towns". gabrovo.bg. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION". panevezys.lt. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Miasta partnerskie i zaprzyjaźnione Nowego Sącza". Urząd Miasta Nowego Sącza (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2013-08-01.